COMMENTARIES
ON
THE FOUR LAST BOOKS OF MOSES
ARRANGED
IN THE FORM OF A HARMONY

BY JOHN CALVIN


TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL LATIN, AND COMPARED WITH THE
FRENCH EDITION, WITH ANNOTATIONS, ETC.
BY THE REV. CHARLES WILLIAM BINGHAM, M.A.,
RECTOR OF MELCOMBE-HORSEY, DORSET, AND FORMERLY FELLOW OF NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD


VOLUME SECOND


CHRISTIAN CLASSICS ETHEREAL LIBRARY
GRAND RAPIDS, MI
http://www.ccel.org
Another Supplement
as to the Shutting. up of the Leprous f1
Deuteronomy 24
Deuteronomy 24:8, 9
8. Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you: as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do. 8. Observa in plaga leprae, ad observandum diligenter et faciendum secundum omnia quae docuerint vos sacerdotes Levitae: sicuti praecepi eis, ita observabitis ad faciendum.
9. Remember what the Lord thy God did unto Miriam by the way, after that ye were come forth out of Egypt. 9. Recordare quid fecerit Jehova Deus tuus Mariae in itinere, quum egressi estis ex Aegypto.
8. Take heed in the plague of leprosy. I am aware how greatly interpreters differ from each other and how variously they twist whatever Moses has written about Leprosy. Some are too eagerly devoted to allegories; some think that God, as a prudent Legislator, merely gave a commandment of a sanitary, nature, in order that a contagious disease should not, spread among the people. This notion, however, is very. poor, and almost unmeaning; and is briefly. refuted by Moses himself, both where he recounts the history of Miriam's leprosy, and also where he assigns the cause why lepers should be put out of the camp, viz that they might not defile the camp in which God dwelt, whilst he ranks them with those that have an issue, and that they are defiled by the dead. Wherefore, I have thought it well, previous to attempting the full elucidation of the matter, to adduce two passages, by way of preface, from whence the design of God may more fully appear. When, in this passage from Deuteronomy, He commands the people to "take heed" and "observe diligently" the plague of leprosy, there can be no question but that He thus ratifies what He had before set forth at greater length in Leviticus. And, first of all, He refers the judgment of the matter to the priests, that what they pronounce should be firm and unalterable; and secondly, He would have the priests, lest they should pronounce rashly, and according to their own wishes, to follow simply what He prescribed to them, so that they may only be the ministers, or heralds; whilst, as to the sovereign authority, He alone should be the Judge. He confirms the law which He imposes by a special example; because He had cast out Miriam, the sister of Moses, for a time, lest her uncleanness during her leprosy should defile the camp. For the view which some take, that He exhorts the people lest, through sin, they should bring upon themselves the same evil as Miriam, is not to the purpose. But that which I have stated makes excellent sense, viz., that God's command, whereby He prohibited Miriam from entering the camp, was to have the force and weight of a perpetual law; because He thus ordained what He would always have done.
Numbers 5
Numbers 5:1-3
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is defiled by the dead: 2. Praecipe filiis Israel ut ejiciant e castris omnem leprosum, omnem seminifluum, et omnem immundum super anima.
3. Both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camps, in the midst whereof I dwell. 3. Tam masculum quam faeminam ejicietis: extra castra ejicietis eos, ne contaminent castra sua, quia ego habito in medio eorum.
2. Command the children of Israel. This passage clearly shews that God, in desiring the lepers to be put out of the camp, was not acting as a physician by any means, and merely consulting the health of the people: but that by this external rite and ceremony He exercised them in the pursuit of purity; for, by joining with the lepers those who had an issue, f2 and who were defiled by the dead, He instructs the people simply to keep away from all uncleanness. The reason, which follows, confirms this, — "that they defile not their camps, in the midst whereof He dwells." It is just as if He had said, that all the habitations of His elect people were parts of His sanctuary, which it was a shame to defile with any pollution. For we know what license men give themselves in corrupting f3 the service of God, by mixing, as the proverb says, sacred things with profane. Thus we see that the very worst of men boast themselves to be anything but the least zealous of His worshipers, and spare not to lift up polluted hands, although God so sternly repudiates them. It was, then, profitable that the ancient people should be reminded by this visible proof, that all those who are defiled cannot duly serve God, but that they rather pollute. with their filthiness what is otherwise holy, and thus grossly abuse religious exercises; and again, that they ought not tobe tolerated in the holy congregation, lest their infection should spread to others. Let us now briefly examine Leviticus 13.
Leviticus 13
Leviticus 13:1-59
1. And the Lord spake untoMoses and Aaron, saying, 1.Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo:
2. When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests. 2. Homo quum fuerit in cute carnis ejus tumor, vel scabies, vel alba macula, et in cute carnis ejus fuerit plaga leprae, ducetur ad Aharon sacerdotem, vel ad unum e filiis ejus sacerdotibus.
3. And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean. 3. Tune videbit sacerdos plagam in cute carnis: quod si pilus in plaga versus fuerit in albedinem, et superficies plagae profundior fuerit cute carnis ejus, plaga leprae est, et postquam viderit eum sacerdos judicabit illum contaminatum, (vel, contaminabit illum.)
4. If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days. 4. Quod si macula alba fuerit in cute carnis ejus, et profundior non fuerit aspectus ejus cute, nec pilus ejus versus fuerit in albedinem, includet sacerdos plagam septem diebus.
5. And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more. 5. Posted videbit eum sacerdos die septimo et si plaga fuerit aequalis coram oculis ejus, nee creverit plaga in cute, includet eum sacerdos septem diebus secundo.
6. And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold,if the plague be somewhat dark, and the prague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean; it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean. 6. Tune inspiciet sacerdos ipsum die septimo itcrum, et si subnigra futerit plaga, (vel, obscurius contracta,) nec creverit plaga in cute, tune mundum declarabit (vel, mundabit) eum sacerdos: scabies est: et lavabit vir vestimenta sua, et mundus erit.
7. But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again. 7. Quod si crescendo creverit scabies in cute postquam ostensus fuerit sacerdoti in purgatione ejus, inspi-cietur secundo a sacerdote.
8. And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy. 8. Ubi autem viderit sacerdos; crescere scabiem in cute, immundum judicabit cum sacerdos, lepra est judicabit cum sacerdos, lepra est.
9.When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;, 9. Quoties plaga lepre fuerit in homine adducetur ad sacerdotem;
10. And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising, 10. Et aspiciet sacerdos, et si tumor albus fuerit in cute, et mutaverit pilum in albedinem, et ailmentum carnis vivae in tumore,
11. It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh: and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up; for he is unclean. 11. Lepra inveterate, est in cute carnis ejus: ideoque contaminabit eum sacerdos, quia immundus est.
12. And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague, from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh 12. Sin germinando germinaverit lepra in cute, et operuerit lepra totam cutem plagae, a capite ejus, et totum aspectuum oculorum sacerdotis:
13. Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague; it is all turned white: he is clean. 13. Tunc inspiciet sacerdos, et si operuerit lepra totam carnem ejus, tunc mundam judicabit plagam: ubi tota versa est in albedinem, munda est, (vel, mundus.)
14. But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean. 14. Quo autem die visa fuerit in co cato viva, immundus erit.
15. And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean;for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy. 15. Et ubi viderit sacerdos carnem vivam, immundum judicabit ipsum, caro viva immunda est, lepra est.
16. Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest; 16. Vel si reversa fuerit caro viva, et conversa in albedinem, tunc veniet ad sacerdotem:
17. And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean. 17. Et inspiciet sacerdos: et si versa fuerit plaga in albedinem, mundam judicabit sacerdos plagam illam: munda est.
18. The flesh also, in which, event in the skin thereof, was a bile, and is healed, 18. Et si fuerit in cute carnis alicujus ulcus, (vel, pustula ardens,) et illud sanatum fuerit.
19. And in the place of the bile there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest; 19. Et extiterit in loeo ulceris tumor albus, aut macula alba subrufa, ostendetur sacerdoti:
20. And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white, the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the bile. 20. Et quum inspexerit sacerdos, si pilus profundior fuerit cute, et pilus conversus fuerit in albedinem, contaminabit eum sacerdos: quia plaga leprae est ex ulcere germinans.
21. But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days. 21. Et si viderit cam sacerdos, et non fuerit in ea pilus albus, nec fuerit profundior cute, sed fuerit subobscura, tunc includet eum sacerdos septem diebus.
22. And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague. 22. Si vero crescendo creverit per cutem, immundum judicabit eum sacerdos: plaga est.
23. But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning bile; and the priest shall pronounce him clean. 23. Si vero suo loco constiterit macula alba, nec ereverit, adustio ulceris est: mundum (vel, mundam) judicabit eum sacerdos.
24. Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white; 24. Quum fuerit caro in cujus cute erit adustio ignis, et in viva carne adustionis macula alba subrufa, vel alba.
25. Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin, it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is the plague of leprosy. 25. Inspiciet eum sacerdos: et, si versus fuerit pilus in albedinem in macula illa, et superficies ejus fuerit profundior cute, lepra est in adustione germinans: ideo immundam judicabit eam sacerdos, plaga leprae est.
26. But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days. 26. Quod si inspexerit eam sacerdos, et non fuerit in macula pilus albus, nec profundior cute, sed fuerit subnigra, includet eum sacerdos septem diebus.
27. And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is the plague of leprosy. 27. Postea inspiciet eum sacerdos die septimo: et si crescendo creverit in cute, immundam judicabit eam sacerdos, plaga leprae est.
28. And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning'. 28. Quod si in loco suo steterit macula, nec creverit per cutem, et eadem fuerit contracta, (vel, subnigra,) tumor adustionis est: ideoque mundum judicabit eum sacerdos: quia ardor exustionis est.
29. If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard; 29. Si viro aut mulieri exorta fuerit plga in capite, aut in barba.
30. Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin, and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard. 30. Tune inspiciet sacerdos plugam: et si superficies ejus profundior erit cute, et fuerit in ea pilus flavus et tenuis, immundum judicabit sa-cerdos: macula nigra est, lepra capitis aut barbae est.
31. And if the priest look on tile plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days. 31. Si autem inspexerit sacerdos plagam maculae nigrae, et superficies ejus non fuerit profundior cute, nee pilus niger in ea, includet sacerdos plagam maculae nigrae septem diebus.
32. And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scull spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin; 32. Et quum inspexerit sacerdos die septima, si non creverit macula illa nigra, nec in ea fuerit pilus, et aspectus maculae nigrae non fuerit profundior cute:
33. He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more. 33. Tune radetur, sed maculam nigram non radet, includetque sacerdos maeulam nigram septem diebus secundo.
34. And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean. 34. Postea, inspiciet sacerdos maculam nigram die septima: et, si non creverit macula nigra in cute, nee superfides cjus profundior fuerit cute, mundum judicabit eum sacerdos: lavabitque vestimenta sua, et mundus erit.
35. But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing; 35. Si autem crescendo creverit macula per cutera post purificationem suam,
36. Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean. 36. Tune inspiciet cam sacerdos: et, si creverit macula illa in cute, non requiret ad examen sacerdos pilum flavum: immundus est.
37. But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean. 37. Quod si in oculis ejus constiterit macula, et pilus niger fuerit in ea, sanata est macula illa, mundus est, et mundum judicabit eum sacer-dos.
38. If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots; 38. Quum in cute carnis viri aut mulieris fuerint macu!ae, maculm inquam albae.
39. Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin: he is clean. 39. Inspiciet sacerdos, et, si in cute carnis corum fuerint maculae albae, subnigrae (vel, contractae,) macula alba est quod floret in cute, mundus est.
40. And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean. 40. Vir quum depilatum fuerit caput ejus, calvus est, mundus est.
41. And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean. 41. Quod si ex parte faciei suae caput habuerit depilatum, recalvaster est, mundus est.
42. And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore, it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead. 42. Quod si in calvitio ejus aut parte depilata fuerit plaga alba, subrufa, lepra germinans est in calvitie, vel parte ejus depilata.
43. Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh, 43. Aspiciet ergo eum sacerdos: et, si tumor plagae albus, rufus in calvitio ejus aut parte depilata, sicut species leprae in cute carnis,
44. He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head. 44. Vir leprosus est, immundus est: contaminando contaminabit illum sacerdos: in capite ejus est plaga ejus.
45. And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean. 45. Leprosi autem in quo fuerit plaga illa, vestimenta erunt scissa, et caput ejus nudum, et pilum labri operiet, et Immundus, immundus sum clamabit.
46. All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be. 46. Cunctis diebus quibus fuerit plaga in eo, contaminabitur, immudus est: seorsum habitabit: extra castra mansio ejus erit.
47. The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment or a linen garment, 47. Si in veste fnerit plaga leprae, in veste lanea, aut in veste linea,
48. Whether it be in the warp or woof, of linen, or of woollen, whether in a skin, or in anything made of skin; 48. Aut in stamine, aut in subtegmine ex lino, aut ex lana, aut in pelle, aut in quovis opere pelliceo:
49. And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest. 49. Et fuerit plaga illa viridis aut rufa in veste, aut in stamine, vel in subtegmine, vel in quovis opere pelliceo, plaga leprae est, ostendetur sacerdoti.
50. And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days. 50. Et inspiciet saccMos plagam, includetque plagam illam septera diebus.
51. And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin, the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean. 51. Postea inspiciet plagam illam die septimo: si creverlt plaga illa per vestera, vel per subtegmen, vel pellem in omni opere pelliceo, lepra corodentis plagae est, immunda est.
52. He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire. 52. Comburetque vestem, vel stamen, vel subtegmen ex lana, vel ex lino, vel quodvis opus pelliceum in quo fuerit plaga illa: quia lepra corrodens est, igni comburetur.
53. And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; 53. Quod si, ubi inspexerit sacerdos, ecce non creverit plaga illa in veste, vel in stamine, vel in subtegmine, vel in quovis opere pelliceo.
54. Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more. 54. Tune praecipiet sacerdos, et lavabunt id in quo est plaga: et recludet illud septem diebus secundo.
55. And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his color, and the plague be not spread, it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire: it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without. 55. Inspiciet vero sacerdos, postquam lotum fuerit, plagam illam: et, si non mutaverit plaga illa colorem suum, nee plaga creverit, immunda est, igni combures illud: corrosio est in calvitio ejus vel in parte ejus depilata.
56. And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof. 56. Quod si dum inspexerit sacerdos, ecce, subobscura fuerit plaga postquam lota fuit, abscindet eam e veste, vel epelle, vel e stamine, vel e subtegmine
57. And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin, it is spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire. 57. Quod si comspecta fureit ultra in veste, vel in stamine, vel in subtegmine, vel in quovis opere pelliceo lepra germinans est, igni combures illud in quo fuerit, lavabitur secundo, et mundum erit.
58. And the garment, either warp or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean. 58. Vestis autem, sive stamen, sive, sbtegment, aut quodivis opus pelliceum quod laveris, si recesserit ab eis plagra, lavabitur secundo, et mundum erit.
59. This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of wollen or linen, either in the warp or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean. 59. Haec est lex leprae vestimenti lanei, vel linei, vel staminis, vel subtegminis, vel cujusvis operis pellicei ad judicandum illud mundum vel immundum.

2. When a man. shall have in the skin. Since every eruption was not the leprosy, and did not render a man unclean, when God appoints the priests to be the judges, He distinguishes by certain marks a common eruption from the leprosy; and then subjoins the difference between the various kinds of leprosy. For the disease was not always incurable; but, only when the blood was altogether corrupted, so that the skin itself had become hardened by its corrosion, or swollen by its diseased state. This, then, must be observed in the first place, that the Greek and Latin word lepra, and the Hebrew t[rx tzaragmath, extend further than to the incurable disease, which medical men call elephantiasis f4 both on account of the hardness of the skin, and also its mottled color; not, however, that there is an entire agreement between the thickness of the man's skin and that of an elephant, but because this disease produces insensibility of the skin. This the Greeks call Yw>ra, and if it be not a kind of leprosy, it is nearly allied to it. Thus we see that there was a distinction between the scab and leprosy; just as now-a-days, if it were necessary to judge respecting the itch, (which is commonly called the disease of St. Menanus, f5 the marks must be observed, which distinguish it from leprosy. But, as to the various kinds of leprosy, I confess that I am not a physician, so as to discuss them accurately, and I purposely abstain from close inquiry about them, because I am persuaded that the disease here treated of affected the Israelites in an extraordinary manner, which we are now unacquainted with; for what do we now know of a leprous house? Indeed it is probable that, since heathen writers knew that the Jewish people suffered from this disease, they laid hold of it as the ground of their falsehood, that all the descendants of Abraham were infected with the itch, and were driven away from Egypt, lest others should catch it from them. That f6 this was an ancient calumny appears from Josephus, both in the ninth book of his Antiquities, and in his Treatise against Apion; and it is repeated both by C. Tacitus and Justin. Yet I make no doubt that the Egyptians, a very proud nation, in order to efface the memory of their own disgrace, and of the vengeance inflicted upon them by God, invented this lie, and thus grossly turned against this innocent people what had happened to themselves, when they were smitten with boils and blains. But we shall see hereafter, amongst God's curses, that He chastised His people with the same plagues as He had inflicted on the Egyptians:
"The Lord will smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab," etc.(<052827>Deuteronomy 28:27.)
Whence it may be probably inferred, that God avenged the crimes of His ancient people with special judgments, which are now unknown to us; just as afterwards new diseases arose, from which those in old times were free. At any rate, Josephus, by clear and solid arguments, exposes the absurdity of this accusation, that Moses was driven from Egypt with a crowd of exiles, lest they should infect the country with their disease; because, if they had been universally affected with this malady, he never would have imposed such severe laws for separating the lepers from general society.
God first commands that, whenever a suspicion of leprosy arose, the man was to present himself to the priest; if any symptom of leprosy appeared, He commands him to be shut up for a period of seven days, until it should appear from the progress of the disease that it was incurable leprosy. That God should have appointed the priests to be judges, and those, too, only of the highest order, is a proof that His spiritual service was rather regarded than mere bodily health. If any shall inquire whether leprosy is not a contagious disease, and whether it be not therefore expedient that all who were affected by it should be removed from intercourse with others, I admit, indeed, that such is the case, but I deny that this was the main object in view. For, in process of time, physicians would have been better able to decide by their art and skill: whereas God enjoined this decision upon the priests alone, and gave them the rule whereby they were to judge. Nor did He appoint the Levites indiscriminately, but only the sons of Aaron, who were the highest order, in order that the authority of the decision might be greater. It was, then, by a gross error, or rather impudence, that the Papal priests (sacrifici) assumed to themselves this jurisdiction. It was (they say) the office of the chief priests under the Law to distinguish between the kinds of leprosy; and, therefore, the same right is transferred to the bishops. But they carry the mockery still further: the official f7the bishop's representative, sits as the legitimate judge; he calls in physicians and surgeons, from whose answers he pronounces what he confesses he is ignorant of himself. Behold how cleverly they accommodate a legal rite to our times! The mockery, however, is still more disgusting, when in another sense they extend to the whole tribe of priests what they have said to belong solely to the bishops; for, since the sin under which all labor is a spiritual leprosy, they thence infer that all are excluded from the congregation of the faithful until they shall have been purged and received by absolution, which they hold to be the common office of all the priests. They afterwards add, that judgment cannot be pronounced till the cause is heard, and so conclude that confession is necessary. But, if they choose to have recourse to subtleties, reason would rather conduct us to the opposite conclusion; for God did not desire the priests to take cognizance of a hidden disease, but only after the manifest symptoms had appeared: hence it will follow, that it is preposterous to bring secret sins to judgment, and that wretched men are dragged to their confession contrary to all law and justice. But, setting aside all these absurdities, an analogy must be observed between us and God's ancient people. He of old forbade the external uncleanness of the flesh to be tolerated in His people. By Christ's coming, the typical. figure has ceased; but we are taught that all uncleanness, whereby the purity of His services is defiled, is not to be cherished, or borne with amongst us. And surely excommunication answers to this ceremony; since by it the Church is purified, lest corruptions should everywhere assail it, if wicked and guilty persons occupied a place in it promiscuously with the good. The command of God that, whilst the disease was obscure and questionable, the infected person should be shut up for seven days, recommends moderation to us, lest any, who is still curable, should be condemned before his time. In fact, this medium is to be observed, that the judge should not be too remiss and hasty in pardoning, and still that he should temper severity by justice; and especially that he should not be too precipitate in his judgment. What we translate "shall pronounce him clean, or unclean," is in Hebrew, "shall clean, or unclean him; " thus the dignity of the judgment is more fully established, as though it had proceeded from God Himself; and assuredly no medical skill could declare on the seventh day a leprosy to be incurable, respecting which there was doubt so short a time before, unless God should in some special manner discover the uncleanness, and guide the eyes of the priests by His Spirit.
29. If a man or woman. What is here spoken of is not the baldness which so often occurs in old age; but that loss of hair, which is the consequence of leprosy, is distinguished from any other, the cause of which may be some indisposition, and which yet does not pollute a man. But, inasmuch as some kinds of baldness do not so greatly differ at first sight from leprosy, — such, for instance, as ophiasis and alopecia f8 — it is therefore necessary to distinguish them.
44. He is a leprous man, he is unclean. In the first part of the verse he says that the leprous man must be counted unclean; but, in the latter part, he commands the priest to give sentence against this uncleanness, lest it should be carried into the congregation. On this ground he says, "his plague is upon his head," which is as much as to say, that he is sentenced to just ignominy, for Moses takes it for granted that God holds up to public infamy whomsoever He smites with leprosy, and thence reminds them that they justly and deservedly bear this punishment.
The two following verses contain the form in which the sentence is executed, viz., that the man should wear a rent in his garment, which is to be the mark of his disgrace, that he should walk with his head bare, and with his mouth covered, (for this I take to be the meaning of the covering of his lip;) and besides this, that he is to be the proclaimer of his own pollution; finally, that he must dwell without the camp, as if banished from communication with men. Moses here f9 refers to the existing state of the people, as long as they sojourned in the desert; for after they began to inhabit the land, the lepers were driven out of the towns and villages to dwell by themselves. I know not whether the opinion of some is a sound one, that they were enjoined to cover the mouth or lip, lest by the infection of their breath they should injure others. My own view is rather, that because they were civilly dead, they also bore the symbol of death in having the face covered — as their separation deprived them of the ordinary life of men. Where we translate "shall cry, Unclean, unclean," some, taking the verb, arqy yikra, f10 indefinitely, construe it passively, "shall be called,:" and I admit that in many passages it has the same force as if it were in the plural number. But, because the repetition of the word "unclean" is emphatic, it is probable that the word is not to be taken simply for "to call," (vocare;) and therefore, I rather incline to the opinion that, by the command of the Law, they warned all with their own mouth not to approach them, lest any one should incautiously pollute himself by touching them; although their uncleanness was perhaps proclaimed publicly, so that all might mutually exhort each other to beware And Jeremiah seems to allude to this passage, where, speaking f11of the defilements of the city, he says that all men cried
"Unclean; fly ye, fly ye." (<250415>Lamentations 4:15)
58. And the garment. This kind of disease, God, in his infinite clemency, has willed to be unknown to us. He has indeed subjected woolen garments and furs to the ravages of the moth, and vessels of various kinds to rust, and other corruptions; in fact, has surrounded the human race with rottenness, in order that everywhere our eyes should light on the punishment of sin; but what the leprosy of garments may be, is unknown. But its expiation under the Law admonished his ancient people that the must carefully beware of even external uncleanness, so as to cleanse themselves "from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit." It has appeared to me sufficient to touch upon the sum of the matter, because it would be almost superfluous labor to insist upon the words, although I should be unwilling to condemn the diligence of those who examine these points also; but it is not my purpose to perform the office of the grammarian.
Of the Purifying of the Lepers f12
Leviticus 14
Leviticus 14:1-57
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquuntus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest. 2. Hace erit lex leprosi die pugationis suae, nempe adducetur ad sacerdtem.
3. And the priest shall go forth out of the camp: and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper; 3. Et egredietur sacerdos foras extra castra, dg inspiciet sacerdos: et su sanata fuerit lepra a leproso;
4. Then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two birds alive and clean, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop. 4. Tunc praecipiet scerdos ut tollantur ei qui mundatur dae aves vivae, mundae, et lignum cedrinum, et coccus vermiculi, et hyssopus.
5. And the priest shall command that one of the birds be killed in an earthen vessel over running water. 5. Et praecipiet sacerdos ut mactetur avis una super vas fictile super aquas vivas.
6. As for the living bird, he shall take, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water: 6. Avem vivam tollet, et lignum cedrinum, et cuccum vermiculi, et hyssopum: et tinget illa, et avem vivam in sanguine avis mactatae super aquas vivas.
7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let the living bird loose in the open field. 7. Et sparget super eum qui mundatur a lepra septem vicibus, mundabitque emu: et emitet avem vivam in superficiem agri.
8. And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and wash himself in water, that he may be clean; and after that he shall come into the camp, and shall tarry abroad out of his tent seven days. 8. Et lavabit qui emundatur vestimenta sua, et radet omnem ilum suum, lavabitque se aqua, et mundus erit: postea ingredietur castra, habitabitque extra tabernaculum suum septem diebus.
9. But it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair off his head, and his beard, and his eye-brows, even all his hair he shall shave off: and he shall wash his cloathes, also he shall wash his flesh in water, and he shall be clean. 9. Die autem septimo radet omnem pilum suum, caput suum, et barbam suam, et supercilia oculorum suorum, atque omnem reliquum pilum summ radet: lavbit quoque vestimenta sua, postquam laverit carnem suam aqua, et purificabit se.
10. And on the eighth day he shall take two he-lambs without blemish, and one ewe-lamb of the first year without blemish, and three tenth-deals of fine flour for a meat-offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil; 10. Die autem octavo tallet duos agnos immaculatos, et agnam unam anniculam immaculatam, et tres decimas mixturae minha mixta oleao, et sextarium unum olei.
11. And the priest that maketh him clean shall present the man that is to be made clean, and those things, before the Lord, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 11. Statuetque sacerdos qui mundat virum mundandum, et illa coram Jehova ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
12. And the priest shall take one he-lamb, and offer him for a trespass-offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave-offering before the Lord. 12. Tolletque sacerdos agnum unum quem offert in sacrificium pro delicto, et sextarium olei, et agitabit ea agitatione coram Jehova.
13. And he shall slay the lamb in the place where he shall kill the sin-offering and the burnt-offering, in the holy place: for as the sin-offering is the priest's, so is the trespass-offering; it is most holy. 13. Mactabitque agmnu in loco in quo mactare solet oblationem pro peccato, et holocaustum nempe in loco sanctitatis: quia sicut hostia pro peccato, ita oblatio pro delicto, est sacerdotis, sanctitas sanctitatum est.
14. And the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass-offering, and the priest shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot. 14. Accipietque sacerdos de sanguine oblationis pro delicto, et ponet super tenerum auris mundandi dextrae, et super pollicem manus ejus dextrae, et super pollicem pedis ejus dextri.
15. And the priest shall take some of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand: 15. Accipiet praeterea sacerdos de sextario olei, et fundet in manum suam sinistram.
16. And the priest shall dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left hand, and shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before the Lord. 16. Tingetque ipse digitum suum dextrum in oleum quod est in manu sua sinistra, spargetque de oleo digito suo septem vicibus coram Jehova.
17. And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the trespass-offering. 17. De residuo vero olei quod in manu sua ponet sacerdos super tenerum auris mundandi dextrae, et super pollicem manus ejus dextrae, et super pollicem pedis ejus dextri, ultra sanguinem oblationis pro delicto.
18. And the remnant of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall pour upon the head of him that is to be cleansed: and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord. 18. Quod autem superest de oleo quod est in manu ejus, ponet super caput mundandi: expiabitque eum sacerdos coram Jehova.
19. And the priest shall offer the sin-offering, and make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed from his uncleanness; and afterward he shall kill the burnt-offering. 19. Faciet item sacerdos oblationem pro peccato, emundabitque mundandum ab immunditia sua, et postea mactabit holocaustum.
20. And the priest shall offer the burnt-offering and the meat-offering upon the altar: and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and he shall be clean. 20. Et ascendere faciet sacerdos holocaustum et minham super altare expiabitque eum sacerdos, et mundus erit.
21. And if he be poor, and cannot get so much; then he shall take one lamb for a trespass-offering to be waved, to make an atonement for him, and one tenth-deal of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat-offering, and a log of oil; 21. Si autem pauper fuerit, et manus ejus non possit assequi, tum accipiet agnum unum in hostiam pro delicto in elevationem ad expiandum illum, et decimam partem similae unam permistam oleo pro minha, sextariumque olei.
22. And two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a sin.offering, and the other a burnt-offering. 22. Duos praeterea turtures, aut duos filios columbae, quodcunque apprehendere poterit manus ejus: eritque unus in hostiam pro pecccato, et alter pro holocausto.
23. And he shall bring them on the eighth day for his cleansing unto the priest, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord. 23. Afferetque ea octavo die purificationis suae ad sacerdotem, ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis coram Jehova.
24. And the priest shall take the lamb of the trespass-offering, and the log of oil; and the priest shall wave them for a wave-offering before the Lord. 24. Suscipietque sacerdos agnum oblationis pro delicto, et sextarium olei, atque agitabit ea sacerdos elevationem coram Jehova.
25. And he shall kill the lamb of the trespass-offering, and the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass-offering, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot. 25. Mactabitque agnum oblationis pro delicto, ac tollet sacerdos de sanguine oblationis pro delicto, ponetque super tenerum auris mundandi dextrin, et super pollicem manus ejus dextrae, et super pollicem pedis ejus dextri.
26. And the priest shall pour of the oil into the palm of his own left hand. 26. De oleo quoque fundet sacerdos in manum suam sinistram.
27. And the priest shall sprinkle with his right finger some of the oil that is in his left hand seven times before the Lord. 27. Spargetque sacerdos digito suo dextro de oleo quod est in manu sua sinistra septem vicibus coram Jehova.
28. And the priest shall put of the oil that is in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the place of the blood of the trespass-offering. 28. Ponet quoque sacerdos de oleo quod est in manu sua super tenerum auris emundandi dextrae, et super pollicem manus ejus dextrae, et super pollicem pedis ejus dextri, in loco sanguinis oblationis pro delicto.
29. And the rest of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed, to make an atonement for him before the Lord. 29. Quod autem superest de oleo quod est in manu sacerdotis, ponet super caput emundandi ad emun-dandum illum coram Jehova.
30. And he shall offer the one of the turtle-doves, or of the young pigeons, such as he can get; 30. Faciet item unum de turturibus, vel ex pullis columbarum, ex iis quae apprehenderit manus ejus.
31. Even such as he is able to get, the one for a sin-offering, and the other. for a burnt-offering, with the meat-offering: and the priest shall make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed before the Lord. 31. Quod inquam apprehenderit manus ejus, faciet unum pro peccato, et alterum in holocaustum cum minha, emundabitque sacerdos mundaudum coram Jehova.
32. This is the law of him in whom is the plague of leprosy, whose hand is not able to get that which pertaineth to his cleansing. 32. Ita est lex ejus in quo fuerat plaga leprae, cujus manus non poterat apprehendere mundationem sui.
33. And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 33. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo:
34. When ye be come into the land of Canaan, which I give to you for a possession, and I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession; 34. Quum ingressi fueritis terram Chanaan, quam ego do vobis in possessionem, et posuero plagam leprae in domo terrae possessionis vestrae:
35. And he that owneth the house shall come and tell the priest, saying, It seemeth to me there is as it were a plague in the house: 35. Veniet ille cujus erit domus, renuuntiabitque sacerdoti, dicendo,. Tanquam plaga leprae visa est mihi in domo.
36. Then the priest shall command that they empty file house, before the priest go into it to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean; and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house. 36. Tunc praecipiet sacerdos, et expurgabunt domum antequam ingrediatur sacerdos, ut dispiciat plagam, ne polluatur quicquam quod sit in ea domo: et postea ingredietur sacerdos ad contemplandam domum
37. And he shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the plague be in the walls of the house with hollow strakes, greenish or reddish, which in sight are lower than the wall; 37. Tunc considerabit plagam ipsam: et siquidem in plaga quae est in parietibus domus, fuerint nigredines, flavedines, vel rubedines: et aspectus eorum fuerit depressior reliquo pariete:
38. Then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days. 38. Egredietur sacerdos e domo ad ostium domus, et claudet domum septem diebus.
39. And the priest Shall come again the seventh day, and shall look: and, behold, if the plague be spread in the walls of the house; 39. Postea revertetur sacerdos die septimo, et contemplabitur: et siquidem creverit plaga in parietibus domus,
40. Then the priest shall command that they take away the stones in which the plague is, and they shall cast them into an unclean place without the city. 40. Tunc praecipiet sacerdos, et eruent lapides in quibus fuerit plaga illa, projicientque illos extra civitatem in locum immundum:
41. And he shall cause the house to be scraped within round about, and they shall pour out the dust that they scrape off without the city into all unclean place. 41. Domum autem radere jubebit intrinsecus per circuitum, et effundent pulveremquem abraserint extra civitatem in 1.ocum immundum.
42. And they shall take other stones, and put them in the place of those stones; and he shall take other mortar, and shall plaster the house. 42. Et accipient lapides altos quos reponent loco lapidum illorum, et latum aliud capient, et complanabunt domum.
43. And if the plague come again, and break out in the house, after that he hath taken away the stones, and after he hath scraped the house, and after it is plastered; 43. Quod si reversa fuerit plaga, et effloreat in illa domo postquam erui fecit lapides, et abradi domum, et posteaquam obducta fuit:
44. Then the priest shall come and look, and, behold, if the plague be spread in the house, it is a fretting leprosy in the house; it is unclean. 44. Tunc ingredietur sacerdos, et considerabit: et siquidem creverit plaga in domo, lepra corrodens est ipsa in domo, immunda est.
45. And he shall break down the house, the stones of it, and the timber thereof, and all the mortar of the house; and he shall carry them forth out of the city into an unclean place. 45. Destruetque domum, et lapides ejus, et ligna ejus, atque universum lutum domus, educetque extra civitatem in locum immundum.
46. Moreover, he that goeth into the house all the while that it is shut up shall be unclean until the even. 46. Qui autem ingressus fuerit domum illam omnibus diebus quibus jusserit earn claudi, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
47. And he that lieth in the house shall wash his clothes; and he that eateth in the house shall wash his clothes. 47. Et qui dormierit in ea domo, lavabit vestimenta sua: quique comederit in domo, lavabit vestimenta sua.
48. And if the priest shall come in, and look upon it, and, behold, the plague hath not spread in the house, after the house was plastered; then the priest shall pronounce the house clean, because the plague is healed. 48. Si autem ingrediendo ingressus fuerit sacerdos: contemplatusque viderit non crevisse plagam in ipsa domo, postquam ipsa obducta fuit: mundam judicabit sacerdos domum, quia sanata sit plaga illa.
49. And he shall take to cleanse the house two birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop. 49. Tollet itaque ad purificandam domum duos passeres, et lignum cedrinum, et coccum vermiculi, ct hyssopum.
50. And he shall kill the one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water. 50. Mactabitque passerera unum super vas fictile, super aquas vivas.
51. And he shall take the cedar-wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times. 51. Capietque lignum cedrinum, et hyssopum, et coccum vermiculi, et passerem vivum, et tinget illa in sanguine passeris mactati, et in aqua vivente: aspergetque domum septem vicibus.
52. And he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird, and with the cedar-wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet. 52. Purificabitque domum illam sanguine passeris, et aqua viva, et passere vivo, lignoque cedrino, et hyssopo, et cocco vermiculi.
53. But he shall let go the living bird out of the city into the open fields, and make an atonement for the house: and it shall be clean. 53. Postea dimittet passerem vivum extra civitatem super faciem agri, purgabitque domum, et munda erit.
54. This is the law for all manner of plague of leprosy, and scall, 54. Ista est lex omnis plagae leprae, et maculae nigrae,
55. And for the leprosy of a garment, and of a house, 55. Et leprae vestis, et domus,
56. And for a rising, and for a scab, and for a bright spot; 56. Et tumoris, et scabiei, et candentis maculae:
57. To teach when it is unclean, and when it is clean: this is the law of leprosy. 57. Ad docendum quid agendum, quo die immundus et quo die mundus declarandus est.

2. This shall be the law of the leper. Moses now treats of the manner in which those who were cured of leprosy were to be cleansed and restored. Thus far he had shewn whom the priest was to admit into the holy congregation, and account to be clean; he now prescribes the rite of expiation, whereby the people might learn how greatly God abominates the uncleanness, which He commands to be purified by a solemn propitiation; and also that he who is healed may acknowledge that he is rescued from death by God's special blessing, and may in future be more diligent in seeking to be pure. For there were two parts in the sacrifice here demanded-purification and thanksgiving. But we must ever keep in view the object which I have stated in the last chapter, that the Israelites were instructed by this ceremony to serve God in chastity and purity, and to keep far away from those defilements, whereby religion would be profaned. Since, then, leprosy was a kind of pollution, God was unwilling that those who were cured of it should be received into the holy congregation, f13 except after the offering of a sacrifice; as if the priest reconciled them after excommunication. It will now be well to discuss the points which are worthy of consideration. The office of cleansing is imposed on the priest; yet he is at the same time forbidden to cleanse any except those who were already pure and clean. In this, on the one hand, God claims for Himself the honor of the cure, lest men should assume it; and also establishes the discipline which He would have to reign in His Church. To make the matter clearer, it belongs to God only to forgive sins; what, then, remains to man, except to be the witness and herald of the grace which He confers? God's minister can, therefore, absolve none whom God has not before absolved. In sum, absolution is not in the power or will of man: the minister only sustains an inferior part, to endorse God's judgment, or rather to proclaim God's sentence. Hence that remarkable expression of Isaiah, "I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions, O Israel, and none but me." f14 (<236302>Isaiah 63:25.) In which sense, too, God everywhere promises by the prophets that the people shall be clean, when He shall have cleansed them. Meanwhile, however, this does not prevent those who are called to the office of teaching from purging the uncleanness of the people in a certain peculiar way. For, since faith alone purifies the heart, in so far as it receives the testimony which God proffers by the mouth of man, the minister who testifies that we are reconciled to God, is justly reckoned to take away our pollution. This expiation is still in force, though the ceremony has long ceased to be in use. But, since the spiritual healing, which we receive by faith, proceeds from the mere grace of God, the ministry of man does not at all detract from His glory. Let us, then, remember that these two things are perfectly consistent with each other, that God is the sole author of our purity; and yet that the method, which He uses for our justification, must not on that account be neglected. And this is properly referred to discipline, that whosoever has been once cast out of the holy congregation by public authority, must not be received again except upon professing penitence and a new life. We must observe, too, that this jurisdiction was given to the priests not only on the ground that they represented Christ, but also in respect to the ministry, which we have in common with them.
3. And the priest shall go forth. This is the examination, which was more fully treated of in the last chapter, without which it was not lawful to receive him who had been once rejected. The priest's command, which is mentioned immediately afterwards, I refer to the Levites, some one of whom probably accompanied the priest to prepare the sacrifice, that thus the priests might only discharge the principal duty. The sum of the rite respecting the two birds tends to this, that the cleansing from leprosy was a kind of resurrection Two birds were placed before their eyes; the liberty of one was purchased by the blood of the other; because the former was not let go until it had been first dipped in the blood and the water; and thus the matter of sprinkling was prepared for the man's purification. The sevenfold repetition was intended to impress more deeply on men's memories a continual meditation on God's grace; for we know that by this number perfection is often expressed in Scripture. With the same object, he who had been cured shaved his hair, and washed in water. Yet he did not return home on the first day, but on the eighth. Meantime, on the seventh day he shaved his beard, and his eyebrows, and all the hair of his head; he washed himself and his garments, and then proceeded to the sacrifice. So difficult is it to accustom men to a serious acknowledgment of the two points, to hold their vice in detestation, and worthily to estimate the grace of God whereby they are delivered.
10. And on the eighth. As infants on the eighth day after they were cleansed from the uncleanness which they had brought from the womb, were grafted into the Church, and made members of it; so now the eighth day is prescribed for the restoration of those who, in the cure that they have received, are as it were born again; for they are accounted dead whom the leprosy had banished from the holy congregation. A sacrifice is therefore appointed which may renew the circumcision that had been in some measure effaced. Now, the meaning of all the things here mentioned is not clear to myself, and I would not have my readers too curious respecting them. Some may be probably accounted for; the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot, were sprinkled with the blood of the offering, because the leper was restored to the ordinary habits and customs of life, so as to have freedom of walk and action, and free conversational intercourse; for in the ear there is a mutual correspondence between speaking and hearing. The head is anointed, or cleansed with the oil, that nothing impure should remain in his whole body f15 God spare the poor and lowly, and does not compel them to offer the two lambs, lest they should be burdened beyond their means; whence it appears, that sacrifices are not estimated according to their intrinsic value, but according to the pious feeling which disposes each on liberally to offer in proportion to what is given him.
34. When ye be come into the land. Another sort of leprosy is here treated of, as to which we may not unreasonably rejoice that it is now unknown to us. But, as God had honored that people with extraordinary privileges, so it was consistent that their ingratitude should be punished by more severe penalties, if they defiled the gifts in which they excelled. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that punishments were inflicted upon them, which it fills us with surprise and horror to hear of. It was a sad sight to behold the leprosy invading the human body; but there was something portentous to perceive it affecting their houses also, and driving out the owners and their families; for if they wittingly and voluntarily remained there, the contagion spread to themselves and all their furniture. But, since God marked with public ignominy those whose houses were struck with leprosy, He commands them to confess their guilt, and not only when the evil had made much advance, but when any suspicion of it had begun to exist. It appears, too, from the Law, that some were but lightly chastised: for, if after the priest's inspection, in seven days the plague did not increase on the scraped walls, the possessor returned to his house. God punished others more severely, and it was necessary that the building should be utterly destroyed, because the pollution was incurable. But, although these were tokens of God's wrath, yet, inexpiating the uncleanness, He exercised His people in the study of purity; for it was just as if He drove away from approaching His sanctuary those who came from an unclean house. The sense, then, was that. they should each of them diligently endeavor to keep their houses pure, and chaste, and free from every stain. But if, through God's mercy, the plague ceased, a sacrifice of thanksgiving was to be offered, as for the human beings (who had been healed.) The next chapter, in which general pollutions and their purifications are not treated of, but only one kind of pollution is glanced at, which has reference to fleshly lust, would perhaps be suitably introduced under the Seventh Commandment; but it will presently appear from the context that it must be brought under this head.
Of the Pollutions which arise from Issues f16
Leviticus 15
Leviticus 15:1-33
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying, 1. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo,
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When any man hath a running issue out of his flesh, because of his issue he is unclean. 2. Loquimini ad filios Israel, et dicite eis, Unusquisque quum semen ejus defluet de carne sua, immundus est.
3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness. 3. Haec vero erit immunditia ejus in semine ipsius, si emittat caro ejus semen suum, vel clauserit carnem suam semine suo, immunditia ejus est.
4. Every bed whereon he lieth that hath the issue is unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. 4. Onme stratum in quo jacuerit qui patitur fluxum seminis, immundum erit: et omne id super quo sederit, immundum erit.
5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himse!f in water, and be unclean until the even. 5. Quicunque item tetigerit lectum ejus, lavabit vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit sese aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he sat that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 6. Et qui sederit super alquid super quo sederit seminifluus, lavabit vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit se aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 7. Qui vero tetigerit carnem seminiflui, lavabit vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit sese aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean; then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be uncleau until the even. 8. Et si despuerit seminifluussuper mundum, lavabit vestimenta sua posteaquam laverit se aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
9. And what saddle soever he rideth upon that hath the issue shall be unclean. 9. Et omne sagma super quo equitaverit seminifluus, immundum erit.
10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even: and he that beareth any of those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 10. Atque omnis qui tetigerit omne quitquid fuerit subter eum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam et qui portaverit ea, lavabit vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit sese aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
11. And whomsoever he toucheth that hath the issue, and hath not rinsed his hands in water, he shalt wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 11. Omnis autem quem tetigerit seminifluus, et manus suas non abluerit aqua, lavabit vestimenta sua: posteaquam laverit sese aqua: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam.
12. And the vessel of earth that he toucheth which hath the issue shall be broken: and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water. 12. Et vas fictile quod tetigerit seminifluus, confringetur: onme auterm vas ligneum lavabitur aqua.
13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean. 13. Quum autem mundatus fuerit seminifluus a fluxusuo, numerabit sibi septem dies ab emundatione sua, lavabitque vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit quoque carnem suam aqua viva: et mundus erit.
14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and give them unto the priest. 14. Die vero octava capiet sibi duos turtures, aut duos pullos columbinos, venietque coram Jehova ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis, et tradet eos sacerdoti.
15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering: and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord for his issue. 15. Quos sacrificabit sacerdos, unum pro peccato, et alterum in holocaustum: et emundabit illum sacerdos coram Jehova a fluxu ipsius.
16. And if any man's seed of copulation go out from him, then he shall wash all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even. 16. Quum autem ex aliquo egressa fuerit effusio seminis, lavabit aqua totam carnem suam: immun-dusque erit usque ad vesperam.
17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the seed of copulation, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even. 17. Et omnis vestis, omnisque pellis super quam fuerit aliquid de effusione seminis, lavabitur aqua et immunda erit usque ad vesperam.
18. The woman also with whom man shall lie with seed of copulation, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even. 18. Mulier quoque cum quo dormierit vir patiens effusionem seminis, lavabitur aqua et immunda erit usque ad vesperam.
19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put apart seven days, and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even. 19. Mulier autem quum fuerit fluens sanguine, et erit fluxus ejus per carnem ejus, septem diebus erit in separatione sua: et omnis qui tetigerit eam, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her separation shall be unclean: every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean. 20. Et omne super quo jacuerit separatione sua, immundum erit: omne quoque super quo sederit, immundum erit.
21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe hinse!f in water, and be unclean until the even. 21. Omnis praeterea qui tetigerit lectum ejus, lavabit vestimenta sua, et lavabit sese aqua: immundusque erit usque ad vesperam.
22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sat upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 22. Omnis etiam qui tetigerit quamcunque sedem super quam sederit, lavabit vestimenta sua, posteaquam laverit sese aqua: immundusque erit usque ad vesperam.
23. And if it be on her bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even. 23. Quod si instrumentum aliquod fuerit super stratum ipsum, vel super sellam super quam sederit: quum tetigerit illud aliquis, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
24. And if any man lie with her at all, and her flowers be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and all the bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. 24. Quod si dormiendo dormierit quis cum ea, et fuerit immunditia ejus super eum, immundus erit septem diebus: et omne stratum super quo dormierit, immundum erit.
25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days out of the time of her separation, or if it run beyond the time of her separation; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness shall be as the days of her separation: she shall be unclean. 25. Mulier autem, quum fluet fluxum sanguinis ultra menses suos: cunctis diebus fluxus immunditiae suae erit sicut diebus menstrui sui, immunda est.
26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her separation; and whatsoever she sitteth upon shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her separation. 26. Omne stratum in quo dormierit cunctis diebus fluxus sui, sicut stratum menstrui sui erit, et omnis sedes super qua sederit, immunda erit secundum immunditiam menstrui sui.
27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himseIf in water, and be unclean until the even. 27. Quicunque tetigerit cam immundus erit, lavabitque vestimenta sua, et lavabit se aqua, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam.
28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. 28. Quod si mundata fuerit a fluxu suo, tunc numerabit sibi septem dies, et postea mundabitur.
29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation 29. Die autem octava tollet sibi duos turtures, aut duos pullos columbinos: afferetque illos ad sacerdotem ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for her before the Lord for the issue of her uncleanness. 30. Et faciet sacerdos unum in hostiam pro peccato, et alterum in holocaustum: emundabitque illam sacerdos coram Jehova a fluxu immunditiae suae.
31. Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile my tabernacle that is among them. 31. Separabitque filios Israel ab imnmnditias suas, ne moriantur propter immunditias suas, dum polluertint tabernaculum, quod est in medio eorum.
32. This is the law of him that hath an issue, and of him whose seed goeth from him, and is defiled therewith; 32. lsta est lex patientis fluxum seminis, et ejus ex quo egreditur effusio seminis, ut sit immundus propter illam.
33. And of her that is sick of her flowers, and of him that hath an issue, of the man, and of the woman, and of him that lieth with her that is unclean. 33. Et aegrotantis in fluxu suo, et ejus qui profundit fluxum suum, sive sit masculus, sive foemina, et viri qui dormierit cum immunda.

2. When any man hath a running issue. He here alludes to other species of contamination, for which a solemn purification is required. And, first, he teaches that men are defiled by the flow of the seminal fluid, which occurs in two ways, either when it involuntarily bursts out in sleep, or when it escapes gradually in the disease, which the Greeks call gono>rjrJoia This Supplement might, as I have said, be appended to the Seventh Commandment, because every f17 indisposition arising from lust appears here to be condemned; but, if we look more closely, we shall perceive that it is a general law for the cultivation of purity, and which must not be confined to chastity alone. For this flux, arising from disease and debility, unless it be contracted from immoderate venery, has nothing in common with venereal lust. Besides, what is immediately after added concerning the menstruation of women, is connected with other forms of uncleanness and defilement. The sum then is, that the seminal-flux is reckoned among the pollutions which prevented the Israelites from entering the tabernacle, and from the external service of God; and thence the rule must always be borne in mind, that whatever proceeds from an unclean man is corrupt, and that no one can duly offer either himself, or what he possesses, to God, except he who is pure and perfect in soul and body. Thus Paul explains the end and object of this ceremony, when he exhorts believers that, being received as God's peculiar people, they should cleanse themselves
"from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit."
(<470701>2 Corinthians 7:1.)
But Moses further declares, that uncleanness is contracted, not only when the seed is emitted, but when it is retained; and that not only is the man himself rendered unclean, but whatever he may have touched — his bed, his seat, his saddle, his clothes; and that the contagion extends to others also, if any should have lain on the same bed, or ridden on the same saddle. Thus did God desire to impress them with horror, that they might be more accustomed to fly from all impurity. Nor would the crime have been detestable: in itself, had not spiritual purity been set forth under this external exercise and symbol. Thus, too, in (<192403>Psalm 24:3, 4), the truth of this figure is described:
"Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His holy place? He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart."
Therefore he who was conscious of no sin in the seminal-flux, still must be reminded by this sign of the corruption of his nature; and at the same time be an example to others, that all should diligently take heed to themselves, because corruption cleaves to the whole human race. In the ablution the remedy of the evil was proposed, since the mark of ignominy induced them to repentance. It is expedient that whosoever is infected with any stain should be brought to shame, so as to be displeased with himself; but the acknowledgment of the evil would produce despair, unless the hope of pardon were associated with it. Therefore, those to whom purification was necessary, are always sent to water; and, whenever water is mentioned, the passage in St. John should be brought to mind, that Christ came "by water and blood," to purge and expiate all uncleanness. (<620506>1 John 5:6.) Besides the water, a sacrifice of turtle doves, or two young pigeons is added; and this has reference to the same thing; viz., that purification for the unclean must be sought for elsewhere, which we have at length obtained by the sacrifice of Christ.
19. And if a woman have an issue. Women are now spoken of who suffer under a twofold issue of blood; for with almost all it occurs every month, (whence it is called menses, or menstruation,) and some labor under a constant hemorrhage. He declares both to be unclean; and, after menstruation, a certain period of separation is appointed, during which the law prohibited their cohabitation with men; but, if the blood flowed beyond the usual time, the time of purification is postponed until it ceased. Whence it appears, that in every shameful thing the Jews were reminded of their uncleanness, that thus they might be accustomed to modesty and seek after purity. And this still more clearly appears at the end of the chapter, where it is said, (v. 3l,) "Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not — when they defile my tabernacle." God, I say, briefly sets forth His intention that He would drive away all profanation far from His people; because he desires sincerity to prevail amongst his worshippers, and cannot bear his tabernacle to be polluted by any stain.
Of other Defects which exclude
Men from Tabernacle f18
Deuteronomy 23
Deuteronomy 23:1, 2
1. He that is wounded in the stones, or hath his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord 1. Non ingredietur qui contusione fractos aut abscissos habet testiculos, in congregationem Jehovae
2. A bastard shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of the Lord. 2. Non ingredietur spurius congregationem Jehovae: etiam genereatione decima non ingredietur congregationem Jehovae

1. He that is wounded. What is here delivered respecting those who are mutilated, and who are bastards, has a similar object; lest the Church of God should be onctaminate by foul stains, and thus religion should lose its honor. Moses rejects from the congregation of the faithful two sorts of men, viz, eunuchs and bastards. But, before we treat of the subject itself, the definition of the words is to be considered. The first question is, that it is to enter into the congregation; the second, what it is to be wounded in the stones; the third, who are the µyrzmm, mamzerim, which we have translated bastards, (spurios).Many understand that both are rejected from the church, lest they should undertake any public office in it; others, lest they should marry wives of the seed of Abraham; because it would not be fair that women should be thrown away upon bastards, (Lat, mamzeris;) and it would be absurd that those who were created to multiply God's people, should marry impotent persons, (effoeminatis). But both these opinions appear to me to be tame. For what is afterwards added respecting certain foreign nations cannot be so taken, that no government or dignity should be entrusted to them; besides, by "the congregation of the Lord," the purity and holiness of religion is sufficiently expressed. I do not doubt, then, but that Moses prohibits those who are defiled by these two stains from communicating in the sacrifices. For although they were circumcised as well as the rest of the chosen people, still God would have them bear this mark of their disgrace, that they might be an example to others, and that the people might be more diligent in preserving themselves from all pollution. This, then, is to be concluded that the privilege which was peculiar to the legitimate Israelites, was to be denied them of being participators and associates f19 in the sacrifices. As to the wounded testicles, the Jews dispute more curiously, in my opinion, that the subject warrants, and after all miss the right meaning. For God intended nothing else than to exclude from the congregation of His people, wherever holy assemblies were held, those who were mutilated or defective in the genital organs; although by synecdoche, He comprehends more than are specified. Finally, by condemning this external bodily defect He commends the excellency of His people that they may remember themselves to be His chosen property, not that they should pride themselves upon it f20 but that the holiness of their life may correspond with such high nobility.
2. A bastard shall not enter. All agree that by the word rzmm, mamzer, a bastard is signified, who is born of an uncertain father; but they take it in different ways, For some extend it to all bastards who spring from fornication, whilst others imagine that it refers to those only whose origin is doubtful, and who are called vulgo geniti; viz, whose mothers, in their base and common prostitution of themselves, have brought it about by their gross licentiousness, that their children should be born from this monstrous medley, as it were. This second opinion I approve of most. But, by this symbol God would admonish the seed of Abraham how exalted was its dignity, as being separate from the polluted heathen. Meanwhile, He would not altogether exclude these unhappy persons from the hope of salvation, although, by no fault of their own, they were unable to give the name of their father; but He only humbled them by a temporal punishment, and desired that their example should be profitable to others.
Another Supplement as to
the general Purification of the People f21
Numbers 19
Numbers 19:1-22
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 1. Loquutus est insuper Jehova as Mosen et Aharon, dicendo:
2. This is the ordinance of the law which the Lord hath commanded, say, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke: 2. Hoc est statutum Legis quod praecepit Jehova, dicendo, Alloquere filios Israel, ut afferant ad te vaccam rufam perfectam, in qua non sit macula, super quam non ascenderit jugum.
3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, that he may bring her forth without the camp, and one shall slay her before his face. 3. Et dabitis eam Eleazar sacerdoti, qui educet eam extra castra, et mactandam curabit ante se.
4. And Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle of her blood directly before the tabernacle of the congregation seven times. 4. Capietque Eleazar sacerdos de sanguine ejus digito suo, et sparget e regione faciei tabernaculi conventionis de sanguine ejus septera vicibus.
5. And one shall burn the heifer in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall he burn. 5. Postea comburendam curabit vaccam in oculis suis: pellem ejus, ct carnem ejus, et sanguinem ejus una cum fimo ejus comburet.
6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer.' 6. Tunc accipiet sacerdos lignum cedrinum, et hyssopum, et coccum vermiculi, projicietque in medium combustionis vaccae.
7. Then the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp, and the priest shall be unclean until the even. 7. Et lavabit vestes suas sacerdos, lavabit quoque carnem suam aqua, et postea ingredietur castra, immundusque erit sacerdos usque ad vesperam.
8. And he that burneth her shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, and shall be unclean until the even. 8. Ille quoque qui combusserit eam, lavabit vestimenta sua aqua, lavabit et carnem suam aqua, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam.
9. And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of' the heifer, and lay them up without the camp in a clean place; and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of separation: it is a purification for sin. 9. Colliget autem vir mundus cinerem illius vaccae, et ponet illum extra castra in loco mundo: eritque congregationi filiorum Israel in custodiam in aquam separationis: nam expiatio est.
10. And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: and it shall be unto the children of Israel, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among them, for a statute for ever. 10. Et lavabit qui collegerit cinerem vaccae vestimenta sua, immundusque erit usqu,e ad vesperam: et erit filiis Israel et peregrino qui pere-grinatur in medio eorum, in statutum perpetuum.
11. He that toucheth the dead body of any man shall be unclean seven days. 11. Qui tetigerit cadaver omnis animae hominis, immundus erit septem diebus.
12. He shall purify himself with it on the third day, and on the seventh day he shall be clean: but if he purify not himself the third day, then the seventh day he shall not be clean. 12. Ipse purificabitur eo die tertia, et die septima mundus erit: quod si non purificatus fuerit die tertia, die septima non erit mundus.
13. Whosoever toucheth the dead body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself, defileth the tabernacle of the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from Israel: because the water of separation was not sprinkled upon him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him. 13. Quicunque tetigerit mortuum, animam hominis qui mortuus fuerit, et non fuerit purificatus, tabernaculum Jehovae polluit: et excidetur anima illa ex Israel: quia aqua separationis non fuit aspersa super eum, immundus erit, adhuc immunditia ejus erit in ipso
14. This is the law, when a man dieth in a tent: All that come into the tent, and all that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days. 14. Haec est lex, Quum quis mortuus fuerit in tabernaculo, quicunque ingressus fuerit tabernaculum, et quicquid fuerit tabernaculo, immundum erit septem diebus.
15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering bound upon it, is unclean. 15. Omne item vas apertum super quo non fuerit operculum adjectum, immundum est.
16. And whosoever toucheth one that is slain with a sword in the open fields, or a dead body, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days. 16. Quicunque praeterea tetigerit in superficie agri occisum gladio, aut mortuum, aut os hominis, aut sepul-chrum, immundus erit septem diebus.
17. And for an unclean person they shall take of the ashes of the burnt heifer of purification for sin, and running water shall be put thereto in a vessel: 17. Tollentque pro immundo de pulvere combustionis oblationis pro peccato, et ponent super eum aquam vlvam in vase.
18. And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched a bone, or one slain, or one dead, or a grave: 18. Capiet item hyssopum, et intinget in aquam vir mundus, et sparget super tabernaculum, et super omnem supellectilem, et super animas quae fuerint ibi, ac super eum qui tetigit os illud, vel occisum, vel mortuum, vel sepulchrum.
19. And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify himself, and wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even. 19. Asperget, inquam, mundus super immundum die tertia, et die septima, et mundabit eum die septima: postea lavabit vestimenta sua: lavabit quoque sese aqua, et mundus erit in vespera.
20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from among the congregation, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the Lord: the water of separation hath not been sprinkled upon him; he is unclean. 20. Vir autem qui immundus fuerit, et non purificaverit se, excidetur anima illa medio congregationis, quia sanctuarium Jehovae polluit: aqua separationis non est aspersa super eum immundus est.
21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them, that he that sprinkleth the water of separation shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of separation shall be unclean until even. 21. Et erit els in statutum perpetuum: et qui sparserit aquam separationis, lavabit vestimenta sua: quique tetigerit aquam separationis, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
22. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth shall be unclean; and the soul that toucheth it shall be unclean until even. 22. Et quicquid tetigerit immundus, immundum erit: et anima quae tetigerit ipsum, immunda erit usque ad vesperam.

2. This is the ordinance of the law. Because it could not but occur that, whilst the faithful were engaged in the world, they should often contract some pollution by their contact with its many impurities, the composition of the water is here described, by the sprinkling of which they might wash away, and expiate their uncleanness: and then certain kinds of pollution are specified, whereof the purification is required. God commands that a red heifer should be slain, which had never been subjected to the yoke; and that it should be burnt without the camp, together with its skin and dung; that the ashes should be gathered by a man that was clean, and laid up without the camp for the common use of the people. But, in order that the water, which was mixed with these ashes, should have the power of reconciliation, God at the same time commands that the blood should be sprinkled seven times before the altar by the finger of the priest. The object of this ceremony was twofold: for God would awaken the attention of the people to reflect more closely upon their impurity; and, although they might be pure within, still would have them carefully look around them, lest they should be polluted from without; and also taught them that, as often as they were infected by any pollution, expiation was to be sought for from elsewhere, viz., from sacrifice and sprinkling; and thus admonish them that men inquire in vain in themselves for the remedies demanded for their purification, because purity can only proceed from the sanctuary. Those, who speculate subtilty on the details, advance some questionable matters. I leave them, therefore, to the enjoyment of their conceits; let it suffice for us to consider generally what God referred to in this ceremony, and what advantage accrued from it to the people. By the red color, they suppose that sin is signified. Meanwhile, lest they should run into a manifest contradiction, they are obliged absurdly to interpret what follows, that He required a heifer perfect and without blemish, as if it were said that there should be no difference of color in her hair; whereas God demands the same thing as in the other sacrifices, which were rejected as faulty if any mark of deformity existed in them. And in this sense it is added that she should never have borne a yoke. Therefore I make no doubt but that God enjoined that a pure heifer, neither mutilated nor lame, should be chosen; and, that her perfectness might be more apparent, as yet unbroken to the yoke. What, then, is the meaning of the red color? First of all, I prefer confessing my ignorance to advancing anything doubtful; but it may be conjectured that a common and ordinary color was rather chosen, lest it should be too conspicuous, as it would have been, if either white or black. But this should be deemed sure, that a perfect heifer, and one free from every blemish, was to be offered, and one too, which had not been broken to bear the yoke by the hands of men, that the purification might have nothing of humanity about it.: But the command to offer her was given to the whole people; because, in order that we may be partakers of ablution, it is necessary that each of us should offer Christ to the Father. For, although He only, and that but once, has offered Himself, still a daily offering of Him, which is effected by faith and prayers, is enjoined to us, not such as f22 the Papists have invented, by whom in their impiety and perverseness, the Lord's Supper has been mistakenly turned into a sacrifice, because they imagined that Christ must be daily slain, in order that His death might profit us. The offering, however, of faith and prayers, of which I speak, is very different, and by it alone we apply to ourselves the virtue and fruit of Christ's death.
3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar. A clear distinction is here made between two offerings; for the people are not permitted to kill the heifer, but this is the peculiar office of the priest. Thus the people offered vicariously by the hand of the priest; and in this way also at present, although we set Christ before God's face in order to propitiate Him, still it is necessary that Christ Himself should interpose, and exercise the office of a priest. Again, the heifer was to be taken outside the camp, as a sign that it was accursed, since it was an atonement. On which account, too, the atoning victims, whose blood was carried into the Holy of Holies, were burnt without the camp; the truth of which figure was accomplished in Christ, who therefore suffered outside the gates of the city, as the Apostle testifies. (<581311>Hebrews 13:11-12.) But, because this was a species of rejection, lest the heifer should be less accounted of, or lest the Israelites should think her polluted by the curse, God shews that her blood was sacred and of a sweet savor, by commanding that it should be sprinkled seven times upon the altar, which might not be profaned by anything unclean. The same thing is most clearly seen in Christ; for although He was made a curse for us, and is called "sin," because by bearing our accursed sins upon the cross, He was our atoning victim, yet nothing was thereby taken from His purity, so as to prevent His holiness from being the sanctification of the whole world. For He offered Himself through the Spirit, and by His own blood entered into the holy place, and His death is elsewhere called by Paul, "a sacrifice for a sweet-smelling savor." (<580911>Hebrews 9:11-12; <490502>Ephesians 5:2; <500418>Philippians 4:18).
6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood. That the sprinkling of the blood might be conjoined with that of the water, the cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, thread, with which the sprinkling was wont to be made, were cast into the fire; for, unless the Israelites had been admonished by this visible sign, they would not have so clearly known that they were not only washed with the water, but that by the offering of the sacrifice also their uncleanness was removed. But it was not enough that the blood should be poured forth, unless, as has been already seen, they were purified by its aspersion. But, for as much as the scent of cedar-wood is precious, and in hyssop there is a cleansing property, we gather from hence also that the victim was pure, although it bore their sins together with the curse and expiation. Peter teaches us how we are sprinkled with the blood of Christ, viz., through the Spirit, (<600102>1 Peter 1:2;) nay, John shews us in his Canonical Epistle, that we find all the parts of this ceremony in Christ, where he writes that Christ "came by water and blood," and "it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth."(<620506>1 John 5:6.)
7. Then the priest shall wash his clothes. At first sight there seems to be a discrepancy in the facts, that the heifer was sacred to God, and pure, and still that the priest was polluted by touching it; yet they accord very well with each other. But that both the priest as well as the minister who made the burning, were unclean until the evening, ought to have forcibly struck the people, and taught them the more to abominate sin. And, since it was not permitted to any but a man that was clean to gather the ashes, not that they should be laid anywhere but in a clean place, it was manifested by this sign that there was no impurity in the sacrifice itself, but that from an extraneous and adventitious pollution; because it was destined to purge away uncleanness, it was accounted in a certain sense unclean. Whence too the water, into which the ashes were thrown, was called the water of separation, as well as the expiation. f23 For this translation which I have given is the right one; and others improperly render it "for waters of separation, and for expiation." The old interpreter has not given the sense amiss, as far as regards this word, "because the heifer is burnt for sin." But since in Hebrew the word, hafj chateah, f24 means not only wickedness or sin, but also the sacrifice on which the curse is imposed; what Moses intended to convey is better expressed by the word "expiation." But the expression "separation" has reference to the men, whose personal uncleanness excluded them from the holy congregation. But the question arises, why this ordinance is pronounced to be common to the strangers who sojourned in the land of Israel, as well as to the natives; because it was by no means reasonable that the uncircumcised should be purified. The reply is easy, that such strangers are not adverted to as were altogether aliens from the people, but those who, although born of heathen parentage, had embraced the Law. These God equalizes with the children of Abraham in the sacrifices and other religious services; for if their condition were different, the-church, into the body of which they were ingrafted, would be rent asunder.
11. He that toucheth the dead body. He now recites certain forms of pollution in which the washing was necessary; all of them, however, come to the point, that men are defiled by the touch of a corpse or, bones, or a grave. Nor is there here any distinction between the body of a person who is slain, or of one who has died in bed; whence it follows that death is here set forth as a mirror of God's curse: And assuredly, if we consider its origin and cause, the corruption of nature, whereby the image of God is defaced, presents itself in every, dead man; for, unless we were altogether corrupt, we should not be born to perish But God also taught His people by another mode of signifying it, that uncleanness is contracted by our communication with the unfruitful works of darkness. For the Apostle (<580601>Hebrews 6:1) calls them "dead works," either from their consequences, or because, as faith is the life of the soul, so unbelief keeps it in death. Since, then, the corpse the bones, the grave, designate whatever we bring from the womb, because, until we are born again, and God quickens us by His Spirit and faith, we are dead while we live; there is no question but that the children of Israel were reminded, that in order to keep themselves pure before God, they must abstain from all corruption; inasmuch as, if they were rendered unclean by their contact with a dead man, they must immediately have recourse to ablution. In fine, the ceremony had no other object than that they should serve God in pureness from the sins of the flesh; and exercise themselves in constant thoughts of repentance, whilst, if they fell from their purity, they should labor to obtain reconciliation with God, by means of sacrifice and ablution.
13. Whosoever toucheth the dead body. The severity of. the capital punishment shews how very pleasing to God is purity. If any one bad forgotten to sprinkle himself on the third or the seventh day, he might redeem his negligence by a prolongation of the term, because he only postponed his purification to another day; but it was a capital crime to enter the sanctuary in his uncleanness, since thus holy and profane things would be mixed together, nay, the altar would have been polluted as well as the whole service of God. But indeed the act of touching a dead body was of slight importance, nor was it to be deemed an atrocious crime; but here the external defilement is not regarded in itself, as if God were wroth on account of a stain contracted by the performance of a pious duty. f25 Rather must the object of the ceremony be considered, for God designed by these rudiments to teach the Israelites, like children, that if any one should pollute sacred things by his impurity, he would by no means be tolerated in this audacity. In this then consisted the religious import of the transaction, that the worship of God was too precious for the Israelites to be permitted to contaminate it with impunity. Whence we gather that the punishment was denounced as against sacrilege. In sum, it comes to this, that God is not duly worshipped except with a sincere heart and pure hands; and that if any pollution be contracted, there is need of expiation before a free access is re-opened to holy things. But it must be remarked as to the contact, that it was accounted the same thing, whether the corpse lay in a field or a house; whilst, if any one died in a tent, men were polluted by merely entering it, and likewise vessels without covers thus became unclean.
22. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth. Others translate it, — "Whosoever toucheth an unclean thing shall be unclean." for, since the Hebrew is without a neuter gender, f26 the relative rça, asher, and the noun amfh, hattame, may be either masculine or neuter; and either sense would not be unsuitable; except that we gather from the second clause, that reference is rather made here to the contagion with which unclean persons infect either men or garments, or other articles. For those who had touched a dead body, or bones, or a grave, were not only unclean until the evening, but for seven entire days. But it appears that this was added in conclusion, lest the Jews should murmur at the severity of the punishment, as if God would inflict the penalty of death for a trifling sin. In this way, then, Moses shews how great is the guilt incurred by those who, being unclean, intrude into the sanctuary; because, as far as in them lies, they pollute the holiness of God, and not without intolerable impertinence. Hence appears to be taken the reproof of the Prophet, when he reproaches the Jews with having done nothing but defile the worship of God with their sacrifices; for he proposes this question to the priests, — "If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any meat, shall it be holy?" After they have replied in the negative, he asks again, "If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean?" and they answer, "It shall be unclean." Whence the Prophet infers:
"So is this people, and so is this nation before me, saith the Lord, and so is the work of their hands; and that which they offer there is unclean." (<370212>Haggai 2:12-14.)
This passage shews us the legitimate use of the ceremony, that corrupt and perverse worshippers f27 bring disgrace rather than honor on God, whilst they mix up His holy name with their profanations.
Another Supplement as to keeping themselves clean by the concealment of their impurities f28
Deuteronomy 23
Deuteronomy 23:9-14
9. When the host goeth forth against thine enemies, then keep thee from every wicked thing. 9. Quum egressus fueris in exercitu contra hostes tuos, cave ab omni re mala.
10. If there be among you any man that is not clean, by reason uncleanness that chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp; he shall not come within the camp: 10. Si fuerit in te quispiam non of mundus casu nocturno, egredietur extra castra, nec ingredietur in medium castrorum
11. But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall wash himself with water; and when the sun is down, he shall come into the camp again. 11. quum autem aspexerit vesperum, lavabit se aqua: et quum occubuerit sol, ingredietur castra.
12. Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad: 12. Locus etiam erit tibi extra castra, egredierisque illuc foras.
13. And thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon; and it shall be, when thou wilt ease thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee: 13. Paxillus item erit tibi inter vasa tua, et quando desidebis extra, fodies ipso, et conversus operies excrementa tua.
14. For the Lord thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy: that he see no unclean thing in thee, and turn away from thee. 14. Jehova enim Deus ambulat per medium castrorum tuorum, ut eripiat te, et tradat inimicos tuos coram te. Sit igitur in castris tuis sanctitas, ne videat in te turpitudinem aliquam, et avertatur abs te.

9. When the host goeth forth. What he had taught with respect to the preservation of purity at home, and in time of peace, he now extends to times of war also, so that they might keep themselves clean from all defilement even in the midst of the clang of arms. We know how greatly laws are disregarded during war, when all things are under the control of violence rather than reason; and we know that much license is wont to be given to soldiers, which would be by no means tolerated in peace. God would remedy this evil by requiring the Israelites to aim at the same purity in war as in peace; for this is a special law which forbids their being dissolute and unruly in war-time, as He has before condemned all impurity in general, as if He had said, that under no pretext would they be excusable, if they neglect the duty of cultivating habits of purity. For He does not command them to be cautious in the army and in the camp, as if they might sin with impunity when at home, but admonishes them that God would by no means excuse them although they should allege the necessity of war. Much more would the crime be aggravated, if they should pollute themselves in peace and when their minds were calm. Whence we gather that it is vain to catch at empty excuses for the violation of God's commands in any respect; for, however difficult the performance of duty may be, still God never resigns His rights. Now, if war, which seems to dispense with laws, does not excuse crime, much greater, as I have said, shall their guilt be accounted, who in a tranquil condition of life are licentiously carried away by sin.
10. If there be among you. He enumerates two kinds of pollution, whereby the Israelites may know what is meant by their keeping from the "wicked thing." First, He pronounces to be unclean, and casts out of the camp those who may have had a filthy dream, until they shall have washed themselves in the evening. Secondly, He forbids them to defile the camp with what passes from the bowels; and not only this, but, even when they have gone outside the camp, He commands them to bury their excrement beneath the earth, lest any filthiness should appear. Yet it is probable that, by synecdoche, everything is referred to which rendered men unclean and polluted. But Moses, speaking as to soldiers, considered it sufficient to tell them briefly, that although they might be occupied with war, cleanliness must still be attended to. By "what chanceth at night," all are agreed in understanding a flow of semen; from whence we infer how greatly impurity defiles a man, since uncleanness is contracted even from foul dreams. As to the second part, some desire to appear quick and clever by attacking Moses, because he has introduced among the precepts of holiness, that none should relieve his bowels in the camp. Forsooth, they say, the smell might offend the nostrils of God! But their silly petulance is easily rebutted; for God would by such rudiments keep His ancient people in the way of duty, lest liberty even in the most trifling things should lead them onwards to audacity. If they had been permitted to defile every part of the camp, the people would presently have been hardened against filthiness of every sort. Thus they were held back by this rein, that they might more earnestly apply their minds to spiritual integrity. They also are mistaken who suppose that this was a sanitary precaution, lest the smell should produce diseases, and be injurious to their bodily health. For Moses plainly declares that he not only had regard to what was wholesome, or even to what was decent in the eyes of men; but rather that he would accustom the people to abhor uncleanness, and to keep themselves pure and unpolluted — for he adds, that God presided in the camp, to protect them from the power and assaults of their enemies; and that they should fear, lest, if they should contaminate the camp, He would be offended with their filthiness and forsake them. The sum is, that when they have need of God's assistance, and are engaged in war against their enemies, the pursuit of holiness must not be omitted or neglected even in the midst of arms.
Another Supplement f29
Deuteronomy 22
Deuteronomy 22:9-11
9. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds; lest the fruit of thy seed which thou hast sown, and the fruit of thy vineyard, be defiled. 9. Non seres vineam tuam diversis speciebus seminum, ne forte pollatur fructus seminis quod sevisti, et fruetus vineae.
10. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. 10. Non arabis cum bove et asino pariter.
11. Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts, as of woolien and linen together. 11. Non indues te diversa specie, lana et lino pariter.

Deuteronomy 14
Deuteronomy 14:1, 2
1. Ye are the children of the Lord your God. Ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. 1. Filii estis Jehovae Dei vestri. Non vos incidetis, nec facietis calvitium super mortuo.
2. For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth. 2. Quoniam populus sanctus es Jehovae Deo tuo, qui te elegit ut sis ei in populum peculiarem e cunctis gentibus quae sunt in superficie terrae.

Deuteronomy 22:9. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard. These four precepts, which all condemn strange medleys, I doubt not to be supplements of the First Commandment; and the reason, which is subjoined in Deuteronomy, directs us to this, where God declares that the produce of the seed and of the vineyard is polluted, if there be divers mixtures. Whence it appears that nothing else is demanded but that they should cultivate purity. The word indeed, which Moses uses, means to "sanctify," çdq kadesh; but, by antiphrasis, it is taken for to "contaminate." To the same effect is what follows, that they should not plough with an ox and an ass together; for this diversity is forbidden on no other account, but because men contract some defilement as soon as they depart from simplicity. Yet, if any one thinks otherwise, I shall not strongly contend with him. It might indeed be objected, that when God forbids animals to be used promiscuously, so that those of different kinds should not be mixed together, He has regard to chastity, f30 and that, by forbidding the fields to be sown with divers seeds, and garments to be woven of divers materials, He would prevent frauds. But the more simple explanation is, that the people were thus retained in purity, lest they should accustom themselves to corrupt habits, and lest they should bring in strange rites from various quarters, or seek, with depraved curiosity, for mixtures which might at length invade the worship of God. For if animals of different species are joined together, the integrity of nature is corrupted, and an adulterine offspring is produced, which degenerates from the institution of God; but, if various kinds of seed should be mixed together, or if a garment should be woven of linen and wool, there would be no danger of deception or fraud in so manifest a matter. It is probable, therefore, that the end which, as I have said, was proposed by God was, that, by cultivating natural and simple habits all their life through, they should keep themselves pure and uncorrupted from every strange vice. On this account Scripture compares strange doctrines to leaven, since by their additions or curtailings they corrupt the pure word of God. (<401611>Matthew 16:11.) And this was by no means a useless discipline; when, in trifles, and almost things of nought, the rein was applied to them, so that they should not decline from purity in the very least degree. It was a small matter to interweave a thin thread with a thicker one, and perchance such a process would have been profitable for their general advantage; in some fields, too, a better crop is grown, if the seed is compounded of pure wheat, and some other sort of grain (siligine), as also the union of the horse and ass has been approved of, since thus mules are produced. But God would not allow these things amongst His ancient people, lest, sinking by degrees to greater license, they should at length addict themselves to the practice and customs of the heathen. He therefore uses this preface: "Ye shall keep my statutes," (<031919>Leviticus 19:19;) from whence we gather that the people were surrounded with fixed barriers, lest they should defile themselves with foreign vices, and imitate the nations, from which they had been separated. Wherefore this is the sum, that they should abide in God's statutes.
Leviticus 19
Leviticus 19:19, 23-25, 27, 28
19. Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind. Thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed: neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee. 19. Statuta mea observabitis. Animal tuum non facies coire cum altero semine. Agrum tuum non seres diverso semine, et vestis contexta ex lana et lino non ascendet super te.
23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you; it shall not be eaten of. 23. Quum ingressi fueritis terram, et plantaveritis omnis generis arborem fructiferam, tune praeputia-tum ducetis praeputium ejus, fructum ejus: tribus annis erit vobis incircumcisa: non comedetis ejus fructus.
24. But in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall he holy, to praise the Lord withal. 24. Quarto autem anno erit omnis fructus ejus sanctitas laudum Jehovae.
25. And in the fifth year shall ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you the increase thereof: I am the Lord your God. 25. Anno vero quinto comedetis fructum ejus, ut multiplicet vobis fructum suum. Ego Jehova Deus vester.
27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard. 27. Non attondebitis cornare ca-pitis vestri in circuitu, nec radetis extrema barbie.
28. Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the Lord. 28. Incisionera pro mortuo non facietis in carne vestra, neque sculp-turam notse tacietis in vobis: ego Jellova.

23. And when ye shall come. There seems to me no question but that the circumcision of trees as well as of men appertains to the First Commandment, not only that the Jews might see a symbol of their own adoption in the very trees, but that they might learn that it was permitted to none but the children of God to feed on their fruit; and also that whatsoever the earth produces is in a manner profane, until it is purified. For surely by this ceremony was set forth what Paul teaches, that all things are "sanctified by the word of God, and prayer," (<540405>1 Timothy 4:5;) not that anything is in itself impure, but because the earth has contracted pollution from the corruption of man, it is just, as regards us, that the harmless fruits also should be accounted to be in uncircumcision. In sum, God would raise up a wall whereby He might separate His people from the Gentiles, and at the same time admonish them that a legitimate use of those things which the earth produced could not be made by the sons of Adam, except by special privilege. But the similitude of uncircumcision, until the year appointed for their being circumcised, was a very appropriate one, that they might acknowledge the fruits of their trees to be pure for them by the same right whereby they were consecrated as God's peculiar people. But, lest the three years' unproductiveness should press heavily upon them, he promises them compensation from the future blessing of God; for, if they should abstain from eating the unclean fruit, a larger produce was to be expected in future.
27. Ye shall not round the corners. It clearly appears that God had no other object than by the interposition of this obstacle to sever His people from heathen nations. For there is nothing to which men are more prone than to conform themselves to the customs of others; and hence it arises, that they mutually communicate each other's vices. Wherefore care was especially to be taken lest the people of Israel should adopt foreign habits, and by this pliableness should fall away from the true worship of God; from whence too the ordinary phrase has arisen, that the word "common" should be used for "unclean." God then strictly forbids them from declining to the habits of the Gentiles, and confounding the distinction which He had Himself placed between them. There is no doubt but that it was usual for the Gentiles, out of superstition, to cut marks f31 upon their faces, to trim the hair in certain steps or circles, and in their mourning to lacerate their flesh, or to disfigure it with marks. It is well known that the priests of Cybele f32 made gashes in their flesh with knives and razors, and covered themselves all over with wounds, for the sake of shewing their zeal. The same thing was also commonly practiced by others; inasmuch as the world is easily deceived by external ceremonies. But though this were a thing in itself indifferent, yet God would not allow His people to be at liberty to practice it, that, like children, they might learn from these slight rudiments, that they would not be acceptable with God, unless they were altogether different from uncircumcised foreigners, and as far as possible from following their examples; and especially that they should avoid all ceremonies whereby their religion was testified. For experience teaches how greatly the true worship of God is obscured by anything adscititious, and how easily foul superstitions creep in, when the comments of men are tacked on to the word of God. Doubtless that part, "Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead," etc., might be expounded as a correction of immoderate grief; because we know how intemperately men set themselves against God when they give the reins to their sorrow; but since the object of the Gentiles was to pay what was due to the dead, and to celebrate their funeral obsequies f33 as a kind of propitiation, it is probable, and more suitable, that by the whole context those preposterous gestures are condemned, which were proofs of piety among the Gentiles, but which would have been defilements to the people of God.
The same thing appears more clearly from the passage in Deuteronomy, which next follows, wherein Moses condemns cutting themselves, and making themselves bald for the dead in connection with each other, as if they were one thing; and confirms the law by a general argument, that they might withdraw themselves from every pollution as the children of God; since they were chosen to be His peculiar people; as much as to say, that God's grace would be altogether frustrated, if they did not differ at all from foreign nations. As to his saying that they were chosen out of all the nations, it does not a little illustrate the gratuitous mercy of God, wherewith He honored them alone, by calling them to the hope of eternal salvation, and passing by the Gentiles; for there was no nobility found in them, nor did they exceed others either in number or in any other superiority, on account of which He should prefer them to the whole world. But the design of Moses in magnifying the extraordinary goodness of God, was that they might the more abhor that impure cornmixture, which, by bringing them on a par with the Gentiles, degraded them from this high honor.
Another Supplement touching
the Clean and Unclean Beasts f34
Leviticus 20
Leviticus 20:25, 26
25. Ye shall therefore put difference between clean beasts and unclean, and between unclean fowls and clean: and ye shall not make your souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any manner of living thing that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean. 25. Vos quoque discrimen facite inter animal mundum et immundum, et inter avem immundam et mundam, et ne abominabiles reddatis animas vestras in animalibus et volatilibus, atque in omni quod reptat in terra: quae separavi vobis ad im-munditiam.
26. And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the Lord am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine. 26. Eritis autem sancti mihi: quia sanctus sum ego Jehova, et separavi vosa populis, ut essetis mei.

Deuteronomy 14
Deuteronomy 14:3-20
3. Thou shalt not eat any abominable thing. 3. Non comedes ullam abominationem.
4. These are the beasts which ye shall eat: The ox, the sheep, and the goat, 4. Haec sunt animalia quae comedetis: bovem, agnum ovium, et hoedum caprarum,
5. The hart, and the roe-buck, and the fallow-deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois. 5. Cervum, et capream, et bubalum, et hircum sylvestrem, et damam, et bovem sylvestrem, et capram rupicolam.
6. And every beast that parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft into two claws, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat. 6. Omne animal findens ungulam, et findens fissuram duarum ungularum, ruminans inter animalia, illud comedetis.
7. Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; as the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; therefore they are unclean unto you. 7. Veruntamen hoe non comedetis ex ruminantibus et ex findentibus ungulam divisam, camelum, et leporem, et cuniculum: quia ruminant, et ungulam non dividunt, immunda sunt vobis.
8. And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean unto you: ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor touch their dead carcase. 8. Et porcum, quia findit ungulam, et non ruminat, immundus est vobis: de carne eorum non comedetis, et cadavera eorum non contingetis.
9. These ye shall eat of all that are in the waters: All that have fins and scales shall ye eat: 9. Hoc comedetis ex omnibus quae sunt in aqua, quicquid habet pinnulam et squamam, comedetis.
10. And whatsoever hath not fins and scales ye may not eat; it is unclean unto you. 10. Quicquid vero non habet pinnulam et squamam, non comedetis: immundum est vobis.
11. Of all clean birds ye shall eat. 11. Omnem autem mundam comedetis.
12. But these are they of which ye shall not eat: The eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, 12. Hae autem sunt ex quibus non comedetis, aquila, et gryphus, et haliaeetus,
13. And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind, 13. Et ixus, et vultur, et milvus secundum speciem suam.
14. And every raven after his kind, 14. Et omnis corvus. secundum speciem suam.
15. And the owl, and the nighthawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind, 15. Et filia struthionis, et noctua, et larus, et accipiter secundum speciem suam.
16. The little owl, and the great owl, and the swan, 16. Et herodius, et ibis, et cygnus,
17. And the pelican, and the gier-eagle, and the cormorant, 17. Et pellicanus, et porphyrio, et mergulus,
18. And the stork, and the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat 18. Et ciconia, et charadrius secundum speciem suam: et upupa et vespertilio.
19. And every creeping thing that flieth is unclean unto you: they shall not be eaten 19.Et omne reptile alatum immundum est vobis, non comedetur.
20. But of all clean fowls ye may eat. 20. Omnem avem mundam cometis

Leviticus 20:25. Ye shall therefore put difference. I have no doubt but that this sentence depends on the end of the foregoing verse; for although that verse contains a reason to deter them from incest, of which he had been speaking, still it refers also to the doctrine before us, and stands in the shape of preface to it. In a word, it connects two things, for God here briefly declares His will, not only with respect to unlawful and improper intercourse, but also why He forbids His people to eat of unclean animals. Therefore He says, "I am the Lord your God, which have separated you from other people." Whence it follows, that for no other reason were they prohibited from eating those animals, except that they thence may learn to take more diligent heed, and to withdraw themselves far from all the pollutions of the Gentiles. He had before recommended purity by various symbols, and now extends it even to the very animals. And this reason must be carefully marked, that the distinction between meats is propounded to them in order that they may study purity. For there would be something unmeaning in what is here said, if we did not know that this interdiction was imposed with this object, that they should not mix themselves promiscuously with the Gentiles. Therefore it is again repeated, that they were severed, that they might be God's inheritance; and hence it is inferred, that holiness was to be cultivated by them, that they might conform themselves to the example of their God. Now it cannot be questioned, that the distinction of meats which is prescribed, is a supplement to the First Commandment, wherein the rule for worshipping God duly and purely is laid down; and thus religion is rescued from all admixtures of superstition.
Leviticus 11
Leviticus 11:1-47
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo ad eos:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. 2. Loquimini ad filios Israel, dicendo, Haec sunt animalia quae comedetis ex omnibus animalibus quae sunt super terram:
3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat. 3. Omne dividens ungulam et findens fissuram ungularum, et ruminans inter animalia, illud come-detis.
4. Nevertheless, these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 4. Veruntamen hoc non comedetis ex his quae ruminant, et ex his quae dividunt ungulam, camelum, quia ruminat, et ungulam ipse non divi-dit: immundus erit vobis.
5. And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 5. Et cuniculum: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, immundus erit vobis.
6. And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 6. Et leporem: quia ruminat, et ungulam non dividit, imnmndus erit vobis.
7. And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be cloven-footed, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. 7. Suem quoque: quia dividit ungulam, et findit fissuram ungulae, ipse vero non ruminat, immundus erit vobis.
8. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you. 8. De carne eorum non comedetis, neque cadaver eorum tangetis: immunda erunt vobis.
9. These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: Whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat. 9. Hoe autem comedetis ex omnibus quae sunt in aquis: onmia quibus sunt pinnae et squamae in aquis maris, et in fluminibus, illa comedetis.
10. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you. 10. Omnia vero quibus non sunt pinnae et squamae in mari, et in fluminibus, tam de omni reptili aquatili, quam de omni anima vivente quae est in aquis: abominatio erunt vobis.
11. They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination. 11. Abominatio, inquam, erunt vobis: de carne eorum non comedetis, et cadaver eorum abomina-bimini.
12. Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you. 12. Quicquid non habet pinnas et squamas in aquis, abominatio erit vobis.
13. And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: The eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, 13. Haec autem abominabimini ex volatilibus, (non comedetur: quia abominatio sunt:) aquilam, et gry-phum, et haliaeetum,
14. And the vulture, and the kite after his kind; 14. Et vulturem, et milvum secundum speciem suam.
15. Every raven after his kind; 15. Et omnem corvum secundum speciem suam.
16.And the owl, and the nighthawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind, 16. Et filiam struthionis, et noctuam, et larum: et accipitrem secundum speciem suam.
17. And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl, 17. Et nycticoracem, et mergulum, et ibin,
18. And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier-eagle, 18. Et porphyrionem, et pellicanum, et cygnum,
19. And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat. 19. Et ciconiam, charadrium secundum speciem suam, et upupam, et vespertilionem.
20. All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you. 20. Omne reptile alatum ambulans super quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
21. Yet these may ye eat, of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth; 21. Veruntamen hoc comedetis ex omni reptili alato quod gradietur super quatuor pedes, cui sunt crura super pedes suos, quibus saliant super terram.
22. Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind. 22. Haec ex illis comedetis, locustam juxta speciem suam, et attacum juxta speciem suam, et ophiomacum secundum speciem suam, et bruchum secundum speciem suam.
23. But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you. 23. Omne autem reliquum reptile alatum cui sunt quatuor pedes, abominatio erit vobis.
24. And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even. 24. Et his polluetis vos: quicunque tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam
25. And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even. 25. Et quicunque portaverit cadavera, lavabit vestimenta sua, et immundus erit usque advesperam.
26. The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean. 26. Omne animal quod dividit ungulam, et fissuram non findit., et non ruminat, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit ea, immundus erit.
27. And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even. 27. Et quicquid graditur super volas suas inter omnes feras quae gradiuntur super quatuor pedes, immunda erunt vobis: quicunque tetigerit cadavera eorum, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
28. And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you. 28. Et qui portaverit cadavera eorum, lavabit vestimenta, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: immunda erunt vobis.
29. These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; The weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind, 29. Et haec vobis immunda erunt inter reptilia quae reptant super terram, mustella, et mus, et rubeta secundum speciem suam.
30. And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole. 30. Et mygale, et chameleon, et stellio, et lacerta, et talpa.
31. These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even. 31. Ista immunda sunt vobis inter omnia reptilia: quicunque tetigerit illa postquam mortua fuerit, im-mundus erit usqne ad vesperam.
32. And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean: whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed. 32. Et omne super quod tetigerit aliquid ex eis postquam mortua fuerint, immudum erit, tam vas lineum quam vestis, aut pellis, aut saccus: omne vas in quo fieri solet opus, in aquam mittetur, et immundum erit usque ad vesperam, et mundabitur.
33. And every earthen vessel whereinto an.y of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it. 33. Omne praeterea vas testaceum intra quod occiderit aliquid ex eis, quicquid erit in illo immundum erit, et ipsum confringetis.
34. Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean; and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean. 34. Omnis cibus qui comeditur, super quem venerit aqua, immundus erit, et omnis potus qui potatur in omni vase impuro, imnmndus erit.
35. And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth. shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down:. for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you. 35. Et omne super quo ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum, imundum erit: clibanus et chytro-podes diruentur, immunda sunt, et immunda erunt vobis.
36. Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean. 36. Veruntamen fons et cisterna congregationis aquarum erit munda: at quod tetigerit cadaver eorum, immundum erit.
37. And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing-seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean. 37. Praeterea si ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super aliquod semen satum, quod seminabi-tur, mundum erit.
38. But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you. 38. At quum fusa fuerit aqua super semen, et ceciderit quicquam de cadavere eorum super illud, immundum erit vobis.
39. And if any beast of which ye may eat die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even. 39. Quum autem mortuum fuerit aliquod animal quod sit vobis in cibum, qui tetigerit cadaver ejus, immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
40. And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his dothes, and be unclean until the even. 40. Et qui comederit de cadavere ejus, lavabit vestimenta sua, immundusque erit usque ad vesperam: is quoque qui extulerit cadaver, lavabit vestimenta sua, atque immundus erit usque ad vesperam.
41. And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten. 41. Et omne reptile reptans super terram, abominatio est, non comedetur.
42. Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination. 42. Quicquid item graditur super pectus, et quicquid incedit super quatuor aut plures pedes inter omnia reptilia quae reptant super terram, non comedetis: quia abominatio sunt.
43. Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby. 43. Ne impuras reddatis animas vestras in omni reptili quod reptat, nec polluatis vos in eis, neque coinquinetis vos per ea.
44. For I am the Lord your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 44. Quia ego Jehova Deus vester, sanctificate ergo vos, et estote sancti, quia sanctus sum: et ne polluatis animas vestras per aliqua reptilia quae reptant super terram.
45. For I am the Lord that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy; for I am holy. 45. Ego enim sum Jehova, qui eduxi vos e terra AEgypti, ut essem vobis in Deum, et essetis sancti, quia sanctus sum.
46. This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth; 46. Haec est lex animalium terrestrium, et volatilium, atque omnium animalium viventium qae reptant, et omnium animantium reptantium super terram.
47. To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten. 47. Ad distinguendum inter im-mundum et mundum, et inter bes-tias qum comedi possunt, et bestias qum comedi non possunt.

2. These are the beasts which ye shall eat. The holy fathers, before the birth of Moses, knew what animals were unclean; of which fact Noah afforded a manifest proof, when, by God's command, he took into the ark seven pairs of the clean animals, and offered of them his sacrifice of thanksgiving to God. Certainly he could not have obeyed the command of God, unless he had either been taught by secret inspiration, or unless this tradition had descended to him from his forefathers. But there is nothing absurd in the notion that God, desiring to confirm the traditional distinction, appointed certain marks of difference whereby its observation might be more scrupulously attended to, and lest any transgression of it should creep in through ignorance. For God also consecrated the Sabbath to Himself from the creation of the world, and desired it to be observed by the people before the promulgation of the Law; and yet afterwards the peculiar holiness of the day was more distinctly expressed. Besides, the clean animals are here distinguished from the unclean, by name as well as by signs. The proper names, which are recited, are of little service to us now-a-days; because many species which are common in the East, are unknown elsewhere; and it was therefore easy for Jews f35 who were born and had lived in distant countries, to fall into error about them; whilst, on the other hand, the more bold they are in their conjectures, the less are they to be trusted. As to many of them, I acknowledge that there is no ambiguity, especially as to the tame animals, or those that are to be found everywhere, or that have plain descriptions of them given in the Bible. A positive knowledge then is only to be sought from the signs which are here laid down; viz., that the animals which have cloven hoofs, and which ruminate, are clean: and that those are unclean in which either of these two things is wanting; that either sea or river fish, which have fins and scales, are clean. No such distinction as to birds is given, but only the unclean are named, which it was sinful to eat. Lastly, mention is made of reptiles. As to details, if there be anything worthy of observation, the place to consider them will be further on; let us now remember, in general, what I have before touched upon, viz., that whilst the Gentiles might eat every kind of food, many were forbidden to the Jews, in order that they might learn in their very food to cultivate purity; and this was the object of their separation from ordinary customs. Hence it arose that they use the word llj, chalal f36 both for "to make common," and to "contaminate; " and the word, lwj, chol, signifies "polluted," because it is opposed to anything holy or set apart. It is true, indeed, that the Gentiles, by natural instinct, have regarded with the utmost horror the eating of some of the animals which are here forbidden; still, God would surround His people with barriers, which must separate them from their neighbors.
Those who imagine that God here had regard to their health, as if discharging the office of a Physician, pervert by their vain speculation the whole force and utility of this law. I allow, indeed, that the meats which God permits to be eaten are wholesome, and best adapted for food; but, both from the preface, — in which God admonished them that holiness was to be cultivated by the people whom He had chosen, — as also from the (subsequent) abolition of this law, it is sufficiently plain that this distinction of meats was a part of that elementary instruction f37 under which God kept His ancient people.
"Let no man therefore judge you (says Paul) in meat or in drink, which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ." (<510216>Colossians 2:16-17.)
By which expressions he means, that what was spiritual had been shadowed forth in the external rite of abstaining from meats. To the same effect he elsewhere says, (<451414>Romans 14:14) that he knows and is persuaded, f38 that in the Lord Jesus Christ there is nothing unclean; viz., because Christ by his death has redeemed His people from slavish subjection. Hence it follows, that the prohibition of meats must be counted among the ceremonies, which were exercises in the worship of God. But here a question arises, how it is reconcilable that, even from the days of Noah, certain animals were unclean, and yet that all without exception were allowed to be eaten? I cannot agree with some in thinking that the distinction originally made by God grew obsolete by degrees; for God, in excepting the eating of blood only, makes a grant of whatsoever moves upon the earth as the food of the posterity of Noah. I therefore restrict to the sacrifices that uncleanness, with the knowledge of which the hearts of the Patriarchs were then inspired, nor do I doubt but that it was as lawful for Abraham, as well as for them, to eat swine's flesh as the flesh of oxen. Afterwards, when God imposed the yoke of the Law to repress the licentiousness of the people, He somewhat curtailed this general permission, not because He repented of His liberality; but because it was useful to compel in this way to obedience these almost rude and uncivilized people. But, since before the Law the condition of the saints was the same as our own, it must be remembered, as I said before, that, agreeably to the dictates of nature, they spontaneously avoided certain foods, just as at present no one will hunt wolves or lions for food, nor desire to eat serpents and other venomous animals. But the object of this ordinance was different, viz., lest they who were God's sacred and peculiar people, should freely and promiscuously communicate with the Gentiles.
3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof. Whilst I fear that but little confidence can be placed in the allegories, in which many have taken delight; so I do not find any fault with, nor even refuse that which has been handed down from the ancients, f39 viz., that by the cleaving of the hoof is signified prudence in distinguishing the mysteries of Scripture, and by the chewing of the cud serious meditation on its heavenly doctrines; although I cannot approve of the subtlety f40 which they add, viz., that those "rightly divide the word" who have known how to elicit mystical senses from its letter; because hence it has come to pass that they have allowed themselves in all sorts of imaginations. I therefore embrace the more simple notion, that they who only have a taste for the carnal sense, do not divide the hoof; for, as Paul says, only "he that is spiritual discerneth all things." (<460215>1 Corinthians 2:15, margin.) The chewing of the cud ought to follow, duly to prepare and digest the spiritual food; for many gulp down Scripture without profit, because they neither sincerely desire to profit by it, nor seek to refresh their souls by it, as their nourishment; but satisfied with the empty delights of knowledge, make no efforts to conform their life to it. In the first clause, then, brutal stupidity is condemned; in the other, the ambition and levity of curious men. f41 God, indeed, set before Peter, in the vision, unclean animals as images and figures of the Gentiles, (<441012>Acts 10:12;) and therefore it is lawful, by probable analogy, to transfer to men what is said about the animals. But why God should have appointed the cloven hoof and rumination as signs, is no more clear to me than why He should have forbidden their eating swine's flesh; unless, perchance, because the solid hoof is a sign of wildness; whilst the animals which do not ruminate feed for the most part on filth and excrement. We know that on this point there was much contention immediately after the promulgation of the Gospel, because some of the Jews, in their excessive devotion to the Law, and considering that the distinction of meats was not to be reckoned among the, ceremonial enactments, desired that the new Church should be bound by the same trammels as had been imposed upon the ancient people. At length, by the decree of the Apostles, permission was given to the Gentiles to eat all kinds of meat, except only blood and things strangled, and that only for a time, for the sake of avoiding offense, since the Jews would not otherwise have been propitiated. Now, after what God Himself had ordained respecting the distinction of meats had been abrogated, it was an act of diabolical audacity to oblige men's consciences by human laws, and to prevent them from enjoying the liberty obtained by Christ.
Another question remains, how God should pronounce anything which He has created to be unclean; for, if an animal be rejected on account of its uncleanness, part of the reproach redounds to the Author Himself. Besides, this rejection seems also to be opposed to the first declaration of God, when, considering all things which He had made, He acknowledged them to be "very good." The solution is, that no animal was ever unclean in itself; but that this merely refers to its use. Thus in the tree of the knowledge of good and evil there was naturally neither fault nor harm, so that it should infect man by its pollution, yet he contracted death from it on account of God's prohibition. Wherefore, also, in this passage, God does not condemn His work in the animals, but, as to their being eaten, He would have them accounted unclean, that the people may abominate that which is forbidden them. In a word, it is only transgression which defiles: for the animals have never changed their nature; but it was in God's power to determine what He would have to be lawful or unlawful. Thus another objection is removed. Christ declares that
"not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man."
(<401011>Matthew 10:11.)
If any one should thence infer that harmless animals are improperly condemned, we must reply that they are not accounted unclean in themselves, but that the prohibition had a different object. For that doctrine was always true, that
"the kingdom of God is not meat and drink,"
(<451417>Romans 14:17;)
but, when God forbade the Israelites to eat this or that kind of food, they were admonished by this ceremonial precept how abominable is the inward corruption of the heart. But by such elementary teaching they were prepared and led onwards to spiritual doctrine, that they might know that nothing defiles a man except what comes out of his mouth. Now-a-days the condition of believers is different. for liberty is obtained for them, since Christ, having abrogated the Law, has nailed
"the handwriting of ordinances to his cross."
(<510214>Colossians 2:14.)
4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of. He more clearly expresses what he had previously glanced at, viz., that an animal, although it may ruminate, shall not be clean unless it also cleaves the hoof; and, on the other hand, that the cloven hoof will not be sufficient unless combined with rumination. In these words Moses taught that partial and imperfect purity must not be obtruded upon God. If any choose to think that rumination is the symbol of internal purity, and the cloven hoof of external, his opinion will be a probable one. Since this distinction has occurred to my mind, although I have no taste for subtle speculations, I have thought it well to mention it, yet leaving it free for any one to accept it or not. Meanwhile we must hold it as certain, as I have lately said, that God demands perfect cleanliness, undefiled by any admixture. But the prohibition was most onerous to the Jews with respect to swine's flesh, because it is very well adapted for food, not only as being a pleasant accompaniment of other meats, but because the working-classes are fed upon it at a smaller cost. In this point, therefore, the religion of the Jewish people was especially proved. For, when the soldiers of Antiochus desired to force the people to an entire renunciation of the Law, they only urged them to eat swine's flesh f42 And hence the famous witticism of Augustus, "I would rather be Herod's pig than his son;" f43 because, whilst he abstained from pork, he was the murderer of his children. But, in order that the Jews might observe this prohibition more strictly, the very touch was also forbidden them; so that it was not only wicked to taste swine's flesh, but even to touch it with their hands after the animal was killed. The same rule did not apply to beef or mutton; for it is necessary to handle the meat which is appointed for our food.
9. These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters. Here, also, some who know little of religion, plausibly contend that God is acting the physician's part, and distinguishing wholesome from unwholesome food. But although their opinion is sufficiently refuted by medical men themselves, yet, even if I should admit what they desire, they reason badly. For the purpose of God was other than to provide for the people's health; and, because He had to do with a rude people, He chose common marks, being admonished by which they might gradually ascend to higher things. It would be useless to follow the allegories which Isychius has invented f44 and I would willingly bury in oblivion these triflings, except that many have such a leaning to subtleties, that sober views would scarcely please them, until the folly of these allegories shall have been convicted. I will say nothing of the scales and fins. If at first sight any should approve of what he says as to the names of the fish being omitted, because the Church seeks not. a name upon earth, and that the Church is signified by the fish, — let them consider whether it is consistent that the Church should only exist in the water; and, again, that the birds, which are nearer heaven, should be excluded from this honor; thirdly, that the clean animals should be rejected, as if they did not belong to the Church; lastly, that those who by their contagion pollute the Church should be counted amongst the elect, whose names are written in heaven; for certainly many of the fish are unclean. Those who will not acquiesce in these perspicuous reasons, I will allow to wander in their labyrinth. This simple view will satisfy the moderate and teachable, that the fish are not named, because the greater part of them were unknown to the Jews, whose country did not produce many of the river-fish, since it scarcely had any river besides the Jordan, whilst the sea-fish only visited the neighboring shores.
13. And these are they which ye shall have in abomination. The species of birds and reptiles which are forbidden, are such as common feeling almost naturally repudiates. And assuredly God dealt with great indulgence towards His people, so as not to weigh them down with too heavy burdens. But because man's greediness sometimes delights in monstrous food, He desired even in minor matters to put the rein upon them, lest they should rush with heathen nations into intemperance, whereby they would be polluted. For there was danger lest, by devouring filthy animals, they should harden themselves to join in various other corruptions. Another law is added, that they should not only abstain from eating these unclean animals, but, if any such should be killed, that they should not defile themselves by touching its carcase; nay, that if any vessels should have come in contact with them, those made of earth should be broken, and others should be washed. It seems to be a trifling matter to enjoin, that if a mouse should have been drowned in a vessel of water, the vessel itself should be unclean; and the strictness appears excessive, that the Jews should be commanded, f45 if any such animal had fallen into a vessel of wine, and had died there, not only to pour away the wine, but also to destroy the vessel; and if it had been smothered in an oven, or had lain in the hearth, to break down both of them; as if spiritual infection reached even to things without life. But we must always consider the intention of God:. from whence we shall learn that He was not so severe and exacting in unimportant things as to tie His people to the observation of (superfluous) f46 matters; but that these were acts of discipline whereby He might accustom them to study purity, which is so generally neglected and omitted among men. Now-a-days, also, we are commanded by the mouth of Paul,
"whether we eat, or drink, or whatsoever we do, to do all to the glory of God," (<461031>1 Corinthians 10:31;)
but in this respect we differ from the ancient people, that, being delivered from childish rudiments, we are directed only to what is spiritual, viz., that meat and drink are supplied to us by God, that we may serve in purity the Author of our life. But it was necessary to stimulate the Jews in various ways that they might be more attentive to this object; whilst God commanded them to keep their houses free from all uncleanness, and to be diligent in watching over the purity of their water, and all their vessels; that He might constantly set before their eyes how diligently He would have them to labor after true cleanliness; as follows in the end of the chapter.
43. Ye shall not make yourselves abominable. He does not invite them to take care of their health, nor warn them of the danger of contracting' diseases, but bids them beware of defiling themselves. And a clearer explanation is subjoined, "For I am the Lord your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves; for I am holy." Lest they should imagine that the main part of religion was contained in external ceremonies, they were to consider the nature of God; for, inasmuch as He is a Spirit, He would be worshipped only spiritually. Thus holiness is only connected instrumentally with the distinction of meats; since their abstinence had no other object than that they should consecrate themselves to God. Therefore the superstition of the Jews was inexcusable, when they satisfied themselves with trifling observances; f47 as if one should learn the letters of the alphabet without applying them to their use, and reading what is written. From their example we perceive how eagerly men lay hold of everything they can to sustain them in their hypocrisy, for they not only wrested to their earthly notions the things which were profitable in the pursuit of true integrity of heart; but, not content, with this, they heaped to themselves many supererogatory rites; f48 hence the water of expiation, or lustration always in use, even when they were unconscious of any pollution: hence their anxious labor in washing cups and platters, that it might readily appear how constantly the perversity of man abuses what God has appointed for the best of reasons.
Another Supplement touching Things
Accidentally Unclean f49
Deuteronomy 14
Deuteronomy 14:21
21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself: thou shalt give it unto the stranger that is in thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto an alien: for thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God. 21. Non comedetis ullum cadaver: peregrino qui est intra portas tuas dabis illud, et comedet illud, aut vendes alienigenae: populus enim sanctus es Jehovae Deo tuo.

Exodus 22
Exodus 22:31
31. And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs. 31. Viri sancti eritis mihi: carnem in agro raptam non comedetis, cani projicietis eam.

Leviticus 17
Leviticus 17:15, 16
15. And every soul that eateth that which died of itse!f, or that which was torn with beasts, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger, he shall both wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean. 15. Onmis anima quae comederit cadaver, aut raptum, tam de indigenis quam de peregrinis, lavabit vestimenta sua, ubi laverit se aqua,: eritque immundus usque ad vesperam, deinde mundus erit.
16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity. 16. Quod si non laverit vestes, et carnem non laverit, portabit iniquitatem suam.

Deuteronomy 14:21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself. The eating of any carcase, or of flesh torn by wild beasts, is reckoned among the causes of defilement; but we must understand it to be the carcase of an animal which has died of hunger or disease, for, from the nature of its death, it contracted impurity, although in itself it were otherwise pure. The end of the precept is gathered from the reason which is immediately subjoined, "for thou art a holy people unto the Lord thy God," and from the ablution which is prescribed in the passage from Leviticus. The same thing is, secondly, enjoined respecting flesh that has been torn, as before with regard to the carcase, for the deformity of its laceration is counted as uncleanness. The holiness of the people is again referred to, that they may more diligently beware of defilements. Hence it follows that those were contaminated who should eat of torn flesh. Therefore, in the third passage, he confirms it that the Jews were to abstain, and were prohibited from the eating of a carcase or the flesh of an animal torn by beasts, lest they should pollute themselves. Nor is it an objection that the eating of carrion and of blood are here prohibited in conjunction with each other; for we know that Moses does not always arrange his precepts in order, but promiscuously adduces such as appertain to different classes. Therefore, I have thought it well to separate these two prohibitions which have distinct objects, and whose dissimilarity manifestly appears from the difference of their punishment. He who shall have eaten blood shall be cut off from the people; whereas he who shall have eaten carrion, shall wash himself and be unclean till the evening. A question might again arise respecting torn or lacerated flesh; but it seems in my judgment to be plain enough from the context, that flesh torn by beasts is counted amongst unclean meats; for the reason of the law is expressed, viz., because those who were chosen to be a holy people should keep themselves pure and incorrupt. Nor would God command that meat intended for man should be thrown to dogs, unless it were infected with a contagion, which would pollute His holy ones. As to the command, in the first passage, to give it to a stranger, or to sell it to an alien, that he might eat it, it does not appear reasonable, since that would be to supply the materials for sin, as though one should offer a sword to a madman, or transfer illicit goods to others. But the solution of this difficulty is easy: for the Gentiles were permitted to eat indifferently of all sorts of food, since no distinctions were placed between them; but the prohibition of certain meats was a mark of separation between them and the elect people of God. A more difficult question arises from a kind of contradiction, because Moses in another passage binds both the stranger and the home-born by the same law, and declares them to be alike unclean if they shall have tasted of carrion. But we must bear in mind that he sometimes calls those strangers who, although born of heathen parents, had embraced the Law. Circumcision, therefore, connected them with God, just as if they had derived their origin from Abraham; whilst there were other strangers, whom uncircumcision separated from the children of Abraham as profane and excomnmnicate. The sum is, that whosoever allege God's name, and boast themselves to be His people, are called to cultivate holiness, and to keep themselves pure from every stain.
Another Supplement
as to Marriage with Unbelievers f50
Deuteronomy 21
Deuteronomy 21:10-13
10. When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the Lord thy God hath delivered them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive, 10. Quum egressus fueris ad bellum contra inimicos tuos, et dederit eos Jehova Deus tuus in manum tuam, et ex eis captivos abduxeris:
11. And seest among the captives beautiful woman, and hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldest have her to thy wife; 11. Videris autem in captivitate mulierem pulchram forma, et deamaris eam, et acceperis tibi in uxorem.
12. Then thou shalt bring her home to thine house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; 12. Introduces eam domum tuam: et radet caput suum, ac praecidet ungues suos:
13. ment of her captivity from off her, and shal! Remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. 13. Deponetque vestimentum captivitatis suae a se, et manebit in domo tua, ae flebit patrem suum, et matrem suam mensem integrum: et postea ingredieris ad eam, erisque maritus ejus, et erit tibi uxor.

10. When thou goest forth to war. The same thing is now commanded respecting wives as above respecting meats. As regarded the Canaanites, who were destined and devoted to destruction, we have seen that the Israelites were prohibited from taking their women to wife, lest this connection should be an enticement to sin; but Moses now goes further, viz., that the Israelites, having obtained a victory over other nations, should not marry any of the captive women, unless purified by a solemn rite. This, then, is the sum, that the Israelites should not defile themselves by profane marriages, but in this point also should keep themselves pure and uncorrupt, because they were separated from other people, to be the peculiar people of God. It was better, indeed, that they should altogether abstain from such marriages; yet it was difficult so to restrain their lust as that they should not decline from chastity in the least, degree; and hence we learn how much license conquerors allow themselves in war, so that there is no room for perfect purity in them. Wherefore God so tempers His indulgence as that the Israelites, remembering the adoption wherewith He had honored them, should not disgrace themselves, but in the very fervor of their lust should retain some religious affection. But the question here is not of unlawful ravishment, but Moses only speaks of women who have been made captives by the right of war, for we know that conquerors have abused them with impunity, because they had them under their power and dominion. But since many are led astray by the blandishments of their wives, God applies a remedy, viz., that the abjuration of their former life should precede their marriage; and that none should be allowed to marry a foreign wife until she shall have first renounced her own nation. To this refers the ceremony, that the woman should shave her head, and cut her nails, and change her garments, and lament her father and her family for an entire month, viz., that she may renounce her former life, and pass over to another people. Some of the rabbins twist the words to a different meaning, as if God would extinguish love in the minds of the husbands by disfiguring the women; for the shaving of the head greatly detracts from female beauty and elegance; and "to make the nails," for so the words literally mean, they understand as to let them grow; and the prolongation of the nails has a disgusting appearance. But their gloss is refuted by the context, in which she is commanded to put off the raiment of her captivity.: But I have no doubt but that their month of mourning, their shaven head, and the other signs, are intended by God for their renewal, so that they may accustom themselves to different habits. And with the same object they are commanded to bewail their parents as if dead, that they may bid farewell to their own people. To this the Prophet seems to allude in <194510>Psalm 45:10, when he says, "Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father's house;" for he intimates that otherwise the marriage of a foreign woman with Solomon would not be pure and legitimate, unless she should relinquish her superstitions, and devote herself to God's service. Nor was it needless that God should require the Israelites diligently to beware lest they should take wives as yet aliens from the study of true religion, since experience most abundantly shows how fatal a snare it is. But although we are not now bound to this observance, yet the rule still holds good that men should not rashly ally themselves with women still devoted to wicked superstitions. f51
Judicial Supplements
Deuteronomy 18
Deuteronomy 18:19
19. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. 19. Erit autem ut si quis non audierit verba mea quae loquetur Propheta in nomine meo, ego re-quiram ab eo.

Thus far I have reviewed The Supplements To The First Commandment, which relate to the Ancient Types and Legal Worship. The Commandment itself will always remain in force, even to the end of the world; and is given not only to the Jews, but likewise to us also. But God formerly made use of the ceremonies as temporary aids, of which, although the use has ceased, the utility still remains; because from them it more clearly appears how God is to be duly served; and the spirit of religion shines forth in them. Therefore the whole substance is contained in the precept, but in the external exercise, as it were, the form to which God bound none but His ancient people. Now follow The Political Supplements, f52 whereby God commands the punishments to be inflicted, if His religion shall have been violated. For political laws are not only enacted with reference to earthly affairs, in order that men should maintain mutual equity with each other, and should follow and observe what is right, but that they should exercise themselves in the veneration of God. For Plato also begins from hence, when he lays down the legitimate constitution of a republic, and calls the fear of God the preface of all laws; nor has any profane author ever existed who has not confessed that this is the principal part of a well-constituted state, that all with one consent should reverence and worship God. In this respect, indeed, the wisdom of men was at fault, that they deemed that any religion which they might prefer was to be sanctioned by laws and by punishments; yet the principle was a just one, that the whole system of law is perverted if the cultivation of piety is ignored by it.
But, whilst God commends the care and study of religion to the judge, and commands that the contempt of it should be publicly avenged, He at the same time provides against a common error, that they should not rush into severity with rash and inconsiderate zeal. For, inasmuch as the several nations, cities, and kingdoms foolishly invent their own gods, He propounds His own Law, from the regulation of which it is sinful to decline. It has been wisely forbidden by human legislators, that men should make to themselves private gods; but all this is vain unless the knowledge of the true God enlightens and directs them. Justly, therefore, does God recall His people to that doctrine which He has delivered, to the end that whosoever shall have contumaciously despised it should be punished. But, since it would be insufficient that they should be once instructed in the proper worship of God by a written law, unless daily preaching were subjoined, God expressly furnishes His prophets with authority, and denounces the punishment to be inflicted if any should violate it. He had previously said that He would raise up prophets, that the condition of His chosen people should not be worse than that of other nations; since, therefore, He had deposited with them the treasure of true religion, that they might be, as it were, its guardians, He now threatens with destruction whosoever shall refuse to obey their commands. It is plain, however, from the expression "in my name," that He does not speak of all who may usurp the name of prophet, for it is as much as to say that they came from Him, and advanced nothing without His command. For, although many may falsely present themselves in God's name, this honorable distinction does not belong to them unless God should ratify it; but this is truly the characteristic of faithful and approved teachers, that they speak in the name of God. Thus, when Christ promises that
"where two or three are gathered in His name, there is He in the midst of them," (<401820>Matthew 18:20,)
He does not dignify with such great honor hypocrites, who with sacrilegious audacity usurp His name; but He speaks of the reality, as will also appear more clearly from the reverse law, which follows.
Deuteronomy 13
Deuteronomy 13:5
5. And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God commanded thee to walk in: so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee. 5. Propheta antem falsus aut somniator interficietur, eo quod defectionem loquutus sit contra Jehovam Deum vestrum, qui eduxit tee e terra AEgypti, et redemit tee domo servorum, ut te depelleret a via quam princaepit tibi Jehova Deus tuus, ut ambules in ea: et exterminabit malam e medio tui.

5. And that prophet. Since the ministers of Satan deceive men by their plausible exterior, when they vaunt themselves to be the prophets of God, Moses had already admonished them, that all. teachers were not to be listened to indifferently, but that the true were to be distinguished from the false, and that, after judgment had, those should obtain credit who deserved it. He now subjoins the punishment of such as should creep in under the name of a prophet to draw away the people into rebellion. For he does not condemn to capital punishment those who may have spread false doctrine, only on account of some particular or trifling error, but those who are the authors of apostasy, and so who pluck up religion by the roots. Observe, again, that the season of this severity would not be until a positive religion should be established; and, therefore, the grossness of the impiety is expressly named, "if they should have tried to turn the people away from the worship of the true God." Moreover, that all excuse might be obviated, Moses says that it is sufficiently manifested who God is, and how He is to be worshipped, both by the wonderful blessing of their redemption, as well as by the doctrine of the Law. Therefore, in order that God may shew that so heavy a punishment is justly inflicted upon apostates, He declares the certainty of that religion which should exist among the Israelites; as much as to say, that no pardon could be granted to such impious contempt, since God had abundantly proved the glory of His Godhead by the miracle of their redemption, and had manifested His will in the Law.
It must then be remembered, that the crime of impiety would not otherwise merit punishment, unless the religion had not only been received by public consent and the suffrages of the people, but, being supported also by sure and indisputable proofs, should place its truth above the reach of doubt. Thus, whilst their severity is preposterous who defend superstitions with the sword, so also in a well constituted polity, profane men are by no means to be tolerated, by whom religion is subverted. f53 Thus they are unable to endure, who desire to be at liberty to make disturbances with impunity; and therefore they call those sanguinary who teach that the errors by which religion is undermined and thence destroyed, should be restrained by public authority. But what will they gain by openly raving against God? God commands the false prophets to be put to death, who pluck up the foundations of religion, and are the authors and leaders of rebellion. Some scoundrel or other gainsays this, and sets himself against the author of life and death. What insolence is this! f54 As to their denial that the truth of God stands in need of such support, it is very true; but what is the meaning of this madness, in imposing a law upon God, that He should not make use of the obedience of magistrates in this respect? And what avails it to question about the necessity of this, since so it pleases God? God might, indeed, do without the assistance of the sword in defending religion; but such is not His will. And what wonder if God should command magistrates to be the avengers of His glory, when He neither wills nor suffers that thefts, fornications, and drunkenness should be exempt from punishment. In minor offenses it shall not be lawful for the judge to hesitate; and when the worship of God and the whole of religion is violated, shall so great a crime be fostered by his dissimulation? Capital punishment shall be decreed against adulterers; but shall the despisers of God be permitted with impunity to adulterate the doctrines of salvation, and to draw away wretched souls from the faith? Pardon shall never be extended to poisoners, by whom the body alone is injured; and shall it be sport to deliver souls to eternal destruction? Finally, the magistracy, if its own authority be assailed, shall take severe vengeance upon that contempt; and shall it suffer the profanation of God's holy name to be unavenged? What can be more monstrous! But it is superfluous to contend by argument, when God has once pronounced what is His will, for we must needs abide by His inviolable decree.
But it is questioned whether the law pertains to the kingdom of Christ, which is spiritual and distinct from all earthly dominion; and there are some men, not otherwise ill-disposed, to whom it appears that our condition under the Gospel is different from that of the ancient people under the law; not only because the kingdom of Christ is not of this world, but because Christ was unwilling that the beginnings of His kingdom should be aided by the sword. But, when human judges consecrate their work to the promotion of Christ's kingdom, I deny that on that account its nature is changed. For, although it was Christ's will that His Gospel should be proclaimed by His disciples in opposition to the power of the whole world, and He exposed them armed with the Word alone like sheep amongst wolves, He did not impose on Himself an eternal law that He should never bring kings under His subjection, nor tame their violence, nor change them from being cruel persecutors into the patrons and guardians of His Church. Magistrates at first exercised tyranny against the Church, because the time had not yet come when they should "kiss the Son" of God, and, laying aside their violence, should become the nursing fathers of the Church, which they had assailed according to Isaiah's prophecy, that undoubtedly refers to the coming of Christ. (<234906>Isaiah 49:6-23.) Nor was it causelessly that Paul, when he enjoins prayers to be made for kings and other worldly rulers, added the reason that under them
"we may lead a quiet and peaceable life
in all godliness and honesty." (<540202>1 Timothy 2:2.)
Christ, indeed as He is meek, would also, I confess, have us to be imitators of His gentleness, but that does not prevent pious magistrates from providing for the tranquillity and safety of the Church by their defense of godliness; since to neglect this part of their duty, would be the greatest perfidy and cruelty. And assuredly nothing can be more base than, when we see wretched souls drawn away to eternal destruction by reason of the impunity conceded to impious, wicked, and perverse impostors, to count the salvation of those souls for nothing. But, if under this pretext the superstitious have dared to shed innocent blood, I reply that what God has once commanded must not be brought to nought on account of any abuse or corruption of men. For, if the cause alone abundantly distinguishes the martyrs of Christ from malefactors, though their punishment may be identical, so the Papal executioners will not bring it to pass by their unjust cruelty that the zeal of pious magistrates in punishing false and noxious teachers should be otherwise than pleasing to God. And this is admirably expressed in the words of Moses, when he reminds them that judgment must be passed according to the law of God. I have already said that. this severity must not be extended to particular errors, but where impiety breaks forth even into rebellion. When it is added, "to thrust thee out of the way, which the Lord thy God commanded thee," we gather from it that none are to be given over to punishment, but those who shall have been convicted by the plain word of God, lest men should judge them arbitrarily. Whence it also appears that zeal will err in hastily drawing the sword, unless a lawful examination shall have been previously instituted.
Deuteronomy 17
Deuteronomy 17:12, 13
12. And the man that will do pre sumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth tominister there before the Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel. 12. Vir autem qui egerit in superbia ut non audiat sacerdotem qui stat ut illic ministret Jehovae Deo, tuo, aut judicem, morietur vir ille, et exterminabis malum ex Israele
13. And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously, 13. Atque omnes e populo audi ant, ut timeant, neque in posterurn superbiant.

He pronounces a similar punishment on those who shall have contumaciously rejected the judgment of the priests. We have already seen that the prophetical office was united with the priesthood; since, according to <390204>Malachi 2:4, the covenant of God was with Levi, that his descendants might be the guardians of His knowledge, and the interpreters of His law: yet God often punished the laxity of the priests, by setting other teachers over his people. At any rate, both were ambassadors for Him. Since, therefore, the authority of the prophets had been sanctioned above, the same rights are now conferred upon the priests; nor is this surprising, for it was no trifling crime to despise God, the appointer of this order. Yet we must remember what I have elsewhere stated, that the priests were not armed with tyrannical authority, so that it was sinful to reject whatever they might have decreed according to their own fancy. For neither did God dethrone Himself when He appointed them, nor did He bind men's consciences to obey their ordinances without distinction, but only would put reins on the audacity of those who have no scruple in undervaluing the government of the Church. For this must be considered, that foul and horrible would be the disorder, if men were promiscuously permitted to reject whatever the rulers of the Church may have appointed; and it would be ridiculous that persons should be called to govern, to whom no dignity should be accorded; and, therefore, natural reason itself shews and dictates, that the reverence, which is here demanded, is due to all lawful commands. God was the author of the priesthood: He, too, ordained judges. What could be more absurd than that they should be despised and laughed at with impunity, who presided in the name and by the command of God? But He has never exalted a mortal man so high as to abdicate His own rights; nay, it was often necessary boldly to reject what the priests had commanded. Urijah the priest built a profane altar in the fashion of that at Damascus, which Ahaz had sent, and offered a sacrifice thereon, f55 (<121612>2 Kings 16:12,) was it necessary that Isaiah should acquiesce in this? Nay, detestable was the adulation of all who assented to the decree of a wicked and perfidious priest. Moreover, we see that the prophets were very often so far from agreeing with the priests, that they waged open war with them. But the whole of this matter is decided by the words of Moses, for he does not unreservedly condemn all who should not obey, but restricts his law by the addition of a special mark, viz., if the contempt should arise from presumption or arrogance. Therefore it was not else a capital crime to disobey the priest or the judge, unless any one should insolently and proudly oppose himself to the ordinance established by God. Otherwise this exception would have been interposed without reason. In fine, the priests of old were to be obeyed, as far as it concerned the public peace that the pastors ordained by God should be reverently honored; yet so as that there should be no departure from God Himself, the one Head and Prince of all pastors. We have elsewhere seen how foolishly the Papists take this to themselves. f56
13. And all the people. He shews from the object of the enactment why the proud despisers (of the priests) were not to be spared; for punishments have reference to common example, whilst, on the other hand, impunity is a bait to sin, and the nurse of unbridled licentiousness. And, assuredly, when He commands that the whole people should be inspired with terror, it is a hint that, unless presumption should be corrected, and the bold and wicked should be restrained by severe discipline, the door would be opened to them to destroy the Church.
Deuteronomy 13
Deuteronomy 13:6-11
6. If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers; 6. Si incitaverit te frater tuus, filius matris tuae, aut filia tua, aut filia tua, aut uxor complexus tui, aut amicus tuus qui sit sicut anima tua, clam dicendo, Eamus et colamus deos alienos quos non noveris neque tu, neque patres tui:
7. Namely, of the gods of the people which are round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off from thee, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; 7. E diis populorum qui sunt in circuitu vestro, sive propinqui sint, sive remoti a te, ab extremo regionis usque ad extremum ejus:
8. Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him: 8. Non acquiesces ei, neque obedies ei, nec parcet ei oculus tuus, neque misereberis, neque occultabis eum:
9. But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people. 9. Sed occidendo occides eum: manus tua erit in eum prima ad ipsum interficiendum, deinde manus universi populi.
10. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. 10. Et lapidabis eum lapidibus et morietur: quia quaesivit te abstrahere a Jehova Deo tuo, qui eduxit te e terra AEgypti, e domo servorum
11. And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is among you. 11. Ut totus Israel audiant et timeant, nec addant facere quicquam simile huic rei pravae in medio tui

6. If thy brother, the son of thy mother. The punishment which he had commanded to be inflicted on false teachers, is now extended to each one of the people. For although it is a lighter offense in a private individual to draw others with him into error, both because his ignorance is excusable, and the profession of a teacher does not increase his responsibility, yet a falling away from religion, from whencesoever it arises, is intolerable to God. Only, those two points, to which we have already adverted, are to be kept in remembrance, viz., that this judgment can have no place except where religion is duly constituted; and, also, that all are not to be put to death indifferently, who may have erred in some particular, but that this severity is only to be exercised against apostates, who pluck up religion by the roots, so that the worship of God is adulterated, or pure doctrine abolished. Nor indeed does God enjoin that the slipperiness of the tongue is to be capitally punished, if it shall have inconsiderately let fall something amiss, but rather f57 the wicked design of altering the true religion, as the words clearly express the matter. It is worth while remarking with what particularity God enforces upon us the duty of fostering and upholding religion: for, because general laws are usually eluded by various exceptions, He expressly says that neither brother, nor son, nor wife, nor intimate friend is to be spared. f58 The eye is said to pity, because the very look is of great power in awakening the affections on both sides; therefore it is not without reason that God requires f59 such courage as may be moved to pity neither by tears, nor blandishments, nor the sadness of the spectacle. The phrases, too, are emphatic, "thy brother, who proceeded from the same womb;" "the wife who sleeps in thy bosom or embrace;" "the friend whom you love as yourself;" in order that pure zeal, when it sees God's sacred name profaned, may not give way to any human affection. Christ says that no one is worthy to be acknowledged as His disciple, but he who shall neglect his father, and mother, and children, when necessary. So now God declares that all our tenderest affections, which are implanted in us by nature, and in which all the best persons sometimes indulge, are sinful, if they hinder us from vindicating His glory.
It is pious and praiseworthy to love our wives and children as our own bowels; nor is there any reason which forbids us from regarding our brother and our friend with similar love; only let God be preferred to all, for it is too preposterous to betray His glory for the sake of man. For to plead the love due to our wives, or anything of the same kind, what is this but to set our affections against God and His precepts? Wherefore the desire to mitigate that severity to which He would harden us, betrays an effeminacy which He will not endure. Now, there are two most just grounds for the heaviness of the punishment; first, because we are almost all of us slack when we ought to be very zealous in avenging the insults which God may receive; and, secondly, because more severe remedies are applied to perilous diseases, so it is right that so noxious, and altogether deadly pestilence as this should be met with extraordinary means. And to this refers the expression "secretly." For although it might seem cruel to betray such as have not publicly transgressed, yet, inasmuch as sectaries fly from the light, and creep in by clandestine and deceitful arts, it is necessary to prevent them from fraudulently infecting individual houses with their poison, as always is the case with them. Therefore God would have their insidious endeavors checked betimes, lest the contagion should spread.
7. Namely, of the gods of the people. The sum of the matter is to this effect, that we should so acquiesce in the known truth, as that our ears may be closed to all the falsehoods by which it is opposed. Men's neighborhood to each other commonly produces, by their intercommunication, a conformity of habits. Thus errors pass from one to the other; f60 and since we are generally prone to evil, the worse pervert the better. Since, then, the people of Israel were everywhere surrounded by idolaters, they might have easily been enticed to imitate them, unless measures were taken to prevent it. But the expression "round about" is used, because a pretext for yielding might have been taken from the fact, that the Israelites differed in religion not from a single nation only, but from all who surrounded them on every side. For to whatever quarter they looked, examples presented themselves to their eyes, whereby they were attracted to a new and strange form of religion. He afterwards amplifies this, by adding, even if those nations "be far off from thee;" for the Israelites were not divided from their neighbors only, but severed also from the whole human race. But this was no slight temptation, that they found no companions in the whole world, nor any nation, which agreed with them. Besides, distance itself sometimes causes us to have respect for those who are unknown to us; since the curiosity of men is volatile, and traverses in its levity sea and land, in order to procure for itself pestiferous monsters for the sake of their novelty. Meanwhile, God exalts the faith which is founded on His Word, in comparison with the manners, institutions, rites, and customs of all nations; for none has made any true proficiency in religion unless he abominates whatever is opposed to it.
9. But thou shalt surely kill him. He would not that every one should privately execute vengeance without a public trial; but he referred to the ordinary custom, that the witnesses should throw the first stone at condemned criminals, as we shall see elsewhere. For it was an admirable provision, that God would have those who had denounced the crime, to be the executors of its punishment, in order that they should be more cautious and moderate in giving their testimony. The reason, which is added at the end, "because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the Lord thy God, who brought thee out," etc., again exaggerates the crime on the score of its ingratitude; which was detestable in proportion to the inestimable blessing of their deliverance. It was an act of gross wickedness to rebel against God after they had known Him; but it was still more gross to undervalue their Deliverer. Finally, the advantage and fruit of this severity is subjoined; for, whilst punishment was inflicted on one man's crime, all others were inspired with terror; and thus the death of one is a wholesome discipline for all, in the way of example.
Deuteronomy 13
Deuteronomy 13:12-17
12. If thou shalt hear say in one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, saying, 12. Si audieris de una urbium tuarum quas Jehova Deus tuus dat tibi ut habites ibi, aliquem dicen-tem:
13. Certain men, the children of Belial, are gone out from among you, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known; 13. Egressi sunt quidam homines filii impietatis e medio tui, qui impulerunt habitatores urbis suae, dicendo, Eamus et colamus deos alienos quos non nostis.
14. Then shalt thou enquire, and make search, and ask diligently: and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought among you; 14. Tunc inquires, et investigabis diligenter: et siquidem veritas sit et rumor verus, quod facta sit abominatio ista in medio tui:
15. Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein, and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword. 15. Percutiendo percuties habitatores urbis illius acie gladii, perdendo eam, et quicquid in ea fuerit, et jumenta ejus acie gladii.
16. And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the street thereof, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, for the Lord thy God: and it shall be an heap for ever; it shall not be built again. 16. Atque omnia spolia ejus congregabis in medio plateae ejus, et combures igni urbem ipsam et omnia spolia ejus prorsus Jehovae Deo tuo, eritque tumulus perpetuus, non aedificabitur.
17. And there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand: that the Lord may turn from the fierceness of his anger, and shew thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers. 17. Neque adhaerebit manui tuae quicquam de anathemate, ut avertatur Jehova ab ira furoris sui, et det tibi misericordias, misereaturque tui, ac te multiplicet quemadmodum juravit patribus tuis.

12. If thou shalt hear say. If impiety and rebellion should more widely prevail, Moses declares that whole cities, together with their inhabitants, should rather be destroyed, than that so great a crime should remain unpunished. Hence we may better infer how unholy is the tenderness of those who would have no punishment inflicted for the violation of the religion of God. If any sedition may have arisen in an army or nation, and the contagion may have spread through the whole multitude, the severity of a just and moderate ruler does not usually proceed further than to punish the ringleaders; when, therefore, God commands all without exception to be destroyed, the great atrocity of the crime is made apparent. Hence, too, we are admonished, that zeal for God's glory is but cold among us, unless true religion is held to be of more value than the preservation of a single city or people. But if so many together are to be dragged to death in crowds, their impudence is more than detestable, and their pity cruelty itself, who would take no account of God's injured majesty, so that one man may be spared. And since we are created to no other end, and live for no other cause than that God may be glorified in us, it is better that the whole world should perish, than that men should enjoy the fruits of the earth in order that they may contaminate it with their blasphemies. If those who first professed Christ's name had been inspired with such zeal as this, true religion would never have been overwhelmed, and almost extinguished by so many corruptions. But we must always bear in mind what I have already said, that this severity must not be resorted to except when the religion is suffering, which is not only received by public authority and general opinion, but which is proved on solid grounds to be true; so that it may clearly appear that we are the avengers of God against the wicked.
13. Certain men, the children of Belial. Moses puts a case, which very often is wont to occur. For all do not break forth into impiety together at the same moment, but Satan stirs up some who are like fans to excite others; and by their instigations the multitude is led to imitate them. Moses calls such as these "children of Belial;" f61 by which word some think that rebellious (proefractos) men are pointed out, and expound it "without yoke." Their opinion, however, seems to be more correct, who interpret it "men of nothing," men in whom nothing good or praiseworthy is found; and literally translate it "those who are worthless." f62 This expression is invariably applied to the wicked (sceleratis, improbis, et nequam;) and therefore Paul, contrasting Christ with Belial, designates by it Satan the chief of all the wicked. (<470615>2 Corinthians 6:15.) He uses the words "gone out," as if they had dared to come forward, and openly to parade their impiety. But, though the evil may have originated with a few authors, he does not mean that punishment should stop with them; as if the instigation of others availed as an excuse for the multitude. And he enjoins diligent inquiry to be made, for two reasons: viz., lest they should connive at the iniquity, and be lax, and careless about it, or lest they should be too hasty and precipitate in their judgment; because, on the one hand, whilst we are never equitable, nor decide rightly in precipitation and anger, so on the other it betrays base indifference, and something like disloyalty, to overlook so great a crime. Thus both activity and moderation are commended, so that the judge may neither be lax, nor make any decision until the matter shall be carefully inquired into.
15. Thou shalt surely smite. Lest the severity of the punishment should occasion surprise, let us first observe that the error was unpardonable, because its authors, being educated in the doctrines of the Law, could not be deceived involuntarily, nor unless they had grown weary of religion, and set their hearts on the impostures of the devil. On this account God, in the Book of Jeremiah, in order to inveigh more heavily against the inconstancy of the Jews, refers them to distant isles and nations: "Passover (He says) and consider," etc., "Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods? but my people have changed their glory for that which doth not profit. Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this," etc. (<240210>Jeremiah 2:10-12.) For justly must their instability be accounted monstrous, that they should have voluntarily forsaken the fountain of life, and have been carried away to vanity by their preposterous love of novelty. If any should object that the little children at least were innocent, I reply that, since all are condemned by the judgment of God from the least to the greatest, we contend against Him in vain, even though He should destroy the very infants as yet in their mothers' womb. When Sodom and the neighboring cities were swallowed up, we doubt not but that in the mighty multitude many infants and pregnant women also perished; and whilst our reason struggles against this, it is better rather to look up reverently to the Divine tribunal, than to subject it to our own laws. The same may be said of the destruction of Babylon; for when the Prophet exclaims: "Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones," he assuredly eulogizes the just vengeance of God. (<19D709>Psalm 137:9.) So also in this passage, if it does not appear to us agreeable to reason that the whole race of evil-doers should be exterminated, let us understand that God is defrauded of His rights, whensoever we measure His infinite greatness, which the angels themselves admiringly adore, by our own feelings. Although we must recollect that God would never have suffered any infants to be destroyed, except those which He had already reprobated and condemned to eternal death. But if we admit God's right to deprive of the hope of salvation whomsoever He sees fit, why should the temporal punishment, which is much lighter, be found fault with? Rather let us learn from the severity of this Law, how detestable is the crime of setting up false and spurious modes of worship, since it contaminates not only the infants, whose age prevents them from being conscious of it, f63 but even the cattle and flocks, and the very houses and walls. For he proceeds immediately afterwards to say,
16. And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it. They are commanded to burn all the furniture, and whatever is found in the city; and the reason is subjoined, because it is accursed (anathema). If any city was taken in war, all that God here commands to be burnt was to be counted as spoil, for the Jews would pollute themselves by its very touch. It might be indeed that God's intention was to obviate covetousness, lest the Jews should mix up their zeal with rapine; but the principal reason was that which Moses expresses, that the people might be more accustomed to detest the crime, which they saw to be so cruelly punished by God. The word µrj, cherem, which the Greeks have translated anathema, f64 properly means destruction, or abolition; but that which God would have annihilated, because He cannot bear the sight of it, is called µrj, before Him. Therefore it is said, "Thou shalt burn it to the Lord thy God;" for the translation which some give, "for (propter) the Lord," is not quite literal. The sum is to this effect, that if they fear God's vengeance for themselves, and desire to propitiate His favor, they must hold in execration the houses and property of those who have rebelled against the Law. Moreover, it is implied by the words "mercy" and "compassion," that if God should deal with absolute justice, the wickedness of one city would suffice to destroy a whole country. Whence we gather, that a kind of expiation is demanded to propitiate God, when they are commanded utterly to destroy the city, and to cast every remnant of it into the fire.
Exodus 22
Exodus 22:18
18. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live 18. Maleficam non pateris vivere.

18. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. In these passages the punishment of those is appointed who should in any respect violate the worship of God. We have lately seen how severely God avenged apostasy from the faith; but now He touches upon certain particular points when religion is not professedly forsaken, but some corruption is introduced, whereby its purity is affected. The first passage denounces capital punishment upon witches; by which name Moses means enchantresses, or sorceresses, who devote themselves to magic arts, either to injure persons by their fascinations, or to seek revelations from the devil; such as she was whom Saul consulted, although she might be called by a different name f65 Since such illusions carry with them a wicked renunciation of God, no wonder that He would have them punished with death. But since this pestilent crime would be no more tolerable in a man than a woman, it has been probably supposed that the law was directed against women, because their sex is more disposed to superstition. Certainly the same enactment is made respecting males in <051801>Deuteronomy 18:1, f66 only the punishment is not there denounced, but God merely prohibits any of the people from being an enchanter or a witch. Now it is clear that all the kinds which are there recited, are here included under one; so that God would condemn to capital punishment all augurs, and magicians, and consulters with familiar spirits, and necromancers and followers of magic arts, as well as enchanters. And this will appear more plainly from the second and third passages, in which God declares that He "will set. His face against all, that shall turn after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards," so as to cut them off from His people; and then commands that they should be destroyed by stoning. Wherefore, since it is not just that men should escape with impunity, when the infirmity of women is not spared, nor that dissimilar sentences should be pronounced in similar cases, the same punishment which was decreed against witches and enchantresses, is now extended to either sex, and to all magical superstitions. In the words also "that turneth to go a whoring," the atrocity of the crime is again expressed, the similitude being taken from immodest women, who seek with wandering glances for the indulgence of their lust. Moses, therefore, signifies that, as soon as we begin to cast our eyes this way and that, and do not keep them fixed on God alone so as to be content with Him, that sacred union f67 is violated wherein He has bound us to Himself.
Numbers 15
Numbers 15:30, 31
30. But the soul that doeth ought presumptuously, (whether he be born in the land, or a stranger,) the same reproacheth the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 30. Anima quae fecerit in manu excelsa, tam civis quam peregrinus, ut Jehovam contumelia afficiat, ex-cidetur anima illa e medio populi sui.
31. Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, and hath broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off: his iniquity shall be upon him. 31. Quia sermonem Jehovae contempsit, et praeceptum ejus irritum fecit: excidendo excidetur anima illa: iniquitas ejus in ea.

30. But the soul that doeth ought. This verse is variously translated. For some read it thus f68 "The soul that doeth ought with a high hand, the same reproacheth the Lord, and, therefore, shall be cut off;" thus there would be two propositions. We have followed another opinion, reading it connectedly, "The soul, who shall have raised a high hand to the reproach of God, shall be cut off." Literally, it is, "The soul, who shall have dealt with a high hand, whether born in the land, or a stranger, himself blaspheming God, and that soul shall be plucked up from the midst of his people." But, since either version is probable, and makes no difference in substance, I have allowed myself freely to choose that which expressed the meaning more clearly. "To deal with a high hand" is nothing more than to attempt, or undertake proudly, what is not lawful: for our hands ought to be guided, and, as it were, restrained by God's word, lest they should lift themselves up. But although men's hands are used in various acts of audacity and wantonness, yet here there is especial mention of the profanation of God's true and legitimate worship, when anything is invented inconsistent with its purity: for the punishment is not decreed against thefts, or murders, or other similar crimes, but against the perverse imaginations, which tend to the corruption of religion. The reason is afterwards added: "Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, and hath broken His commandment." For it is no light offense to transgress the bounds which God hath placed. Now, it is certain that all self-invented services betray an impious contempt of God, as if men designedly despised Him, and spurned at His commands. Whence we infer, that nothing is more opposed to perfect and sincere religion than that temerity which induces men to follow whatever course they please. The clause, "his iniquity shall be upon him," may be explained in two ways, either as a confirmation by Moses of the justice of this punishment, and of its merited infliction, or as an admonition, that the impiety should be corrected betimes, before it has advanced too far. There is no objection to either.
Leviticus 20
Leviticus 20:1-6, 27
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Again, thou shalt say to the children of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech, he shall surely be put to death: the people of the land shall stone him with stones. 2. Filiis Israel dices, Quicunque e filiis Israel, et e peregrinis qui peregrinantur in Israel, dederit e semine suo Moloch, moriendo morietur: populus terrae lapidibus lapidabit eum.
3. And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people; because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my holy name. 3. Ego etiam ponam faciem meam contra virum illum, et exterminabo eum e medio populi sui, eo quod de-derit e semine suo Moloch, ut contaminaret sanctuarium meum, et profanaret nomen sanctitatis meae.
4. And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and kill him not; 4. Quod si abscondendo absconderit populus terrae oculos suos a viro illo quando dabit ex semine suo Moloch, non interficiendo illum;
5. Then I will set my face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Molech, from among their people. 5. Tunc ponam ego faciem meam in virum illum, et in familiam ejus, et succidam eum et omnes qui scor-tantur post ipsum, ut scortentur post Moloch, e medio populi sui.
6. And the soul that turneth after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I will even set my face against that soul, and will cut him off from among his people. 6. Anima quae respexerit ad Pythones et ariolos, ad fornicandum post eos, ponam faciem meam contra animam illam, et exterminabo e medio populi sui.
27. A man also, or woman, that hath a familar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones; their blood shall be upon them. 27. Vir sive muleir in quibus fuerit Python, vel aruspicum spiritus, moriendo morietur: lapidando lapidabunt eos: sanguis eorum super eos.

1. And the Lord spake. The prohibition of this superstition was previously expounded in its proper place. God here commands the punishment to be inflicted, if any one should have polluted himself with it. And surely it was a detestable sacrilege to enslave to idols that offspring, which was begotten to God, and which He had adopted in the loins of Abraham, since in this way they not only despoiled God of His right, but, so far as they could, blotted out the grace of adoption. What He had then generally pronounced, He now specially applies, viz., that they should be stoned who offered their seed to Molech; for otherwise they would have tried to escape on the pretense that they had no intention of revolting to other gods. Just as now-a-days, under the Papacy, whatever is alleged from Scripture against their impious and corrupt worship, is coldly and contemptuously received; because they varnish over their idolatries, and so indulge themselves in them in security. But after God has commanded His judges to punish this crime severely, He at the same time declares that, if perchance they should connive at it, and encourage it. by their lenity, He Himself will avenge it, so as to punish much more heavily those who may have escaped from the hands of men; and not only so, but that He would implicate all those who might have been aware of it in the same con-detonation.
Exodus 12
Exodus 12:15, 19
15. Whosoever eateth leavened bread, from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 15. Quicunque comederit fermentatum a die primo usque ad diem septimum, excidetur anima illa ex Israel.
19. Whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. 19. Quicunque comederit fermentatum, exterminabitur anima illa e coetu Israel: tam peregrinus quam indigena terre.

15. Whosoever eateth leavened bread. This law specially refers to the keeping of the Passover. God had before forbidden the use of leaven; and He now enacts the punishment to be inflicted, if any should neglect the prohibition, and mingle leaven with the Paschal feast. But it is not without reason that we have postponed to this place what Moses has joined together with the institution of the Passover; for the plan proposed by us demands that the political laws, which sanction God's worship by the denunciation of punishments, should occupy their peculiar place. From the punishment it appears that, although it may be in itself a trifling matter to abstain from leaven, (as Paul teaches that "bodily exercise profiteth little," <540408>1 Timothy 4:8,) yet, inasmuch as in this ceremony the redemption of the people was kept in memory, it was a very gross crime not to observe whatever God had prescribed, for we must estimate the importance of the rites of the law from their object. f69
Deuteronomy 17
Deuteronomy 17:14-20
14. When thou art come unto the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that are about me: 14. Quum ingressus fueris terrain quam Jehova Deus tuus dat tibi, et possederis eam, et habitaveris in ea, ac dixeris, Constituam super me regem sicut omnes gentes quae sunt per circuitus meos.
15. Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee whom the Lord thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. 15. Constituendo constitues super te regem quem elegerit Jehova Deus tuus: e medio fratrum tuorum constitues super te regem: non poteris constituere super te virum alienigenam, qui non sit frater tuus.
16. But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the Lord hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way. 16. Verum non multiplicabit sibi equos, neque reducet populum in Aegyptum ad multiplicandos equos: quum Jehova dixerit vobis, Non adjicietis reverti per hanc viam amplius.
17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. 17. Neque multiplicabit sibi uxores, neque avertetur cor ejus, neque plurimum argentum et aurum sibi cumulabit.
18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shalt write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites: 18. Verum quum sederit super solium regni sui, tunc describet sibi exemplar legis hujus in volumine; a conspectu sacerdotum et Levitarum.
19. And it shalt be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law, and these statutes, to do them: 19. Eritque apud eum, et leget in eo cunctis diebus vitae suae: ut scilicet discat timere Jehovam Deum suum: et observare omnia verba legis hujus, atque statuta haec, ut faciat ea.
20. That his heart be not. lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel. 20. Ne elevetur cor ejus super fratres ipsius, neque declinet a praecepto ad dextram aut ad sinistram, ut proroget dies in regno suo: ipsc et filii ejus in medio Israelis.

14. When thou art come unto the land. In this passage God sets forth the merits of that sacerdotal kingdom, of which mention is made elsewhere; for, since the splendor of the royal name might dazzle their eyes, so that they should forget that God retained the sovereignty over them, they are thus early admonished how unjust it would be if the majesty of God should be diminished by the rule of a mortal man. In sum, the power of kings is here put beneath that of God; and kings themselves are consecrated unto obedience to Him, lest the people should ever turn to ungodliness, whatever change of government might take place. But although under the judges religion was often subverted, yet it was not without a cause that a special law was enacted with respect to kings, because nothing is more likely than that earthly pomps should draw men away from piety. Now we understand the design of God in this matter, let us proceed to examine its several parts. He passes over (as I have said) all the intermediate time until the beginning of the kingdom, because this new state of things brought with it an increase of danger: for as long as the judges were in power, their different form of government separated the Jews from heathen nations. All the surrounding neighbors were subject to kings; and God always retained the preeminence, whilst He raised up judges from amongst the people; but when they began to choose kings for themselves, they were so mixed up with the Gentiles, that it was easy for them to fall into other corruptions. For the very similarity (of their governments) united them more closely; wherefore, it is expressly said, When thou shalt set a king over thee "like as all the nations that are about" thee. For God signifies that the example of the nations would be an evil snare to them, that they should desire to have a king, and thus their condition would in future be identical, though by divine decree it had been distinct. In short, their rebellion is here indirectly condemned, when God foretells that they would wantonly shake off their yoke; as indeed actually took place, when they rejected Samuel, and tumultuously required a king. On which point God elsewhere complains that He was despised. But the question arises, how these two things can be reconciled, that kings should reign over them from the lust or foolish desire of the people, and yet that the kingdom was the chief glory of the people, a special pledge of God's favor, and consequently of their welfare and full felicity. The prophecy of Jacob is well known,
"The scepter shall not depart from Judah,. — until Shiloh come." (Genesis 49:10.)
Whence it appears that a king was promised to the children of Abraham as an inestimable blessing. Why, then, does not God declare Himself its author? I reply that, although it was God's design from the beginning to set up David as a type of Christ, yet, because their unseemly haste disturbed the order of things, the commencement of the kingdom is ascribed to the people's fault, when they were impelled by their perverse emulation to wish to be like the Gentiles. God appears then to have designedly censured their wilfulness, as if He had said, "Although by appointing a king, you approach more nearly to the Gentiles, beware lest your perverse desire should altogether turn you away from true religion.
15. Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee. First of all, God maintains His own supremacy in the appointment of a king, and does not consign the matter to the people's own suffrages; that thus He may chastise their audacity in demanding a king in accordance with a hasty impulse. Secondly, He commands that he should be taken from the people themselves, and excludes foreigners, because, if they had been admitted, a door was opened to apostasy; for each would have tried to force upon them his native gods, and true religion would have been persecuted by the force and threatenings of the royal power. Behold why God would not suffer a king to be sought elsewhere but from the bosom of His Church; in order that he might cherish and maintain that pure worship which he had imbibed from his childhood.
16. But he shall not multiply horses. The royal power is here circumscribed within certain limits, lest it should exalt itself too much in reliance on the glory of its dignity, f70 For we know how insatiable are the desires of kings, inasmuch as they imagine that all things are lawful to them. Therefore, although the royal dignity may be splendid, God would not have it to be the pretext of unrestrained power, but restricts and limits it to legal bounds. f71 qr, rak, is an adversative particle which some construe only; almost with the same meaning, because this exception was added to restrain the passions of their kings. The first prohibition is, that he should not collect for himself a multitude of horses; but, since it is twice repeated, we must consider why it is so. Many thus translate it, "He shall not multiply horses, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to multiply horses;" but this manner of speaking is harsh and obscure. Now, since the particle ˆ[ml lemagnan, signifies "for the sake of (propter), it may be properly translated to the letter, "for the sake of multiplying horses," (propter multiplicare, vel propter ad multiplicandum.) I have no doubt, then, but that God condemns an immoderate number of horses from the consequences which might ensue; because it might excite the minds of the kings rashly to undertake expeditions against the Egyptians. This, therefore, I consider to be the genuine meaning, that the king should not provide himself with horses in too great numbers, lest, when he was in possession of many horses, he should lead his army into Egypt. Thus, amongst other evils which might arise from a multitude of horses, Moses mentions this, that the king's mind will be puffed up with pride, so as to invade Egypt with an army of horse. Now, the question is, why God forbade His people to return by that way? Some explain it, that the horses would be brought contrary to God's command, who had forbidden them to trade (with that people;) f72 but this does not seem appropriate. Others think that the people were prohibited from passing the desert, lest in their curiosity they should be ungrateful to God; but this, too, is far-farfetched. To me it seems probable, that this journey was prohibited them, in order that, being mindful of their deliverance, they should be content with their own boundaries. They had been rescued from a thousand deaths: if they had voluntarily gone thither to provoke an adversary, their confidence would have been a sign of their despising and forgetting God's grace. Therefore, in order that the recollection of their redemption should be deeply impressed upon their minds, God would have the honor put upon His miracles, that they should avoid those regions like the abysses of death. Unless perhaps this reason may be preferred, that a handle for those wicked alliances was cut off, which we see were audaciously contracted, because the kings of Israel gloried in the abundance of their cavalry. But the former explanation is most suitable. This law, however, was not obeyed by their best kings; and hence it appears that the wilfulness and pride of their kings could scarcely be repressed by any restraints.
17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself. Polygamy at that time had generally prevailed, so that the very humblest of the people violated the marriage vow with impunity; and therefore it was necessary that the kings should be bound with closer restrictions, lest by their example they should give greater countenance to incontinency. And thus their ignorance is easily refuted who conclude that what was specially interdicted to the kings was permitted to private individuals, whereas the law of chastity was imposed upon the former, because without this remedy there would be no bounds to their lasciviousness. Besides, the people would have been subjected to great expense on their account, since such is the ambition of women, that they would all have desired to receive royal treatment, and would have even vied with each other in finery, as actually came to pass. David transgressed this law, and in some degree excusably on account of his repudiation by Michal; still it appears that lust had more power over him than the continency prescribed by God. What follows is so connected by some as if it were the reason of the foregoing sentence, in this way, "that kings were not to multiply wives to themselves, lest their heart should turn away from what was right," as was the case with Solomon; for, from being too devoted to his wives, and being deceived by the snares of women, he fell into idolatry. And assuredly it can scarcely fail to happen, that when many wives beset a man, they must render his mind effeminate, and stifle in him all his manly good sense. Yet I prefer taking the clause separately, that kings must beware lest the splendor of their dignity should affect the soundness of their judgment, for nothing is more difficult than for one in great power to continue disposed to temperance. Therefore God does not in vain enjoin that they should constantly persevere in their duty, and not lose their understanding. Moreover, He forbids kings to heap up treasures, because it cannot be done without rapine and violent exactions; whilst, at the same time, wealth encourages them audaciously to undertake unjust wars, incites them to gross dissipation, and at length hurries them forward to tyrannical excesses. First, therefore, God would have kings beware, lest in their pursuit of riches they should exhaust the blood of the people, and lest they should lavish their ill-gotten money in superfluous expenses, and be extravagant with what belongs to others; and lastly, lest they should be tempted by the pride of wealth to attempt unlawful things.
18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne. It would not be enough to correct their errors unless kings were also instructed in the fear of God, and properly taught their duty; now, therefore, a system of discipline is added, whereby it was profitable for them to be grounded in the study of religion and justice, viz., that they should take the Law from the priests and Levites, which was to be the rule of all their actions. Because the demonstrative pronoun is used, f73 some think that only the book of Deuteronomy is referred to, but without good reason. I make no doubt but that the whole sum of doctrine is included, which is delivered both here and in Exodus and Leviticus. But although it was without exception to be common to all, yet in order that kings might be more assiduously attentive in reading it, God would have a copy peculiarly dedicated to their use by the priests and Levites, and given into their hands in a solemn ceremony; that kings might know that they required greater wisdom and counsel for ruling the people than private persons. When, therefore, the priests and Levites presented them with this book, it was as if God deposited this treasure with the king. He then enjoins that they should exercise themselves in the doctrine of the Law through the whole course of their lives, because kings are usually supplied with books only out of ostentation and pomp, and when they have tasted of what is taught in them, straightway grow tired and cease to read them. Finally, the object of their reading is subjoined: first of all, in general, that they may learn to fear God and keep His statutes; and, secondly, lest, being lifted up with pride and vanity, they should despise and oppress their brethren. And the word brethren is used designedly, lest they should imagine that the law of brotherhood was abolished, because they were set over the whole people; but rather that they should study to cherish all as members (of themselves.) Again, it is afterwards repeated, lest they should "turn aside to the right hand or the left;" because, when men have much liberty of action, their lusts can never be sufficiently restrained. But, lest it should be grievous to them to be thus reduced to order, finally God reminds them that this moderation would be useful to them, for that they thus would prolong their reigns; whereas the tyranny of kings is often their destruction; as the Lacedemonian king replied, when his wife was annoyed that the Ephori were appointed to restrain him, "that he should indeed leave less power to his children, but that it would be the more lasting. f74 But, here a long succession is promised by God's favor, if they were willing to guide themselves aright.
Deuteronomy 20
Deuteronomy 20:1-4
1. When thou goest out to battle against thine enemies, and seest horses and chariots, and a people more than thou, be not afraid of them: for the Lord thy God is with thee, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 1. Quum egressus fueris ad praelium contra hostes tuos ac videris equitatum, currus, et populum majorem te, non metues ab illis: quia Jehova Dens tuus tecum est, qui te eduxit e terra AEgypti.
2. And it shall be, when ye are come nigh untothe battle, that the priest shall approach and speak unto the people, 2. Et quum occurreritis ad praelium, accedet sacerdos ad populum,
3. And shall say unto them, Hear, O Israel; Ye approach this day unto battle against your enemies: let not your hearts faint; fear not, and do not tremble, neither be ye terrified because of them: 3. Ac dicet illis, Audi Israel, vos occurretis hodie ad praeliandum cum hostibus vestris: ne mollescat cor vestrum, neque timeatis, neque terreamini, neque paveatis a facie eorum:
4. For the Lord your God is he that goeth with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you. 4. Quoniam Jehova Deus vester incredit vobiscum ad praeliandum pro vobis contra hostes vestros, et ad servandum vos.

1. When thou goest out to battle. This law also, which concerns their political government, is a Supplement to the First Commandment, enacting that they should carry on their wars under the auspices of God, and, trusting in His help, should follow Him as their leader. For it behoved them to give this proof of their piety, so as to look to God not less in war than in peace, and not to rest their hopes of safety on anything but the invocation of His name. Whence we gather that the worship of God should be by no means passed over in civil and earthly government; for, although its direct object is to preserve mutual equity between men, yet religion always ought to hold the first, place. The sum, therefore, is that, amidst the very clang of arms, they must not be in such confusion as not to recognize that they are under the guardianship of God, or to lose the confidence they will be safe in reliance on His power. He does not, however, encourage them rashly to engage in war, but takes it for granted that there is a legitimate cause for it; because this would be a gross abuse of God's name, to seek a prosperous issue from Him, when we are engaged in anything contrary to His command. But He forbids them to fear, although the enemy should be superior in horses, in multitude, and in all their warlike array; and in these words He reminds them that they would not be liable to suffer defeat, because they were not supplied with abundance of chariots and horses; for we have lately seen that not even their kings were permitted to collect the forces in which the Gentile nations gloried; and therefore, lest the consciousness of their weakness should make them afraid, God declares that His strength would be a sufficient safeguard to them. And without question that passage in <192007>Psalm 20:7, is taken from hence, "Some trust in chariots, and some in horses; but we will remember the name of the Lord our God." On which score Isaiah reproves the people, because, refusing the waters of Shiloah, they long for great and rapid rivers; viz., as he elsewhere explains it, because they trust in the horsemen of Egypt. (<230806>Isaiah 8:6; 31:1.) But we must observe upon what their security is to be founded, viz., because the people ought to hope that the same Divine power would be with them to the end, which their fathers had experienced when they were redeemed from Egypt.
2. And it shall be, when ye are come nigh. God commits the duty of exhortation to the priests, when the time of the conflict shall have arrived. But we gather from the expressions used that this passage is supplementary to the First Commandment, for it contains no more than that the priest should encourage the Israelites to confidence, the ground of which is declared to be the help of God in preserving and constantly protecting the Church, which He has once redeemed. Moreover, He forbids their fears not in one word only, but heaps many together, "let not your hearts faint, fear not, and do not tremble, neither be ye terrified." By this we are reminded how difficult it is to cure that evil — fear, which in so many different ways assails and disturbs our minds, that they should not rest in God. And surely we all experience that we are troubled by such various besetments, that we have need of manifold remedies for the establishment of our faith. We must observe, too, the familiar representation of the presence of God, that He should go together with His people, to save them, viz., if they should be exposed to danger not by their own fault, but by the unjust aggression of their enemies.
Numbers 10
Numbers 10:1-10
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. 2. Fac tibi duas tubas argenteas: opere ductili facies illas: quae sint tibi ad convocationem coetus, et ad castra movenda.
3. And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 3. Quum clangent illis, congregabuntur ad te omnes coetus ad ostium tabernaculi testimonii.
4. And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. 4. Si vero una clanxerint, congregabuntur ad te principes, capita millium Israelis.
5. When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 5. Si vero clanxeritis cum jubilatione, proficiscentur castra eorum qui castrametantur ad Orientem.
6. When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. 6. Quum autem clanxeritis cum jubilatione secundo, tum proficiscentur castra eorum qui castrametantur ad meridiem; cum jubilatione clangent in profectionibus suis.
7. But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. 7. Quando vero congregabitis coetum, clangetis, sed absque jubila.tione.
8. And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets: and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. 8. Filii autem Aharon sacerdotes clangent tubis illis, eruntque vobis in statutum perpetuum per aetates vestras.
9. And if you go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 9. Et quando venietis ad praelium in terra vestra contra hostem vestrum qui vos affliget, cum jubilatione clangetis tubis illis: et recordatio vestri erit coram Jehova Deo vestro, ut servemini ab hostibus vestris.
10. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God. 10. Die quoque laetitiae vestrae, et in solennitatibus vestris, et in principiis mensium vestrorum clangetis tubis illis super holocausta, et super sacrificia prosperitatum vestrarum, ut sint vobis in recordationem coram Deo vestro: ego Jehova Deus vester.

2. Make thee two trumpets of silver. This passage respecting the silver trumpets, which gave the gathering-signal, so that the people should always be attentive to the voice and will of God, is properly annexed to the First Commandment. For God would have the Israelites set in motion by their sound, whithersoever they were to go, so that they should not dare to commence anything either in war or in peace, except under His guidance and auspices, as it were. But their use was threefold, viz., to gather the people or the rulers to public assemblies; to arm them against their enemies; and, thirdly, to announce the sacrifices and festivals. It might seem absurd, and somewhat indecorous, to appoint the priests to be trumpeters, since there was no splendor or dignity in this office; but God would in this way awaken greater reverence in the minds of the people, that the authority of the priests should precede all their actions. For this office, to which they were appointed, was no servile one, as that they should blow the trumpets at the command of others; but rather did God thus set them over public affairs, that the people might not tumultuously call their assemblies in the blindness and precipitation of passion, but rather that modesty, gravity, and moderation should be observed in them. We know how often in earthly affairs God is not regarded, but counsels are confidently discussed without reference to His word. He testified, therefore, by this employment of the priests, that all assemblies, except those in which He should preside, were accursed. Profane nations also had their ceremonies, such as auguries, supplications, soothsayings, victims, f75 because natural reason dictated that nothing could be engaged in successfully without Divine assistance; but God would have His people bound to Him in another way, so that, when called by the sound of the sacred trumpets as by a voice from heaven, they should assemble to holy and pious deliberations. The circumstance of the place also has the same object. The door of the Tabernacle was to them, as if they placed themselves in the sight; of God. We will speak of the word d[wm, mogned f76 elsewhere. Although it signifies an appointed time, or place, and also an assembly of the people, I prefer translating it convention, because God there in a solemn manner, as if before His sacred tribunal, called the people to witness, or, according to appointment, proceeded to make a covenant with them.
He was also unwilling that wars should be undertaken precipitately, or with the desire of vengeance, but that the priests should perform the office of heralds, (feciales,) in order that he might be the originator of them himself. But it was honorable for the priests to be the proclaimers of the festivals, and to cite the people to the sanctuary. Now, since we understand the intention of the Legislator, let us briefly touch upon the words. We have said that the priests, when they sounded, were, as it were, the organs or interpreters of God, that the Israelites might depend upon His voice and commandment. If the princes or heads of thousands only were to be called, they sounded only once; if it was a convocation of the whole people, they doubled the sound. A similar distinction was observed in war, that a different signal should be given, according as the camps of either side were to advance. Some use the fictitious word taratantara, f77 in place of what I have translated "with jubilation:" it is probable that it was a louder and more protracted sound, but blown with intervals. We must, however, observe the promise, which is inserted, that the Israelites "should be remembered before the Lord," that He should put their enemies to flight; not as if the safety or deliverance of the people was attached to the trumpets, but because they did not go to the battle except in reliance on God's aid. For the reality itself is conjoined with the external symbol, viz., that they should fight under God, should follow Him as their Leader, and should account all their strength to be in His grace. And that all the saints were guided by this rule appears from <192007>Psalm 20:7, —
"Some trust in chariots, and some in horses; but we will remember the name of the Lord our God:"
and again, "There is no king saved by the multitude of an host; a mighty man is not delivered by much strength. Behold, the eye of the Lord is upon them that fear him, upon them that hope in his mercy." (<193316>Psalm 33:16-18)
10. Also in the day of your gladness. This was as if God should make it manifest that He approved of no festivals, and that no sacrifices pleased Him, except His command should go before them; for it was not lawful for the people to choose this or that day, but the authority for prescribing them was in the hands of the ministers of sacred things. And, indeed, God Himself had appointed the New-moons (Neomenias, vel novilunia) and the other solemnities; but, lest any change should occur, since men are ever daring in their innovations, He would have their lawful observation sanctioned by the sound of the trumpets; as if, by the mouth of the priests, He Himself published the holy assemblies. The sacrifices, which others have translated "of your peace-offerings," f78 I translate, and not without reason, "of your prosperities." For this is what µkymlç, shalmecem, properly means; and it was the name they gave to their supplications and testimonies of thanksgiving, when they had been delivered from some great danger, or were visited by some extraordinary blessing from God. But Moses says that the trumpets were to be "for a memorial before their God;" because when they should have assembled at His command, He would look upon them, and honor them with His paternal favor.
The Second Commandment
Exodus 20
Exodus 20:4-6
4. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 4. Non facies tibi sculptlie, neque ullam imaginem eorum quae sunt in coelo sursum, neque eorum qae in terra deorsum, neque eorum quae in aquis sunt subter terram.
5. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 5. Non adorabis ea, neque coles ea, ego enim Jehova Deus tuus, Deus zelotes, visitans iniquitatem patrum super filios, in tertiam et quartam generationem in his qui me oderunt:
6. And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. 6. Et faciens misericordiam: in mille diligentibus me, et custodientibus praecepta mea.

4. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. In the First Commandment, after He had taught who was the true God, He commanded that He alone should e worshipped; and now He defines what is His Legitimate Worship. Now, since these are two distinct things, we conclude that the commandments are also distinct, in which different things are treated of. The former indeed precedes in order, viz., that believers are to be contented with one God; but it would not be sufficient for us to be instructed to worship him alone, unless we also knew the manner in which He would be worshipped. The sum is, that the worship of God must be spiritual, in order that it may correspond with His nature. For although Moses only speaks of idolatry, yet there is no doubt but that by synecdoche, as in all the rest of the Law, he condemns all fictitious services which men in their ingenuity have invented. For hence have arisen the carnal mixtures whereby God's worship has been profaned, that they estimate Him according to their own reason, and thus in a manner metamorphose Him. It is necessary, then, to remember what God is, lest we should form any gross or earthly ideas respecting Him. The words simply express that it is wrong f79 for men to seek the presence of God in any visible image, because He cannot be represented to our eyes. The command that they should not make any likeness, either of any thing which is in heaven, or in the earth, or in the waters under the earth, is derived from the evil custom which had everywhere prevailed; for, since superstition is never uniform, but is drawn aside in various directions, some thought that God was represented under the form of fishes, others under that of birds, others in that of brutes; and history especially recounts by what shameless delusions Egypt was led astray. And hence too the vanity of men is declared, since, whithersoever they turn their eyes, they everywhere lay hold of the materials of error, notwithstanding that God's glory shines on every side, and whatever is seen above or below, invites us to the true God.
Since, therefore, men are thus deluded, so as to frame for themselves the materials of error from all things they behold, Moses now elevates them above the whole fabric and elements of the world; for by the things that are "in heaven above," he designates not only the birds, but the sun, and the moon, and all the stars also; as will soon be seen. He declares, then, that a true image of God is not to be found in all the world; and hence that His glory is defiled, and His truth corrupted by the lie, whenever He is set before our eyes in a visible form. Now we must remark, that there are two parts in the Commandment — the first forbids the erection of a graven image, or any likeness; the second prohibits the transferring of the worship which God claims for Himself alone, to any of these phantoms or delusive shows. Therefore, to devise any image of God, is in itself impious; because by this corruption His Majesty is adulterated, and He is figured to be other than He is. There is no need of refuting the foolish fancy of some, that all sculptures and pictures are here condemned by Moses, for he had no other object than to rescue God's glory from all the imaginations which tend to corrupt it. And assuredly it is a most gross indecency to make God like a stock or a stone. Some expound the words, "Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven image, which thou mayest adore;" f80 as if it were allowable to make a visible image of God, provided it be not adored; but the expositions which will follow will easily refute their error. Meanwhile, I do not deny that these things are to be taken connectedly, since superstitious worship is hardly ever separated from the preceding error; for as soon as any one has permitted himself to devise an image of God, he immediately falls into false worship. And surely whosoever reverently and soberly feels and thinks about God Himself, is far from this absurdity; nor does any desire or presumption to metamorphose God ever creep in, except when coarse and carnal imaginations occupy our minds. Hence it comes to pass, that those, who frame for themselves gods of corruptible materials, superstitiously adore the work of their own hands. I will then readily allow these two things, which are inseparable, to be joined together; only let us recollect that God is insulted, not only when His worship is transferred to idols, but when we try to represent Him by any outward similitude.
THE REPETITION FROM DEUTERONOMY 5
Deuteronomy 5
Deuteronomy 5:8-10
8. Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters beneath the earth: 8. Non facies tibi sculptile, vel ullam imaginem eorum quae sunt in coelo sursum, nec eorum quae sunt in terra deorsum, nec eorum quae sunt in aquis sub terra.
9. Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, 9. Non adorabis ea, neque coles: ego enim Jehova Deus tuus, Deus zelotes, visitans iniquitatem patrum super filios, in tertiam et quartam generationem in his qui me oderunt.
10. And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. 10. Faciens autem misericordiam in millia diligentibus me, et custodientibus praecepta mea.

9. Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them. Idolaters in vain endeavor to elude this second point by their foolish cavils; as amongst the Papists that trifling distinction is commonly advanced, that only latre>ia, f81 and not dele>ia is prohibited. For Moses, first of all, comprehends generally all the Forms And Ceremonies Of Worship; and then adds immediately afterwards the word db[, gnabad, which means properly to serve. Hence we conclude that they make a childish endeavor at evasion, when they pay only the honor of service to pictures and statues. But if we grant them what they desire, not even so will they escape; because the prohibition is equivalent to God's declaring that He will not be worshipped in wood and stone, or in any other likeness. For unbelievers have never been carried away to such an extent of folly as to adore mere statues or pictures; they have always alleged the same pretext which now-a-days is rife in the mouths of the Papists, viz., that not the image itself was actually worshipped, but that which it represented. But the Spirit everywhere reproves them for worshipping gods of wood and stone, since God rejects that carnal worship which unbelievers offer before stocks and stones. If any one should ask them, whom they have it in their mind to worship, they will immediately reply, that they offer to God that honor which they pay to pictures and statues. But this frivolous excuse comes to nothing; because to erect the idol before which they prostrate themselves, is really to deny the true God; and, therefore, no wonder that He should declare that unbelievers worship wood and stone, when they worship in that wood and stone phantoms of their own imagination. And we have already said, that all rites which do not accord with the spiritual worship of God, are here forbidden: and this is enough, and more than enough to put to flight all such misty notions, (nebulas.)
For I the Lord thy God. He partly terrifies them by threats, and partly attracts them by sweet promises, in order to keep them in the way of duty. In the earlier expressions He convicts them of ingratitude, if they prostitute themselves to idolatry, when they had been chosen to be a peculiar and holy people. He afterwards inspires them with terror, by the denunciation of punishment; and, finally, allures them with the hope of reward, if they obediently abide in the pure worship of God. Nor does He affirm that He will be severe or kind to individuals only, but extends both to their posterity, although, as we shall afterwards see, not equally. I have indeed assigned another place to the promises and threatenings, whereby the authority of the whole Law is sanctioned; but since this clause is annexed to a particular Commandment,. it could not be conveniently separated from it. The word la, el, some translate appellatively, mighty; but since God is so called from His might, I have preferred following this meaning, f82 which is more suitable here. Yet I do not think that Moses used various names without reason; for when he had first employed the name µyhla, elohim, he soon afterwards honors God by another title, and magnifies His power, that He may be feared. And for this reason he also calls Him the Rival, f83 or, as some not inaptly translate it, the jealous; for to give the name of "the envious" (obtrectatoris) to God, as somebody has done, is not only silly, but monstrous. This is the word by which Cicero renders zhlotupi>an, f84 expressing by it the sin of guilty rivalry, when one person envies the superiority of another. But God is here set before us in the character of a husband, who suffers no rival; or if it be preferred to extend the meaning of the word, He is called the assertor of His rights; since His rivalry is nothing more than retaining what is His own, and thus excluding all the rivals of His honor. Because mention has lately been made of His sacred covenant with the Jews, Moses seems to allude to the violation of this spiritual marriage. But although he begins with threatening, still, far preferring mercy to His severity, He rather gently allures them, than compels them by fear, to allegiance; for He declares that He will be merciful even to a thousand generations; whilst He only denounces punishment on the thirds and fourths, (for thus it is literally expressed,) i.e., on their grandsons and great-grandsons. In order, therefore, to encourage His worshippers to earnest piety, He declares that He will be kind, not only to themselves, but to their posterity, even for a thousand generations. But this is the proof of His inestimable kindness, and even indulgence, that He deigns to bind Himself to His servants, to whom He owes nothing, so far as to acknowledge, in His favor towards them, their seed also for His people. For hence it appears, that it is wrong to infer merit from the promised reward, because He does not say that He will be faithful or just towards the keepers of His Law, but merciful. Let then the most perfect come forward, and he can require nothing better of God than that He should be favorable to him on the grounds of His gratuitous liberality. For dsj, chesed, is equivalent to kindness, or beneficence; but when it is applied to God, it generally signifies mercy, or paternal favor, and the blessings which flow from it.
Since, then, He here promises that He will shew mercy, it is as much as to say that He will be beneficent, or will deal with clemency. Hence it follows, that the main source of reward is that. gratuitous beneficence wherewith He liberally blesses His people. Now, when it is said, "unto them that love me," f85 the fountain and origin of true righteousness is expressed; for the external observation of the Law would be of no avail unless it flowed from hence. And praise is given to love rather than to fear, because God is delighted with none but voluntary obedience, but He rejects that which is forced and servile, as we shall again see elsewhere. But because hypocrites also boast that they love God, whilst their life corresponds not with the profession of their lips, the two things are here distinctly connected; viz., that the true servants of God love Him, and keep His commandments, i.e., make effectual proof of their piety. But here a difficult question arises, for the history of all ages shews that a great proportion of the progeny of the holy have been rejected and condemned; and that God has inflicted upon them weightier manifestations of His curse and vengeance, than upon strangers. We must, however, observe, that in these words grace is not promised severally to all the posterity of the saints, as if God were bound to each individual who may derive their race and original from them. There were many degenerate children of Abraham, to whom it profited nothing that they were called the offspring of the holy patriarch; nor indeed is the promise restricted to individuals, for many who are children after the flesh, are not counted for the seed — but God in His free election adopts whom He will, yet so governs His judgments, as that His paternal favor should always abide with the race of believers. Besides, the fruits of this promised grace are manifested in temporal blessings; and thus although God severely avenged the sins of the children of Abraham, and at length when their impiety shewed itself to be desperate, renounced them, yet did He not fail to be kind to them for a thousand generations. For again, God fulfills and performs what He here promised by the outward testimonies of His favor, although they turn to the destruction of the reprobate. Thus He was merciful to the race of Abraham, as long as he saw fit to leave them the Law, the Prophets, the Temple, and other exercises of religion. f86 Now, again, it. will be well for us to consider how far even the holiest fall short of the perfect keeping of the Law, and perfect love of God; and therefore we need not wonder if they experience in many respects the failure of this grace, and only enjoy some slight taste of it. In any case, the goodness of God ever superabounds, so that His grace, if it does not shine with full splendor, still appears in bright sparks unto a thousand generations. As to the opposite clause, wherein God limits His vengeance to the third or fourth generation, we see how He prefers to attract men to duty by gentle invitations, than by terrifying threatenings to extort from them more than they are willing to do; inasmuch as He extends His mercy further than the severity of His judgment. We must also observe that the transgressors of the Law are called the enemies and haters of God. It is surely horrible, and almost monstrous impiety to hate God; and scarcely would any one be found so wicked as openly to declare Him to be his enemy; yet it is not without a cause that God pronounces thus harshly respecting their impiety; for since He cannot be separated from His justice, a contempt of the Law convicts men of this hatred; for it is impossible that they should not wish to deprive Him of His dominion, who endure Him not as a Lawgiver and a Judge.
"To visit iniquities," is equivalent to inquiring into them, or taking cognizance of them, in order that punishment should be inflicted in proportion to the crime; for as long as God spares men and suspends His judgment, He seems to connive at them, or to pay no attention to them. Therefore, when men shall think that their sin is buried, He declares that He will bear it in memory. But it may be asked, how it is consistent for God to exact punishment from the children or grandchildren on account of the sins of their fathers? for nothing is more unreasonable than that the innocent and guilty should be involved in the same punishment; and the declaration of the Prophet is well known,
"The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son; but the soul that sinneth, it shall die." (<261820>Ezekiel 18:20.)
The difficulty, which arises from the words of the Prophet, is easily solved, for God therein refutes the wicked expostulation of the people, that their children, who were not in fault, were unjustly and cruelly exposed to punishment. The proverb was generally rife, that "the fathers had eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth were set on edge;" but God replies, that not one of those with whom He was angry and severe was free from crime; and, therefore, that their complaint was false, since each of them received the recompense of his own iniquity. And this is most true, that God's severity never assails the innocent; and however the world may murmur against His judgments, that He will always be clear in condemning this person or that. f87
But when God declares that He will cast back the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of the children, He does not mean that He will take vengeance on poor wretches who have never deserved anything of the sort; but that He is at liberty to punish the crimes of the fathers upon their children and descendants, with the proviso that they too may be justly punished, as being the imitators of their fathers. If any should object, that this is nothing more than to repay every one according to his works, we must remember that, — whenever God blinds the children of the ungodly, casts them into a state of reprobation, (conjicit in sesum reprobum), and smites them with a spirit of madness or folly, so that they give themselves up to foul desires, and hasten to their final destruction, — in this way the iniquity of the fathers is visited on their children. But suppose other punishments are added, all are under condemnation (convicti, so that they have no ground for murmuring against God; and even then also God still proceeds to execute the vengeance which He here denounces; for, when He would direct one work to various objects, He uses wonderful and secret expedients. When He commanded the people of Canaan to be destroyed, it is certain that those, who then were living, were worthy of this punishment; yet, inasmuch as God foretold f88 that their iniquities were not yet full, we infer that He then inflicted the punishment upon them which He had deferred for 400 years. On this ground, Christ declares that the Jews of His time were guilty of all the blood that had been shed from that of Abel to the blood of Zacharias, the son of Barachias, (<402335>Matthew 23:35.) But if it be not agreeable to our judgment that God should repay every one according to his deserts, and yet that He at the same time requires the sins of their fathers of the children, we should remember that His judgments are a great depth; and, therefore, if anything in His dealings is incomprehensible to us, we must bow to it with sobriety and reverence. But since this doctrine will recur elsewhere, I have thought fit only to touch upon it lightly here. One question remains, how we can reconcile the statement of Paul, that the fifth commandment is the first with promise, (<490602>Ephesians 6:2,) whereas a promise is annexed to this second. The solution of this is easy; for if you duly consider, this promise, which we have now explained, is not peculiarly annexed to any single commandment, but is common to the whole first Table of the Law, and these refer to the whole service of God; but when it is said, "honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long," the keeping of that commandment is particularly and specially sanctioned.
Exposition of the Second Commandment
Exodus 34
Exodus 34:17
17. Thou shalt make thee no molten gods. 17. Deos conflatiles non facies tibi.

Leviticus 19
Leviticus 19:4
4. Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the Lord your God. 4. Ne vertatis vos ad idola, neque deos conflatiles faciatis vobis: ego Jehova Deus vester.

Leviticus 26
Leviticus 26:1
1. Ye shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow down unto it: for: I am the Lord your God. 1. Non facietis vobis idolum, et sculptile: statuam non erigetis vobis, nec lapidem politum ponetis in terra vestra, ut vos incurvetis coram eo: quia ego Jehova Deus rester.

Exodus 22
Exodus 22:22, 23
22. And the Lord said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen. that I have talked with you from heaven. 22. Et ait Jehova ad Mosen, Sic dices filiis Israel, Vos vidistis quod e coelis loquutus sum vobiscum.
23. Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. 23. Non facietis mecum deos ar- gentcos, neque deos aureos fadetis vobis.

Exodus 34:17. Thou shalt make thee no molten gods. When he calls graven things, statues, and pictures, by the name of gods, he shews the object and sum of the Second Commandment, viz., that God is insulted when He is clothed in a corporeal image. Moreover, the name of God is transferred to idols, according to common parlance, and the corrupt opinion of the Gentiles; not that unbelievers thought that the Deity was included in the corruptible material, but because they imagined that it was nearer to them, if some earthly symbol of its presence were standing before their eyes. In this sense, they called the images of the gods their gods; because they thought they could not ascend to the heights in which the Deity dwelt, unless they mounted by these earthly aids. There is no doubt but that he comprehends by synecdoche, all kinds of images, when he forbids the making of molten gods; because metal is no more abominated by God than wood, or stone, or any other material, out of which idols are usually made; but, inasmuch as the insane zeal of superstition is the more inflamed by the value of the material or the beauty of the workmanship, Moses especially condemned molten gods. All question on this point is removed by the fourth passage here cited, wherein the Israelites are forbidden to make gods of silver or gold, viz., because idolaters indulge themselves more fully in their worship of very precious idols, by the external splendor of which all their senses are ravished. To the same effect is the third passage, in which mention is not, only made of graven images, but there is also added the name of a statue f89 or figured stone; for, although some expound these words as referring to a pavement, yet I have no doubt but that all monuments are included in them, wherein foolish men think that they have God in some measure visible, and therefore that they express all sculptures and pictures by which the spiritual worship of God is corrupted. For the object of Moses is to restrain the rashness of men, lest they should travesty God's glory by their imaginations; for another clause is immediately added, "I am the Lord your God," in which God reminds them that He is despoiled of His due honor, whenever men devise anything earthly or carnal respecting Him. The word hbxm, f90 matsebah, is sometimes used in a good sense; whence it follows, that no other statues are here condemned, except those which are erected as representations of God. The same also is the case as to the polished stone, f91 viz., when it receives a consecration, which may attract men's minds to regard it in a religious light, so as to worship God in the stone. But both in the second and third passages, Moses teaches men that as soon as they imagine anything gross or terrestrial in the deity, they altogether depart from the true God. And this is also expressed in the word µylyla, elilim, which embraces in it statues, stones, and graven images, as well as molten gods. Some think that this. word is compounded of la, al f92 the negative particle, and la, el, God. Others translate it "a thing of nought;" the Greeks and Latins have rendered it "idols." It is plain, that the false representations, which travesty God, are so called to mark them with disgrace and ignominy. But, since the superstitious cease not to gloss over their errors with cavils, God is not content with this opprobrious name, but adds others also, respecting which their pretext was more specious; that we may know that whatsoever withdraws us from His spiritual service, or whatsoever men introduce alien from His nature, is repudiated by Him. In the fourth passage, the antithesis must be noted, which will presently be explained more fully, viz., when God forbids them to make gods of corruptible materials, since He has "spoken from heaven;" in which words He signifies that all are doing wrong, who, when they ought to look up to heaven, tie down their own minds as well as Him to earthly elements.
Deuteronomy 4
Deuteronomy 4:12-19, 23, 24
12. And the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice. 12. Tunc loquutus est Jehova ad vos e medio ignis: vocem verborum audistis, at formam non vidistis praeter vocem.
13. And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone. 13. Et exposuit vobis pactum suum quod praecepit vobis ut faceretis: nempe decem verba, quae scrip-sit super duas tabulas lapideas.
14. And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it. 14. Mihi praecepit Jehova tempore illo ut docerem vos statuta et judicia, quae faceretis in terra, ad quam transitis possidendam.
15. Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves, (for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire,) 15. Itaque custodiatis vos valde super animabus vestris: (quoniam non vidistis ullam formam illo die, quo loquutus est Jehova vobiscum in Horeb e medio ignis:)
16. Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female; 16. Ne forte corrumpamini, et faciatis vobis sculptile, formam ullius simulachri, effigiem masculi aut foeminae.
17. The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air; 17. Effigiem cujusque animalis quod est in terra: effigiem cujuscunque volucris alatae quae volat per coelos:
18. The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth: 18. Effigiem cujuscunque repentis in terra: effigiem cujuscunque piscis qui est in aquis sub terra.
19. And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven. 19. Neve attollas oculos tuos in coelum: et quum videris solem, lunam, et stellas cum universo exercitu coelorum, impellaris ut adores atque colas ea, quae distribuit Jehova Deus tuus omnibus populis sub universo coelo.
23. Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of the Lord your God, which he made with you, and make you a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, which the Lord thy God hath forbidden thee. 23. Custodite vos, ne forte obliviscamini foederis Jehovae Dei vestri, quod percussit vobiscum, et faciatis vobis sculptlie, quamcunque simili-tudinem, sicut praecepit Jehova Deus tuus.
24. For the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God. 24. Nam Jehova Deus tuus, ignis consumens est, et Deus zelotes.

Exodus 34
Exodus 34:14
14. For thou shalt worship no other god: for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God. 14. Non incurvabis te Deo alieno. Nam Jehova zelotes nomen ejus, Deus zelotes est.

Deuteronomy 8
Deuteronomy 8:19, 20
19. And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the Lord thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day, that ye shall surely perish. 19. Si obliviscendo oblitus fueris Jehovae Dei tui, et ambulaveris post deos alienos, et colueris eos, et te in-curvaveris illis, testificor vobis hodie quod pereundi sitis perituri.
20. As the nations which the Lord destroyeth before your face, so shall ye perish; because ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the Lord your God. 20. Sicut gentes quas Jehova disperdit a facie vestra, sic peribitis: eo quod non obediveris voci Jehovec Dei vestri.

Deuteronomy 4:12. And the Lord spake unto you. It is a confirmation of the Second Commandment, that God manifested Himself to the Israelites by a voice, and not in a bodily form; whence it follows that those who are not contented with His voice, but seek His visible form, substitute imaginations and phantoms in His place. But here arises a difficult question, for God made Himself known to the patriarchs in other ways besides by His voice alone; thus Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob knew Him not only by hearing, but by sight. Moses himself saw Him in the midst of the burning bush; and He also manifested Himself to the Prophets under visible figures. Since it would be superfluous to heap together many citations, let the remarkable vision of Isaiah suffice, which is related in (Isaiah 6), and those of Ezekiel, which we read of in (Ezekiel 1 and Ezekiel 10) And yet God was not forgetful of Himself, when He thus presented Himself to the sight of His servants. Wherefore, this argument does not appear to be valid and good, that it is sinful to represent God in a visible image, because His voice was once heard without His being seen; when, on the other side, it is easy to object that visible forms have often been exhibited, wherein He testified His presence. The solution is twofold: first, that, although God may have invested Himself in certain forms for the purpose of manifesting Himself, this must be accounted as a peculiar circumstance, and not be taken as a general rule; secondly, that the visions shewn to the patriarchs were testimonies of His invisible glory, rather to elevate men's minds to things above than to keep them entangled amongst earthly elements. In the promulgation of His Law, God first prescribed what believers must follow; because He saw that this was the best method (compendium) for retaining the minds of His people in true religion, and at the same time the best remedy for idolatry. Unless we submit to this counsel of God, we shall not only betray a licentious spirit of contention, but shall run directly against God, like butting bulls. For it was not in vain that Moses laid down this principle, that when God collected to Himself a Church, and handed down a certain and inviolable rule for holy living, He had not invested Himself in a bodily shape, but had exhibited the living image of His glory in the doctrine itself. Hence we may conclude that all those who seek for God in a visible figure, not only decline, but actually revolt, from the true study of piety.
If any one should object that God is not inconsistent with Himself, and yet, as has been said, that He has more than once taken upon Himself a visible form, the reply is simple and easy, that, whenever He appeared to the patriarchs in a visible form, He gave a temporary sign, which still was by no means contradictory of this commandment. Isaiah saw the Lord of hosts sitting on His throne; yet he boldly cries out as from the mouth of God, "To whom will ye liken me?" (<236002>Isaiah 60:25.) Nor need I repeat how constantly he speaks against idolaters; certainly he inveighs more strongly than any of the prophets against the folly, nay, the madness of those who make to themselves any image of God; because they thus turn truth into falsehood; and finally he assumes the same principle as that of Moses, that the true nature of God is corrupted by tricks and delusions if a corruptible thing be called His image. But what was His vision itself? The seraphim, who surrounded God's throne, sufficiently shewed by their covering their faces with their wings that the sight of Him could not be borne by mortals. As to what Ezekiel relates, no painter could represent it; for God has always appeared distinguished from the shape of any creature by those marks which surpass man's apprehension. This conclusion, therefore, always remains sure, that no image is suitable to God, because He would not be perceived by His people otherwise than in a voice. But then also fire was a symbol of His presence, yet He testified by it that His glory is incomprehensible, and thus would prevent men from idol-making. We have elsewhere explained what it is "to guard themselves as to their souls." f93 But we infer, from his anxious exhortations, that they should take heed, how great is the leaning of the human soul to idolatry. This is the tendency of that attestation against them, which I have inserted from (Deuteronomy 8); for Moses not only threatens them, but, as if summoning witnesses according to the custom of solemn trials, denounces that they shall perish, in order to inspire them with greater fear by this earnest mode of address. Whence it appears that this insane lust (of idolatry) is not to be repressed by ordinary means. With the same object he says that they are "corrupted, or corrupt themselves," who make any similitude of God. Thus Paul also declares that in this way the truth is changed into a lie, (<450125>Romans 1:25;) and Jeremiah and Habakkuk condemn images for their falsehood. (<241014>Jeremiah 10:14; <350218>Habakkuk 2:18.) No wonder, then, that an idol should be called the "corruption" of men, since it adulterates the worship of God; and it is a most just recompense to those who pollute the pure and perfect knowledge of God, that they should be thence infected with a rottenness which consumes their souls. Hence, also, the stupid ignorance of the Papists is confuted who confine this prohibition to the ancient people, as if it were now permitted to paint or to sculpture (images of God) f94 as if they had been Jews whom Paul was addressing, when he reasoned from the common origin of our nature: "Forasmuch as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold or silver," or corruptible matter. (<441729>Acts 17:29) f95 There is no necessity for entering into details; but the Spirit declares no less plainly now that we must keep ourselves from idols, (<620521>1 John 5:21,) than He of old forbade their being made. Moreover, it was an act of diabolical madness to make away with one of the Ten Commandments, in order that they might rush into this foul and detestable extravagance with impunity. They pretend that the Jews were formerly prohibited from idolatry with greater strictness, because they were too much disposed to it, as if they were not themselves much worse in this respect. But, setting aside this, who does not see that the vice of superstition, which is natural to the human mind, was corrected by this remedy? Until, therefore, men have laid aside their nature, we infer that this Commandment is necessary for them.
19. And lest thou lift up thine eyes. Moses proceeds further, lest the Jews should imagine any divinity in the sun, and moon, and stars; nor does he only recall them from the error with which many were imbued, f96 thinking that these were so many gods; but also anticipates another superstition, lest, being ravished by the brightness of the stars, they should conceive them to be images of God. And to this the expression, to "be driven," refers. For since God represents His glory in the heavenly host, so also Satan, under this pretext, confuses and stupefies men's minds by a wily artifice, in order that they may worship God in these luminaries, and thus stumble at the very threshold. Therefore, that the Israelites may the better acknowledge how absurd it is to seek for God in earthly things, or in the elements of the world, or in corruptible matter, he expressly declares that they must not even lean f97 on heavenly creatures; since God's majesty is superior to the sun, and moon, and all the stars. Besides, he reproves the absurdity of transferring the worship of God to the stars, which, by God's appointment, are to minister to us; for when he says that "God hath divided them unto all nations," it implies subjection; as if he had said that the sun was our minister, and the moon, together with all the stars, our handmaid. Still, by the word "divided," God's admirable providence is fitly commended in respect to their varied position, and course, and different offices; for the sun does not enlighten and warm all lands at the same moment; and, again, it now retires from us, and now approaches us more closely; the moon has her circuits; the stars rise and set as the heaven revolves. I pass over the slower movement of the planets; but, according to the aspect of the stars, one climate is moister, another drier; one feels more heat, another more cold. This variety is aptly called by Moses "dividing." Yet it aggravates the sin of superstition, if the Jews give themselves to the service of the stars, which minister also to heathen nations; for what can be more unworthy than for the children of God to worship the sun, which is the servant of all the world? whence again it follows, that in proportion to the dignity and excellence of the creatures themselves, so is the ingratitude of men towards God all the more base, if they adorn with His worship as with spoils, those creatures which He has appointed to minister to their advantage. The silly notion in which some of the Rabbins delight themselves, f98 is unworthy of mention, viz., that God has divided the stars to the Gentiles, since they are subject to their influences, from which by special privilege the Jews are free; as if the condition of the human race had not been the same from the beginning. But the reason which I have adduced plainly shews, that they depart most widely from the meaning of Moses, and therefore pervert his intention; viz., that the creatures which are destined for our use, are by no means to be worshipped as God.
23. Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget. There is no contradiction in the sense, that he should first of all altogether forbid that idols should be made; and, secondly, speak only of worshipping and adoring them; for it is already in itself a wicked error to attribute any image to God; and another superstition always accompanies it, that God is always improperly worshipped in this visible symbol. There is a strong confirmation here of what I have previously stated, that whatever holds down and confines our senses to the earth, is contrary to the covenant of God; in which, inviting us to Himself, He permits us to think of nothing but what is spiritual, and therefore sets His voice against all the imaginations, whereby heathen nations have always been deceived; because they have been deprived of the light of that doctrine which would direct them to the heavenly greatness of God Himself. But those who have been taught by God's Law, not only that He alone is to be worshipped, but that He may not be represented by any visible effigy, are justly accounted covenant-breakers, if they do not confine themselves within these bounds; for they violate that Second Commandment (caput) by which they are commanded to worship God spiritually; and consequently are forbidden to make to themselves likenesses, or images, whereby they would deface and pollute His glory. At the end of the verse, which some translate "the likeness, which your God. hath forbidden," f99 the proper rendering is, "hath commanded, or enjoined:" and hence the relative rwa, asher, must be taken, as in many other places, as an adverb of comparison. The meaning of Moses is indeed by no means obscure; viz., that we must simply obey God's word; and that we must not dispute whether what He has forbidden is lawful or not; and that no other rule of right is to be sought for, except that we should follow what He has prescribed. Let the Papists dispute as they please, that images are not to be removed because they are useful for the people's instruction; but let this be our wisdom, to acquiesce in what God has chosen to decree in this matter. Although the threat which is subjoined might have been placed amongst the sanctions, which we shall hereafter consider in their proper place, yet I have been unwilling to separate it from the Second Commandment, to which it is annexed. A confirmation is added in Deuteronomy; viz., that God, who has not spared foreign nations, will much less pardon His people; inasnmch as it is a greater crime, and fouler ingratitude to forsake God when once He is known, and to cast aside the teaching of His Law, than to follow errors handed down from our forefathers. I have already explained in what sense He is called a "jealous God;" but in <023414>Exodus 34:14, Moses has not deemed it sufficient simply to honor God with this title; but, in amplification, he has added that this is His name, in order that we may know that He can no more bear a companion, or a rival, to be compared with Him, than He can cast away His Godhead, or deny Himself. He compares Him to fire, to increase our terror of Him. We know how audaciously the world indulges itself in superstitions; so that, as if in very sport, it metamorphoses God just as fancy leads. Wherefore, in order to incline men's minds to reverence, he sets before us in this figure God's fearful vengeance; as though He would instantly consume them, just as fire consumes stubble, if they shall have dared to think of God otherwise than is right.
Deuteronomy 11
Deuteronomy 11:16, 17
16. Take heed to yourselves, that your heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them; 16. Cavete ergo vobis ne seducatur cor vestrum, et recedatis, colatisque deos alienos, et vos incurvetis coram eis.
17. And then the Lord's wrath be kindled against you, and he shut up the heaven, that there be no rain, and that the land yield not her fruit; and lest ye perish quickly from off the good land which the Lord giveth you. 17. Unde excandescat ira Jehovae in vos, et claudat coelos ne sit pluvia, ac ne det terra fructum suum: pere-atisque celeriter e terra bona quam Jehova dat vobis.

16. Take heed to yourselves. By often inculcating the same thing, viz., that they should diligently take heed, he indirectly arraigns man's proneness to superstition; and this too is again expressed in the words, "that your heart be not deceived;" for by them he signifies, that unless they take diligent heed to themselves, nothing will be more easy than for them to fall into the snares of Satan. Wherefore the impudence of the Papists is the less excusable, who intoxicate their own and others' minds with security, when God constantly exhorts them to solicitude. Let us learn, then, that since many impostures and deceits besiege us on every side, we shall in the vanity of our nature be liable immediately to fall into them, unless we carefully guard ourselves. By the expression "turn aside," he implies what has been before said, that whosoever declines to corrupted worship, impiously falls away from the true God. Unbelievers but little think so, for with them it is a light transgression to exceed in this respect; and they would wilfully blind the eyes of God with their inventions (commentis), nay, there is nothing too silly for them to desire to be approved of, and sanctioned by God. But if it be objected that obedience is better than sacrifice, they shield themselves under the cover of their good intention, as if God were not at liberty to repudiate what they foolishly obtrude upon Him. At any rate, they so pertinaciously indulge themselves in their inconsiderate zeal, that they will hardly acknowledge the slightest fault in it. But, on the other side, God declares that all are apostates who do not confine themselves to the simplicity of the Law. A threat is again added, that God will avenge the violation of His worship, and will curse their land, until He shall destroy them by dearth and famine; and, finally, He pronounces that they shall perish off that land which God had promised them to the end that He might be there purely worshipped.
Deuteronomy 16
Deuteronomy 16:22
22. Neither shalt thou set thee up any image, which the Lord thy God hateth. 22. Non eriges tibi statuam: quod odio habet Jehova Deus tuus.

22. Neither shalt thou set thee up. Hence also it more clearly appears what is the meaning and tendency of the Second Commandment. God elsewhere commands, f100 (as we have seen,) that statues f101 should be erected on the borders of the land, on which the sum of the Law should be inscribed. At first sight this prohibition seems to be contradictory; and indeed it would be so, unless you understand "statue" to be a false image of God, in which men set Him before them in bodily form; and, therefore, it is added, that He hates such statues. But I have preferred translating f102 the relative in the neuter gender, that the sentence might be fuller; i.e., that the erecting of statues is an abomination to the Lord; because in this way His glory is dishonored, when He is transfigured into a body, or when anything corporeal is mixed with His spiritual nature.
Exodus 23
Exodus 23:24
24. Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works. 24. Non adorabis deos eorum, neque coles eos, neque facies secundum opera eorum.

24. Thou shalt not bow down to their gods. Moses repeats what had been before said, that the worship of God must be separated from all the superstitions of the Gentiles; for this error has been everywhere rife, that unbelievers would rather draw down God to themselves on earth, than ascend above to seek for Him. And in this sense we have said that idols are called gods; because it is impossible but that he who would represent God by wood and stone, should associate Him with corruptible matter. Experience also teaches us, that all the wicked are so attached to their idols, that they gain nothing by their subterfuge, when they allege that this is a necessary help to their ignorance. The following clause, "nor do after their works," sufficiently proves that all corrupt worship is comprehended under the term idolatry.
Deuteronomy 12
Deuteronomy 12:4-14, 17, 18, 26, 27
4. Ye shall not do so unto theLord your God. 4. Non facietis sic Jehovae Deo vestro.
5. But unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put his name there, even unto his habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come: 5. Sed locum quem elegerit Jehova Deus vester e cunctis tribubus vestris, ut ponat illic nomen suum ad habitandum, quaretis, veniesque illuc.
6. And thither ye shall bring your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and heave-offerings of your hand, and your vows, and your free-will-offerings, and the firstlings of your herds and of your flocks: 6. Et afferetis illuc holocausta vestra, sacrificia vestra, decimas vestras, levationem manus vestrae, vota vestra, spontaneas oblationes vestras, primogenita armentorum vestrorum, et pecudum vestrarum.
7. And there ye shall eat before the Lord your God; and ye shall rejoice in all that ye put your hand unto, ye and your households, wherein the Lord thy God hath blessed thee. 7. Comedetisque in conspectu Jehovae Dei vestri, et laetabimini in omni applicatione manus vestrae, vos et domus vestrae quibus benedixerit Jehova Deus tuus.
8. Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes. 8. Non facietis secundum omnia quae nos hodie hic facimus, unusquisque quod rectum est in oculis suis.
9. For ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance which the Lord your God giveth you. 9. Quia non venistis adhuc ad requiem et haereditatem quam Jehova Deus tuus dat tibi.
10. But when ye go over Jordan, and dwell in the land which the Lord your God giveth you to inherit, and when he giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety; 10. Quum vero transieritis Jordanem, et habitabitis in terra quam Jehova Deus tuus dat tibi possiden-dam, et requiem dederit vobis ab omnibus inimicis vestris in cireuitu, et habitabitis secure.
11. Then there shall be a place which the Lord your God shall choose to cause his name to dwell there: thither shall ye bring all that I command you; your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the heave-offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which ye vow unto the Lord. 11. Tune ad locum quem elegerit Jehova Deus vester, ut in eo habitare faciat nomen suum, adducetis omnia quae ego praecipio vobis, holo-causta vestra, sacrificia vestra, decimas vestras, elevationem manus vestrae, et omnem delectum votorum vestrorum quae vovebitis.
12. And ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God, ye, and your sons, and your daughters, and your men-servants, and your maid-servants, and the Levite that is within your gates; forasmuch as he hath no part nor inheritance with you. 12. Et laetabimini coram Jehova Deo vestro, vos et filii vestri, et filiae vestrae, servi vestri et ancillae vestrae: Levita quoque qui erit intra portas vestras: quia non habebit partem et haereditatem vobis-cum.
13. Take heed to thyself that thou offer not thy burnt-offerings in every place that thou seest: 13. Cave tibi ne forte offeras holocausta tua in quovis loco quem conspexeris:
14. But in the place which the Lord shall choose in one of thy tribes, there thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, and there thou shalt do all that I command thee. 14. Sed in loco quem elegerit Jehova in una tribuum tuarum, illic offeres holocausta tua, et illic facies quae ego praecipio tibi.
17. Thou mayest not eat within thy gates the tithe of thy corn, or of thy wine, or of thy oil, or the firstlings of thy herds, or of thy flock, nor any of thy vows which thou vowest, nor thy free-will-offerings, or heave-offering of thine hand: 17. Non poteris comedere in portis tuis decimam frumenti tui, vini tui, et olei tui, neque primogenita armentorum tuorum et pecudum tuarum, et onmia vota tua quae voveris, et spontanea tua, et elevationem manus tuae.
18. But thou must eat them before the Lord thy God in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite that is within thy gates: and thou shalt rejoice before the Lord thy God in all that thou puttest thine hands unto. 18. Sed coram Jehova Deo tuo comedes illa in 1.oco quem elegerit Jehova Deus tuus, tu et filius tuus, et filia tua, servus tuus, et ancilla tua, et Levita qui erit intra portas tuas: laetaberisque coram Jehova Deo tuo in omni applicatione manuum tuarum.
26. Only thy holy things which thou hast, and thy vows, thou shalt take, and go unto the place which the Lord shall choose. 26. Sanctificata tua quae fuerint tibi et vota tua tolles, ut venias ad locum quem elegerit Jehova:
27. And thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the Lord thy God: and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out upon the altar of the Lord thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh. 27. Et facies holocausta tua ex carne et sanguine super altare Jehovae Dei tui, sanguis autem sacrificiorum tuorum fundetur super altare Dei tui, carnes vero comedes.

4. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God. The principal distinction, as far as regards the external exercises of devotion, is here laid down between the legitimate worship of God, and all the fictitious rites which the Gentiles have invented; viz., that God would have but one sanctuary and one altar, which might be a symbol of the difference between Himself and all idols; and thus that true religion should have no affinity to superstitions. To this refers the prohibition, that the Israelites should not conduct themselves towards God as the Gentiles did towards their idols; but that a barrier should be raised, which would separate f103 them from the whole world. The whole external profession of God's worship is fitly annexed to the Second Commandment, because upon that it depends, and has no other object than its due observation. But when I begin to speak of the tabernacle, the priesthood, and the sacrifices, I am entering on a deep and vast ocean, in which many interpreters, whilst indulging their curiosity, have pursued a wild and wandering course. Admonished, therefore, by their example, I will take in my sails, and only touch upon a few points which tend to edification in the faith. But my readers must now be requested, not only to pardon me for abstaining from subtle speculations, but also themselves willingly to keep within the bounds of simplicity. Many have itching ears; and in our natural vanity, most men are more delighted by foolish allegories, than by solid erudition. But let those who shall desire to profit in God's school, learn to restrain this perverse desire of knowing more than is good for them, although it may tickle their minds. Now let us consider the words of Moses.
5. But unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose. It is asked why God would have sacrifices offered to Him only on one altar? Besides the reason which I have lately advanced, it is not to be doubted but that He in this way had regard to believers, that He might cherish in them an agreement in the unity of the faith. This place, then, was like a standard to gather together the people, lest their religion should be torn by divisions, and lest any diversities should insinuate themselves. Moreover, God, by claiming His right and authority to choose the place, commends obedience, on which also the purity of worship depends. But, again, another question arises; because, before the time of David, the Ark had nowhere a fixed resting-place, but traveled about, as it were, to various lodgings, therefore, if the chosen place is understood to be Mount Zion, the people were free in the intermediate time to perform the sacrifices wherever they pleased. I reply, that the place was not, chosen until the Ark was placed in Zion; for not till then was fulfilled what is said in the Psalm,
"I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go into the house of the Lord; our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem,"
(<19C201>Psalm 122:1-2;)
in which words the Prophet intimates that there was before no resting-place, because God had not yet pointed out the place in which He would be worshipped. Therefore it is expressly said, "out of all your tribes," or "in one of your tribes," whereby a special privilege is referred to, which was to be conferred on one of their tribes, to the exclusion of the others. And to this relates what is said in another Psalm,
"Moreover he refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim, but chose the tribe of Judah, the Mount Zion which he loved: and he built his sanctuary like high palaces, like the earth, which he hath established for ever."
(<197867>Psalm 78:67-69.)
To the same effect the faithful elsewhere congratulate themselves, after the Ark was deposited with David, "We will go into his tabernacles, we will worship at his footstool;" and, on the other hand, the Spirit declares,
"The Lord hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation. This is my rest for ever: here will I dwell; for I have desired it." (<19D207>Psalm 132:13-14.)
Similar statements everywhere occur, confirming the opinion that the Ark never rested in its true home until it was deposited on Zion; and God, in my judgment, in order that He might keep the hope of His people in suspense, promised, although the Ark changed its place from time to time, that He had still determined on a perpetual abode in which it should rest. Yet it does not therefore follow that, up to that period, a free permission was given to the people to sacrifice wherever they would. For, wherever the sanctuary was, there was also a temporary choice of the place, until the legitimate resting-place was shewn them. Therefore God, chastising by Jeremiah the foolish confidence by which the Jews were puffed up, said,
"Go ye now unto my place, which was in Shiloh,
and see what I did to it," etc., (<240712>Jeremiah 7:12;)
in which words he implies that Shiloh had been highly honored for a season, but had now been deprived of its honor, because the sacrifices had there been unworthily polluted.
Although, then, there is a special promise here concerning Zion, still there is no doubt but that God in the meantime confines the Jews to His sanctuary, lest any one should erect a private altar for himself, or build for himself other cities and other temples. The phrase is worthy of observation, "to put his name there; " and again, "his habitation." The gross imaginations of men are thus obviated, lest the people should enclose God within walls, as they are wont to circumscribe His infinite essence, or to draw Him down from heaven, and to place Him beneath the elements of the world. But God's name is said to inhabit a place, not in His own nature, but with reference to man; whilst, in deference to their ignorance, He sets before their eyes a visible symbol of His presence. Thus He is often said to "come down," not as if He, who fills heaven and earth, actually moved, but because the familiar knowledge of Him brings Him near to men. But although He allows Himself to be invoked on earth, yet He would not have the minds of men rest there, but rather lifts them up on high as if by steps. Therefore, by Isaiah, He harshly chides them, because, although enwrapped in their sins, they still thought that He was under obligation to them because His temple was in their sight, (<236601>Isaiah 66:1,) whereas it is our business to approach Him by faith and with serious feelings when He extends His hand to us. The Ark of the Covenant indeed is often called "His face;" but, lest men should form any gross or earthly conceptions of Him, the sanctuary is also called "His footstool."
The various kinds of oblations which are here enumerated will be hereafter more clearly explained. I will only briefly remind you that the burnt-offerings are included in the sacrifices, as a part is taken for the whole. The Hebrew word, which we have translated "the elevating of the hand," is, hmwrt, therumah, f104 to which another word, hpwnt, thenuphah, is often added; but, although both are derived from the act of elevating, still they seem to differ, and those skilled in the language thus distinguish them, viz., that hmwrt, therumah, is to be lifted up, and then brought down; and, hpwnt, thanuphah, to be turned at the same time to the right and left, although others think it means to be turned round to the four quarters of the globe. There is a difference between vows and freewill-offerings; for although a vow is at first freely made, yet we may offer things which we have not vowed. I have already spoken of the firstlings.
7. And there shall ye eat. We see that the sanctuary in which God manifested Himself is called His face; f105 for, although believers are taught that always, wherever they dwell, they walk before God; yet they placed themselves nearer, and in some special manner in His sight, when they approached His sanctuary. By this mode of speaking God also stimulates the laziness or tardiness of the people, lest it should be irksome to them to come to the Ark of the Covenant for the purpose of sacrificing, inasmuch as this inestimable benefit would compensate for the labor and expense of the journey. I have elsewhere shewn that, when men are said to feast before the Lord, sacred feasts are thus distinguished from our daily meals. For this was as it were an accessory to the sacrifices, to eat what remained of the victims; and in this way the guests were made partakers of the offering, which custom even heathen nations imitated, though improperly. Again, God kindly invites them when He says, "ye shall rejoice in all that thou puttest thine hands unto," for which some translate it, "in everything to which you shall have sent your hand; " literally it is, "in the sending forth of the land." There is no ambiguity in the sense, for it refers to those works which require the motion and application of the hands. A little below, where I have translated it, "which he hath blessed," (quibus benedixerit,) some insert the proposition in, and supply the pronoun you, (i.e., in which he hath blessed you;) but it is quite appropriate to say, that God blesses their works, although it may be understood of their families also. As to the command that the tithes should be eaten in the holy place, I do not extend it to tithes in general, f106 for it was hardly probable that the food of those who were dispersed through various cities should be transferred to another place, so that they would perish (at home) f107 from hunger; but I understand it of the second tithes, which the Levites separated to be a special and peculiar oblation; for we shall see elsewhere that what remained over passed into the nature of ordinary produce, as if the Levites ate of the fruits of their own possessions.
8. Ye shall not do after all. Even then they observed the rite of sacrifice handed down to them from the fathers; but since as yet they were wandering in the desert, it was lawful for them to build altars anywhere, until an end should be put to their journeyings. And this Moses expressly declares, adding the reason, viz., that they had not yet entered into the rest which the Lord had promised them. He shews them, then, that when they shall have attained the tranquil possession of the land, there would be no further room for excuse if they should sacrifice wheresoever it pleased them. When, therefore, it is said that they then did "every man whatsoever was right in his own eyes," it does not extend to any of the inventions which men devise for themselves in the worship of God, but only points out a freer system and form in the exercise of devotion, before the place was shewn them in which they must stay their foot. f108
10. But when ye go over Jordan. This verse confirms what I have before said, that the Jews were constrained to a certain rule as soon as they should have reached the promised land; and yet that the place in which the Ark was perpetually to rest, would not be immediately manifested to them; for what is declared at the end of the verse, that God would give them rest round about, so that they should dwell in safety, was not in fact perfectly exhibited before the time of David. Still God would have them, as soon as they were in enjoyment of the land, come together even from their remotest boundaries to the sanctuary. He omits certain kinds of offerings of which he had lately spoken, and puts, instead of "vows," f109 "the choice vows," which some translate "very choice vows," or "the chief things in your vows." I do not reject this; but the other sense is more simple, that all the vows were comprised which every one had made of his own free judgment and choice. Soon afterwards he more fully expresses his meaning, when he prohibits them from offering sacrifices of their own accord in any places that might please them; for, "to see a place," here, is equivalent to being carried away by the sight, so as to connect religion and holiness with elegance and beauty.
26. Only thy holy things. This passage more clearly explains what was meant by the foregoing precepts, viz., that but one place was set apart for the performance of their sacred rites, lest, if each should offer wherever it pleased him, religion should be corrupted, and by degrees the various altars should beget as many gods. He therefore commands that all the victims should be sacrificed on one altar, with a provision that the blood should be poured out.
Deuteronomy 14
Deuteronomy 14:23-26
23. And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, in the place which he shall choose to place his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the Lord thy God always. 23. Et comedes coram Jehova Deo tuo in loco quem elegerit ut habitare faciat nomen suum ibi, decimam frumenti tui, vini tui, et olei tui, et primogenita boum tuorum, et pecudum tuarum: ut discas timere Jehovam Deum tuum omnibus diebus.
24. And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it; or if the place be too far from thee, which the Lord thy God shall choose to set his name there, when the Lord thy God hath blessed thee: 24. Quod si longior fuerit via quam ut per eam ferre possis illas, quod distet a te locus ille quem elegerit Jehova Deus tuus ut ponat nomen suum ibi, quum benedixerit tibi Jehova Deus tuus:
25. Then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thine hand, and shalt go unto the place which the Lord thy God shall choose: 25. Tunc dabis pro pecunia, et colligabis pecuniam in manu tua, et ibis ad locum quem elegerit Jehova Deus tuus:
26. And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the Lord thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household. 26. Et dabis pecuniam pro omni eo quod desiderat anima tua, pro bobus, et pro ovibus, et pro vino, et pro sicera, et pro cunctis denique quae postulaverit a te anima tua: et comedes ibi coram Jehova Deo tuo, et laetaberis tu et domus tua.

23. And thou shalt eat before the Lord. He again commands the victims to be brought into the place of the sanctuary; although by the place which God shall choose, he designates Jerusalem, as has been said in the above commentary on chap. 12.; for the Ark of the Covenant had no settled resting-place until the time of David, but was received as it were in temporary lodgings. Moses, therefore, now commands, that when God shall have so greatly honored a particular place, and shall have chosen a perpetual rest, in which His name shall dwell, thither are the offerings to be brought. But we know that this place was Jerusalem; and all the oblations were restricted to this one place, lest any corruption should creep in to destroy the unity of the faith. For all strange inventions, as has already been sufficiently seen, are so many profanations of God's worship. But, whereas in chap. 12, Moses had promiscuously joined the tithes with the firstlings, and had made the same appointment with respect to both, he now relaxes the stringency of that law, by adding an exception, viz, that if the way should be too long, a commutation might be made, and money might be paid instead of corn. He does not, indeed, speak only of the tithes, but unites with them the vows and free-gifts; nay, he refers properly to these alone. But, since as to the latter there is no question, let us only consider whether it was consistent that the tithes should be paid in one place alone. They were given to the Levites for their maintenance, who, as is well known, were dispersed throughout the whole land; either then their residence must have been fixed at Jerusalem, or they must not be deprived of their subsistence, wherever they might dwell. The command, therefore, appears to be absurd, that all the tithes of the whole land should be brought to Jerusalem, for that would have amounted to nothing less than to destroy the poor Levites by famine. This absurdity has compelled the commentators to fabricate a doubtful conjecture; viz., that the people voluntarily set apart certain tithes, which they might carry to Jerusalem at the festivals; but it is not probable that so heavy a burden was imposed upon them, f110 as that they should only keep at home what remained of the fifth part. But a nearer approach to probability would be, that the tithes of the neighboring country, as convenience offered, were carried to Jerusalem; whilst those which were collected in more distant places were set aside there; but that they were accounted for at Jerusalem, so that upon a calculation of the number of their families, an equal distribution might be made to the Levites. Certainly it is by no means probable that the respective tillers of the soil carried up to Jerusalem what the Levites, having received there, were compelled to take back again for the maintenance of their families; for what would have been the advantage of all this expense and trouble of carrying them backwards and forwards? Besides, it would have been useless to command the Levites, and that too with the addition of severe threats, to pay the priests faithfully, if the tithes had been first deposited with the priests themselves, who might easily have provided against all deception, since they had the whole quantity of corn in their own hands. I have, therefore, no doubt but that the Levites collected the tithes each in their own neighborhood, but that another tithing, of which mention will be made presently, was carried up to the sanctuary as a sacred offering, and a profession of service to God. For we have lately seen, that after that part had been withdrawn, the nine parts which remained were assigned to the Levites, as if they had been grown on their own ground. But because it was a subject which might cause complaints, that the first-fruits and other tithes should be collected into one place, God would anticipate this by showing the advantage of it to the whole people, in that there might be food enough for all who should come to the celebration of the festivals; for this is the meaning of the words, "thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God;" as if it had been said, that the place should be sacred to God, to which the worshippers of God might come from the whole land. Yet He commands, in the meanwhile, the pure observation of His worship; lest a diversity of places might draw away the people in various directions to false superstitions.
24. And if the way be too long. I am prevented from understanding this restriction as having reference to the tithes, by the ordinance which is elsewhere made, that whosoever would redeem them by a money-payment, (<032731>Leviticus 27:31,) should add a fifth part, and this is omitted here; and, again, by the explanation which is soon after added, that they should bring money with them instead of their offerings, and buy with it oxen and sheep, wine, and strong drink, as they pleased. The sum is, that if it were too burdensome for them to bring from their distant homes victims and other gifts, they were permitted to buy at Jerusalem whatever they chose to offer, provided they made no offerings elsewhere.
Exodus 20
Exodus 20:24, 25
24. An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen. In all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. 24. Altare terreum facies mihi, et sacrificabis super illud holocausta tua, et sacrificia prosperitatum tuarum, pecudes tuas, et armenta tua: in onmi loco in quo memoriam posuero nominis mei, veniam ad te, et benedicam tibi.
25. And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. 25. Quod si altare ex lapidibus feceris mihi, non aedificabis eos excisos, si gladium tuum elevaveris super illos, pollues.

24. An altar of earth thou shalt make. This precept differs from the other, which I have just explained; because although it refers to the choice of a place, f111 yet the mention of a place is omitted, and it only touches upon the material and form of the altar. God, therefore, commands that an altar should be built to Him, either of earth or of a heap of stones, which had not been artificially polished. But I understand this of the altars, which either in the desert or elsewhere should be built, before the choice of the perpetual place had been manifested to them. God would have them built of earth, that they might fall down of themselves, and that no trace of them might remain after the departure of the people; but if stones were used, He forbade their being fitted together in a permanent structure, but would have them thrown rough and unpolished into a heap, lest their appearance should entice posterity to superstition. I am surprised that commentators f112 should here put themselves to the pains of inventing allegories; since God had no other object than to remove stumbling-blocks, whereby the Israelites might be turned away from the sanctuary; for we know how antiquity, and the example of our forefathers, is apt to attract the minds of the vulgar. If anything in the shape of an altar had remained, immediately religious notions would have been associated with it, that, God could nowhere be more solemnly or better worshipped, than in the place already dedicated of old by their fathers. Thus degenerate modes of worship would have sprung up, and the dignity of the sanctuary would have been brought into contempt. Wherefore this evil is anticipated when He forbids altars to be built which might exist for any length of time; and only allows them to be adapted for present use, being made of earth, or of an unfashioned heap of stones. As to "the sacrifices of prosperities,". I have elsewhere stated why I so translate the word µymwlç, shelumim, f113 which signifies all prosperous and happy results; for the rendering of others, viz., peaceful things, (pacifica), is very unsuitable. The latter part of the verse, "in all places, where I record my name, I will come unto thee," has been ignorantly perverted by commentators, and hence has afforded a ground of error; for they have read it in connection with the former part, as if God had forbidden such an altar to be made in Mount Sion also; whereas He rather anticipates a doubt, which might have otherwise perplexed the minds of the people; Will not God be favorable to us where He heard the prayers of our fathers? He replies, I say, to this by the promise, that they will pray to Him well and duly, if they only obey His command, and seek no other place except that which He shall choose. On this score it is said, that wheresoever it shall please God that sacrifices should be offered, there He will descend to you, to be favorable unto you.
Deuteronomy 27
Deuteronomy 27:5-7
5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the Lord thy God, an altar of stones: thou shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them. 5. AEdificabis in monte Ebal altare ex lapidibus Jehovae Deo tuo: non levabis super eos ferrum.
6. Thou shalt build the altar of the Lord thy God of whole stones; and thou shalt offer burnt-offerings thereon unto the Lord thy God: 6. E lapidibus integris aedificabis altare Jehovae Dei tui: et offeres super illud holocausta Jehovae Deo tuo:
7. And thou shalt offer peace-offerings, and shalt eat there, and rejoice before the Lord thy God. 7. Et offeres sacrificia prosperiratum, comedesque illic, ac laetaberis coram Jehova Deo tuo.

5. And there shalt thou build an altar. At their first entrance into the land, God commands that a sacrifice of thanksgiving should be offered to Him; and this Joshua performed, as is related in <060830>Joshua 8:30-31.
"Then Joshua built an altar unto the Lord God of Israel in Mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the Lord commanded the children of Israel, an altar of whole stones, over which no man hath lift up any iron."
First of all, then, this testimony of their gratitude is required, that the children of Israel, as soon as they have begun to set foot in the land of Canaan, might celebrate the praises of the Lord; secondly, he forbids all artificial work, because, if the altar had been permanent, it would have been an occasion of superstition, and this exceptional instance would have been more regarded than the perpetual Law of God. Hence the nine tribes and half were so greatly wroth against the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half Manasseh, on account of the altar which was built on the bank of Jordan, (Joshua 22,) insomuch that they determined utterly to destroy their brethren, until they had cleared themselves by alleging that they had only built it as a memorial of their brotherly union, and not for sacrifice. Assuredly they were good expounders of the Law who accounted it an inexpiable crime, that an altar should be left for posterity, to withdraw the people from the one sanctuary, and thus to destroy the unity of faith.
Exodus 25
Exodus 25:1-22
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering. 2. Alloquere filios Israel ut tollant mihi levationem: ab omni viro cujus cor voluntarie dederit illam, sumetis levationem meam.
3. And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass, 3. Ista autem est oblatio quam capietis ab eis, aurum et argentum, et aes,
4. And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, 4. Et hyacinthum, et purpuram, et vermiculum cocci, et byssum, et pilos caprarum,
5. And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim-wood, 5. Et pelles arietum rubricatas, et pelles taxorum, et ligna sittim.
6. Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense, 6. Oleum pro luminari, aromata pro oleo unctionis et pro thymiamate aromatum:
7. Onyx-stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate. 7. Lapides onychinos, et lapides plenitudinum pro ephod et pro pectorali.
8. And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. 8. Et facient mihi sanctuarium, ut habitem in medio eorum.
9. According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it. 9. Omnino ut ego ostendam tibi similitudinem habitaculi, et similitudinem omnium vasorum ejus, sic facietis.
10. And they shall make an ark of shittim-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. 10. Facient etiam arcam e lignis sittim: duorum cubitorum et semis erit longitudo ejus, cubitus vero et semis latitudo ejus, cubiti item et semis altitudo ejus.
11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it; and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. 11. Operiesque eam auro puro, intrinsecus et extrinsecus, operies inquam, eam, faciesque super eam coronam auream in circuitu.
12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it. 12. Fundes quoque ei quatuor annulos aureos, quos pones ad quatuor angulos ejus: duos videlicet annulos in latere ejus uno, et duos annulos in latere ejus altero.
13. And thou shalt make staves of shittim-wood, and overlay them with gold. 13. Facies praeterea vectes ex lignis sittim, quos cooperies auro.
14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them. 14. Inducesque vectes in annulos qui erunt in lateribus illius arcrae, ut illis deferetur area.
15. The staves shall be in. the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it. 15. In annulis illius arcae erunt vectes, non removebuntur ab ea.
16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee. 16. Ponesque in arca testimonium quod dabo tibi.
17. And thou shalt make a mercy-seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. 17. Facies et operculum ex auro mundo: duorum cubitorum et dimidii erit longitudo ejus, cubiti vero et dimidii latitudo ejus.
18. And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold; of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy-seat. 18. Facies etiam duos cherubim aureos: ductiles facies eos in duabus extremitatibus propitiatorii.
19. And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end; even of the mercy-seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof. 19. Facies autem cherub unum in extremo hinc, et cherub alterum in extremo inde: ex propitiatorio facietis cherubim, duabus extremitatibus ejus.
20. And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy-seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy-seat shall the faces of the cherubims be. 20. Expandentque cherubim duas alas superne tegentes alis suis propitiatorium, et se mutuo aspicient: ad propitiatorium erunt facies cherubim.
21. And thou shalt put the mercy-seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. 21. Pones autem propitiatorium super arcam superne, et in arca pones testimonium quod dabo tibi.
22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy-seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel. 22. Conveniamque tecum illuc, et loquar tecum e propitiatorio inter duos cherubim quod erit super arcama testimonii, quaecunque praecipiam tibi ad filios Israel.

2. Speak unto the children of Israel. If any caviller should raise a question as to the time in which I have thought fit to introduce this history, f114 although I would not pertinaciously contend with him, still I have not only a probable, but a sure reason for my opinion. For it appears to me that I clearly gather from Exodus 33, that the tabernacle was already built before Moses brought down the first tables from the Mount; for it is there said, that in token of their divorce, in order that the people might know that they were repudiated by God, Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it separately for himself without the camp; not for his own peculiar use, because it is expressly said that he did not dwell there, but that he went out of the camp as often as he desired to consult God; whilst Joshua was its keeper and guardian, (aedituus.) But there is no doubt but that this took place previous to his second ascent to bring down new tables from the Lord; it is, therefore, clear that the tabernacle was already erected. If any object that it was not set up till the end of the second year, the reply is easy, that it was placed anew in its proper position, so that being everywhere surrounded by the children of Israel, it might have all its guards, according to the twelve tribes encamped in their due order; and again, that the tables were then actually deposited in the Ark of the Covenant, and by them God represented Himself, so that without them the tabernacle was in a manner empty; finally, that the solemn dedication is there treated of, for which the due season had not arrived, until in testimony of God's presence the covenant was deposited in the Ark, by way of pledge. In order the better to remove all ambiguity, we must briefly calculate the time. In the third month from their exodus the people reached Mount Sinai. On what day the Law was given is nowhere stated, unless we may probably conjecture that it was promulgated about the end of that month. Thus there will be eight months to be computed until the day on which the tabernacle was dedicated, and the tables deposited in the Ark of the Covenant, as Moses expressly says in the last chapter of Exodus; but, in the Book of Numbers, he relates that in the second month of that year the people removed the camp from that place, and departed to Kibroth-Hattaavah. f115 Now, since between the dedication of the tabernacle and their departure only one month intervened, we must admit that the two ascents into the mountain had preceded in order of time.
Now, the question is, whether he was called to receive the first tables in the beginning of the fourth month? If this be allowed, he could scarcely have prescribed the building of the sanctuary before the end of the eighth month; for it would have been absurd to give f116 the tables of God's paternal favor between the two ascents, while the separation of the tabernacle was testifying of their divorce from Him. Thus, then, I establish the fact, that four whole months were employed in this long and difficult work. And surely it was wonderful that so short a time should suffice; had not incredible activity surpassed all men's expectation, whilst they all emulously devoted themselves with unwearied labor to hasten the work. And it is probable, that after God had established His covenant, He immediately delivered the ordinances respecting the tabernacle and its adjuncts; lest the people should be without the external exercises of religion, which we have seen to be so very necessary. But after the completion of the work, Moses was again commanded to come nigh to God with Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders; and after the offering of sacrifices, he was taken up into the cloud to hold familiar communion with God, where he passed about a month and a half. Having returned, and being made aware of the rebellion of the people, the slaughter of the three thousand took place, and he commanded the people to mourn. How long he remained we know not, but it is probable that at least a month passed before he was recalled We have now more than nine months; and if we add the month and a half during which he was kept in the mount, we shall not be far from the end of the year. God then reconciled Himself to the people, and thus the legitimate dedication of the tabernacle soon followed, which took place in the second year at the beginning of the first month. The Passover having been celebrated, the sign of removal was given in the second month.
If any disagree with me, I would now have them answer me, how it is consistent that Moses, having detected the people's transgression, should then have begun to exhort them to the building of the sanctuary, whereas in his whole address there is no mention made of idolatry? Surely, all things well considered, we must be ready to confess that the people were still loyal when they so heartily consecrated their property to God. But the whole question is sufficiently settled by what I have alleged on the testimony of Moses, viz., that before he came down with the first tables the tabernacle was already in being, unless, perhaps, it be objected that it was another tabernacle, and different from that which was afterwards set up by God's command. But this is a very foolish cavil, for Moses had no authority to make an earthly dwelling-place for God, and to impose on it the sacred name whereby the sanctuary is always honored; and he expressly relates that God's glory appeared in it, in order that the people might more surely know that they were separated from God for their uncleanness, of which matter we shall again speak in its proper place. Again, the word jql, lakach, f117 implies that Moses took the tabernacle out of the camp, to transfer it to another place. If any one should now object that the tabernacle was arranged according to the pattern which Moses saw in the mount, the reply is easy, that Moses was not then first in the mountain instructed in the true worship of God and heavenly mysteries, when he was kept there forty days, but already before the promulgation of the Law; nor is there any doubt but that the same things were then shewn to him which he had learned before, in order that the people might be more disposed to diligent meditation on the Law. For, from the length of time, they might acknowledge that nothing was omitted which it would be useful for them to know; since, although God might have so instructed His servant in a moment that nothing should have been wanting, still He chose gradually, and as if at His ease, to form for Himself a perfect teacher; and this concession was made to the infirmity of the people. For thus we read in <021909>Exodus 19:9,
"Behold I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever."
And again, <022021>Exodus 20:21,
"And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness, where God was."
From whence it is plain that there is no absurdity in saying that he had already seen the pattern of the tabernacle wherein God would be worshipped.
But lest any should object that I rest upon conjectures only, Moses himself plainly shews that, before he received the tables, God gave him instructions respecting the making of the tabernacle; for twice in chapter 25 it is said, "Thou shalt put in the Ark the testimony which I shall give thee," verses 16 and 21; from whence it is clear that the tables were not yet given, when from God's command he described the whole structure; and thence we again infer that, when the tabernacle was set up, he went up into the mount to bring down the tables which were to be placed in the Ark. But, before he begins to treat of the construction of the tabernacle, he imposes a tribute upon the people, that each, according to his means, should contribute materials both for the tabernacle itself and for all its furniture. The heaving, or, hmwrt, therumah, f118 is here put simply for an offering; and is not, as in other passages, distinguished from another kind of sacrifice, which is called hpwnt, thenuphah. But the Israelites are simply commanded to bestow from their abundance what may suffice for the worship of God. It is indeed certain that all we have is God's, and that all He bountifully gives us is polluted unless we devote it to His glory. Still in His indulgence He permits us the free use of all, if only we testify that it remains under His power, and are ready to expend it as He shall command. Thus we duly offer alms, as sacrifices of, sweet-smelling savor; although the rich may not exhaust himself to poverty, but, whilst he relieves the poor, enjoys the goods which he possesses. In sum, whatever we offer to God is like the first-fruits, whereby we testify that all we have is consecrated to His glory. Now, although He required no assistance from the people for the building and adorning of His tabernacle, since it was He who, for the maintenance of them all, daily rained down manna from heaven; yet he would have every one, from the very least to the greatest, bring together, in testimony of their piety, whatever was necessary for the sacred work. But what He then would have spent on the visible sanctuary, He now requires for the building of His spiritual temple. Properly speaking, it is He alone that builds His Church; yet He uses the work of men, and will have many builders associated with Him, that the edifice of His Church may arise in some measure by the labor of men; as also He ascribes the praise of its prosperity and success to them. Meanwhile we offer nothing which He Himself has not bestowed; just as the Israelites gave nothing but what had been derived from his bounty alone. Therefore, He distributes the gifts of His Spirit in certain measures, (<461207>1 Corinthians 12:7;) that, as each has received more or less, he may employ it on the building of the Church. But this should be the best incentive to activity, that none is so poor or humble but that his offering is acceptable and pleasing, however small it may be, and almost worthless in the eyes of men. Moreover, it must be observed, that the tribute is not demanded authoritatively, but it is declared that each should freely offer what he pleased; for, from the beginning, Paul's word was true, that "God loveth a cheerful giver," (<470407>2 Corinthians 4:7;) and all Scripture teaches us that no obedience is pleasing to God except what is voluntary; for, although the word wnbdy, yidbenu, f119 is variously rendered by the translators, the sum comes to this, that the gift of each would be pleasing to God according to the cheerful alacrity of his mind. The old interpreter (i.e., the Vulgate) has it "qui offert ultroneus," (he who offers voluntarily;) but this is rather paraphrastic than literal. f120 Others differ from each other: some understand the relative as referring to the offering, and translate it, "whose heart shall have voluntarily given it;" others, "He who shall have shewn his heart liberal, or willing." The second rendering is the right one.
3. And this is the offering. Hence, what I have before said is more fully continued, viz., that what the poor offer of their little will not be eclipsed by the abundance of the rich, since God deigns to reckon goats' hair among the sacred offerings not less than gold, purple, and precious stones. Again, by the varied and manifold contributions, He would shew, as in a glass, that a variety of gifts are necessary to the building of the spiritual temple, as Paul sets forth in Romans 12 and 1 Corinthians 12. The liberality of the rich was indeed more splendid; but, as they did not scruple to mix their gold and silver, blue, purple, and precious stones, with brass, iron, and other common materials, so also, now-a-days, those who aid the edification of the Church by their more excellent gifts, admit, without contempt or dislike, into fellowship poor brethren, to whom it is not given to equal them.
8. And let them make me a sanctuary. By first setting before them an inestimable recompense, God stirs up the people to give largely; for, although liberality is praised by all as a most excellent virtue, yet no one willingly deprives himself of his own to bestow it upon others, since all think that it is so much lost to themselves, unless they have some compensation in view. Wherefore, that they may expend cheerfully, God promises that He will dwell among them, than which nothing is more desirable. But we must beware of imagining anything inconsistent with the nature of God, for He who sits above the heavens, and whose footstool is the earth, could not be enclosed in the tabernacle; but, because in His indulgence for the infirmities of an ignorant people, He desired to testify the presence of His grace and help by a visible symbol, the earthly sanctuary is called His dwelling amongst men, inasmuch as there He was not worshipped in vain. And we must bear in memory what we have lately seen, that it was not the infinite essence of God, but His name, or the record of His name, that dwelt there. This was the object of the expressions; that the Israelites ought not to be slow or lazy in setting up the tabernacle, because by these means they would obtain for themselves an inestimable advantage. Another clause follows, that the artificers should copy the pattern shewn to Moses, and not dare to invent anything, since it would be a profanation to mix up anything human with the commands of God; on which matter we shall treat more diffusely when we speak generally of the types. Now is described the form of the Ark and its covering: for the composition of the tabernacle, and its various parts, which Moses now only slightly adverts to, will be presently repeated at greater length in chapter 32. But, although the tabernacle was called God's house, yet there was a more express image of His glory in the Ark of the Covenant; because the Law, whereby God bound the people to Himself, was there deposited. The material was shittim-wood, covered or overlaid with plates of gold. As to the species of the tree, f121 not even the Hebrews are agreed among themselves, although we may conjecture that it was beautiful and costly; yet God would have gold over its whole surface, and even shining on its staves, that the dignity of the Law might be enhanced. But here a question may arise, which introduces many others with it, how the sumptuous splendor both of the Ark, as well as the tabernacle and all its utensils, contributed to the worship of God? for it is certain that God would never be worshipped except agreeably to His nature; whence it follows, that His true worship was always spiritual, and therefore by no means comprised in external pomp.
But the great number and intricacy of the ceremonies were so far from awakening piety, that they were even the occasion of superstition, or era foolish and perverse confidence. Again, so many and such various rites seem to have had no other tendency than to feed curiosity. It will be therefore worth while briefly to premise something respecting this point,. They are, in my judgment, at fault, who think that the eyes of the people were captivated by these magnificent sights, lest their religion, being stripped of all ornament, should become dishonored, when amongst the Gentiles their false worship was splendid even to a miracle; and thus a depraved rivalry might affect their minds, f122 if the beauty of the tabernacle did not at least equal the pomp of others, as though the God they worshipped were inferior to idols. On the same grounds they imagine that the Jews were burdened with many observances; lest, if God had only sparingly and slightly exercised them, they would in their natural curiosity, have sought in all directions after profane trifles. They tell part of the truth, but not the whole; for I admit that this was given to the ancient people, in order that, when they saw the tabernacle so brilliantly ornamented, they might be inspired with greater reverence. I also admit that, by God's command, they were engrossed with many ceremonies, that they might not seek after strange ones; but if this had been the only object proposed in them, the whole legal service would have only availed for ostentation in its shadows and histrionic pomps. But it is most absurd to think that God so trifled with His people. We see, too, how honorably David and the Prophets speak of these exercises. f123 It is, therefore, impiety to suppose that the legal rites were like farces composed in imitation of the Gentiles. In order, then, to preserve their honor and dignity, we must remember the principle to which we have lately alluded, viz., that all of them were arranged according to the spiritual pattern which had been shewn to Moses in the mount. (<022540>Exodus 25:40.) And this both Stephen, and the Apostle in the Epistle to the Hebrews, wisely observed, when they would reprove the gross follies of the people who continued to be wrapped up in the external ceremonies, as if religion were comprised in them. (<440744>Acts 7:44; <580805>Hebrews 8:5.) Stephen and the Apostle, therefore, are our best expositors, that the tabernacle, the altar, the table, the Ark of the Covenant, were of no importance except in so far as they referred to the heavenly pattern, of which they were the shadows and images. Thence their entire utility, and even their legitimate use, depended on the truth, (which they represented.) f124 For the slaughter of an ox profits nothing in itself, nay, it is but an unimportant thing; and so all the sacrifices, except that they were types, would have been thought nothing of. Whence we gather that there is the greatest difference between the ceremonies of the Law and the profane rites of the Gentiles, for they differ from each other not only inasmuch as God is the author of the one, and that the temerity of men has foolishly invented the other, but because among the Gentiles their religion was entirely comprised in these bare and empty pomps; whilst God, by these rudiments, which He gave to His people, elevated pious minds, as it were by steps, to higher things. Thus the Gentiles seemed to themselves duly to propitiate (their gods) when they offered victims; whilst the sacrifices of the Jews were acceptable to God, because they were exercises of repentance and faith. So the Law instructed the Jews in the spiritual worship of God, and in nothing else, though it were clothed in ceremonies agreeably to the requirements of the age. For, before the truth was fully made known, the childhood of the Church was to be directed by earthly elements, and thus, though there was great affinity and likeness between the Jews and Gentiles as regarded the external form of their religious service, yet its end was widely different. Moreover, when we would seek the body or substance of the ancient shadows, and the truth of the figures, we may learn them, not only from the Apostles, but also from the Prophets, who everywhere draw the attention of believers to the kingdom of Christ; yet their clearer explanation must be sought in the Gospel, where Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, shining forth, shews that their fulfillment exists in Himself alone. But, although by His coming He abolished these typical ceremonies as regards their use, yet at the same time He established the reverence justly due to them; since they have no claim to be held in esteem on any other grounds, except that their completion is found in Him; for, if they are separated from Him, it is plain that they are mere farces, f125 since neither the blood of animals, nor the sweetness of fat, nor aromatic odors, nor candles, nor anything of that sort, have any power to propitiate God. This indeed must be remembered, that the Jews did not pay attention to the legal sacrifices in vain, since the promises were annexed to them; as often, therefore, as these sentences occur, "your iniquity shall be blotted out," — "ye shall appear before my face," — "I will hear you from the sanctuary," we are reminded that all the ancient figures were sure testimonies of God's grace and of eternal salvation; and thus Christ was represented in them, since all the promises are in Him, yea, and amen. (<470120>2 Corinthians 1:20.) Yet it by no means follows from hence that there were mysteries hidden in all their details, since some, with mistaken acuteness, pass over no point, however trifling, without an allegorical exposition; as, in this passage, for instance, the dimensions of the ark afford them matter of speculation. f126 But it will be enough for the sound and sober-minded to know that God would have His Law deposited in a handsome vessel, in order that its majesty should be recognized. He commanded that the ark itself should be carried with staves, that the hands of the Levites might not touch it, and thus that its sanctity might be the greater
16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony. The title of "the testimony," which is often given to the law, indicates that something more is contained in it than the rule of a just and holy life; viz., the compact whereby God bound Himself to His people, and His people to Himself; therefore the words "the table of the covenant," are afterwards used instead of "the testimony." Thus the word td[, f127 gneduth, in this passage, and similar ones, is equivalent to a contract, which is commonly called a convention. In this sense the Prophet in Psalm 114 calls by the name of testimonies, not only the Commandments, but whatever God hath delivered by the hand of Moses for the salvation of His people. In <191407>Psalm 14:7, the word testimony is added as if in explanation of the word law: "The law of the Lord is perfect; the testimony of the Lord is sure;" as in <230820>Isaiah 8:20, where it is said, "To the law and to the testimony," it is not that two different things are referred to, but the utility of the law is commended, because it contains all that God would have testified to His people.
17. And thou shalt make a mercy-seat. The primary root of the verb rpk, caphar, from whence this noun is derived, f128 is used for "to smear with pitch," but in the Hiphil conjugation, it signifies either to expiate, or to purge, or to receive into favor; whence rpk, copher, is expiation, as we have seen elsewhere; and trpk, caphoreth, a covering or lid. Yet I doubt not but that Moses alludes in this word to a metaphorical meaning, for the law requires a covering to conceal our transgressions. And it is probable that, when Paul calls Christ iJlasth>rion, (<450325>Romans 3:25,) and John iJlasmo<n, (<620202>1 John 2:2,) they both refer to this figure, because God was propitiated towards believers by the covering of the Law, so as to shew Himself favorable to them by hearing their vows and prayers. For as long as the law stands forth before God's face it subjects us to His wrath and curse; and hence it is necessary that the blotting out of our guilt should be interposed, so that God may be reconciled with us. Nor is it without reason that David exclaims, after he has proclaimed the righteousness of the law, "Who can understand his errors?" (<191401>Psalm 14:12.) Whence we gather that, without a propitiation, the law does not bring us near to God, but accuses us before Him. And assuredly, when I consider all things, it seems to me a tame explanation, that Moses spoke literally of the cover, when he f129 would have the Cherubim turn their faces toward it, and God promises that He will give His answers from it. By these honorable distinctions it is exalted above the Ark.
18. And thou shalt make two cherubims. I have stated in my commentary on Genesis and elsewhere, f130 that there are various opinions respecting the word cherub; but that those approach most nearly to the truth who make the k, caph, not a servile, but a radical letter, and take it generally for any image; for those who suppose the k to be a note of similitude, render it "like a boy;" which in itself is forced, and besides it is refuted by the words of Ezekiel, (<260110>Ezekiel 1:10, and <261001>Ezekiel 10:1,) who calls the forms of a calf, a lion, and an eagle by this name, as well as the human form. It is enough for me that the images were winged, which represented angels. Therefore, when Moses speaks of the angels, who were placed as guards to keep man away from approaching paradise, he calls them cherubim; not so much in reference to that time, as to keep the people in the doctrine of the Law f131 But God appointed angels, by whom He exercises His dominion, and who are the ministers of His blessings, to be a symbol of His presence; for as often as He manifested Himself to believers by angels, He in a manner extended His hand to them. On this ground, David, and other Prophets, in order to encourage themselves to confidence in prayer, often speak of God as "dwelling between the cherubims," (<198001>Psalm 80:1, 64:1; <233716>Isaiah 37:16;) as much as to say, that He conversed familiarly with His people, since His virtue exercises itself by His angels. That they covered the lid of the ark with their extended wings, I do not imagine to have been done to hide it, but to mark the readiness of their obedience, for the extension of their wings is equivalent to their being prepared for the performance of whatever God might command. Thus they are said to turn their faces towards the mercy-seat, because they are attentive to the will of God. Moreover, because the fullness of the Godhead resides in Christ, He justly declares that, in His descent upon earth, the heavens were opened that the angels might ascend and descend. Their looking towards each other indicates that harmony in which the angels are united for performing the commands of God. It is indeed a plausible conceit, f132 that the two cherubim were the Old and New Testaments, which look from one to the other, and surround the mercy-seat, inasmuch as Christ is their common object; but this notion vanishes before the contradiction of many passages of Scripture.
Exodus 35
Exodus 35:4-19
4. And Moses spake unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, This is the thing which the Lord commanded saying, 4. Dixitque Moses ad universam synagogam filiorum Israel, his verbis, Hoc est verbum quod praecepit Jehova, dicendo:
5. Take ye from among you an offering unto the Lord: whosoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the Lord; gold, and silver, and brass, 5. Accipite a vobis oblationem Jehovae: omnis spontaneus corde suo afferet eam oblationem Jehovae, aurum, argentum, et aes:
6. And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, 6. Et hyacinthum, et purpuram, et vermiculum cocci, et byssum, et caprarum pilos:
7. And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim-wood, 7. Et pelles arietum rubricatas, et pelles taxorum, et ligna sittim.
8. And oil for the light, and spices for anointing oil, and for the sweet incense, 8. Et oleum pro luminari, et aromata pro oleo unctionis, et ad suffimentum aromaticum.
9. And onyx-stones, and stones to be set for the ephod, and for the breastplate. 9. Et lapides onychinos, et lapides pro ephod et pro pectorali.
10. And every wise-hearted among you shall come, and make all that the Lord hath commanded; 10. Et omnes sapientes corde in vobis venient, et facient quaecunque praecepit Jehova:
11. The tabernacle, his tent, and his covering, his taches, and his boards, his bars, his pillars, and his sockets; 11. Tabernaculum, tentorium ejus, et operimentum ejus, et circulos ejus, et tabulas ejus, vestes ejus, columnas ejus et bases ejus:
12. The ark, and the staves thereof, with the mercy-seat, and the vail of the covering; 12. Arcam et vectes ejus, propitiatorium, et velum tentorii.
13. The table, and his staves, and all his vessels, and the shew-bread; 13. Mensam, et vectes ipsius, et omnia vasa ejus, et panem facierum:
14. The candlestick also for the light, and his furniture, and his lamps, with the oil for the light; 14. Et candelabrum luminaris et vasa ejus, et lucernas ejus, et oleum luminaris:
15. And the incense-altar, and his staves, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the door at the entering in of the tabernacle; 15. Et altare suffimenti et vectes ejus, et oleum unctionis, et suffimentum aromaticum, et aulaeum ostii pro ostio tabernaculi:
16. The altar of burnt-offering, with his brasen grate, his staves, and all his vessels; the laver and his foot; 16. Altare holocausti, et cribrum ejus aeneum, et vectes ejus, et omnia vasa ejus, et concham et basin ejus:
17. The hangings of the court, his pillars, and their sockets, and the hanging for the door of the court; 17. Cortinas ipsius atrii, columnas ejus, et bases ejus, et aulaeum portae atrii,
18. The pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords; 18. Paxillos tabernaculi, et paxillos atrii, et funiculos eorum,
19. The clothes of service, to do service in the holy place; the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office. 19. Vestes ministerii ad ministrandum in sanctuario, et vestes sanctas Aharonis sacerdotis, et vestes filiorum ejus ad fungendum sacerdotio.

5. Take ye from among you an offering. I have introduced a passage from chapter 35, wherein Moses again requires what he had before prescribed; but he goes more into detail, and treats at greater length of the parts of the tabernacle. In the former passage he employed a verb, where he here uses a noun, "willing or voluntary of heart." There is, however, no ambiguity in the meaning; since in both places God requires a cheerful zeal, so that they may not only contribute abundantly, but willingly. He will afterwards use a different form of expression, viz., that they did their duty, whose heart roused, or stirred them up, so as to distinguish them from the indifferent and slow. — 5:21.
10. And every wise-hearted among you. Thus he denominates the artificers, who excelled in shrewdness of intellect, and so, after having commanded them severally of their private means to supply the materials, he now exhorts others to contribute their industry for shaping and joining them together. He then briefly enumerates the parts of the Tabernacle, a longer explanation of which will be seen in chapter 26. This is, therefore, a kind of epitome of all those things, of which he before spoke more in full, since it was necessary to spur them on afresh to the performance of what they had been clearly instructed in. For we know that instruction is very often coldly received without the addition of exhortations. It might indeed seem strange, f133 how so much wealth could be possessed by a miserably pillaged people, and long driven to servile work; unless it may be inferred from the abundance which is here described, that they were incredibly enriched at their departure from Egypt by the booty which God gave them. The kingdom of Egypt was very wealthy; and its people, as we know, had always been devoted to pleasures and luxuries. What, then, they had accumulated by their rapacity in many years, flowed away from them by the secret influence of God, when they were suddenly made prodigal. But, just as He had blinded the Egyptians, that they should profusely give all they had, so He now directed the minds and hearts of His people, that, mindful of so great a benefit, they should willingly expend, at His command, what they had obtained of His mere grace.
Exodus 25
Exodus 25:23-30
23. Thou shalt also make a table of shittim-wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and half the height thereof. 23. Facies quoque mensam ex lignis sittim: duorum cubitorum erit longitudo ejus, et cubiti latitudo ejus, cubiti vero et dimidii alitudo ejus.
24. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about. 24. Et teges eam auro puro, faciesque ei coronam auream in circuitu.
25. And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand.breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about. 25. Facies quoque ei clausuram latam quatuor digitos in circuitu: faciesque coronam auream clausurae illi in circuitu.
26. And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof. 26. Facies insuper ei quatuor annulos aureos, quos pones in quatuor angulis qui sunt in quatuor pedibus ejus.
27. Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table. 27. E regione illius clausurae erunt annuli per quos trajicientur vectes ad portandum mensam:
28. And thou shalt make the staves of shittim-wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them. 28. Faciesque vectes illos e lignis sittim: et operies eos auro, et feretur illis mensa.
29. And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shalt thou make them. 29. Facies etiam scutellas ejus, et cochlearia ejus, et opercula ejus, et crateres ejus quibus libabitur: ex auro mundo facies ca.
30. And thou shalt set upon the table shew-bread before me alway. 30. Et pones super mensam illam panem facierum coram me jugiter.

23. Thou shalt also make a table. The sentiment of a certain ancient bishop f134 is deservedly praised, who, when he sold the sacred vessels in the time of a famine, to relieve the distress of the poor, thus excused himself to the Church: "Our God, who does not eat or drink, has no need of patens and chalices;" and yet this seems little in accordance with this His command, that bread should be offered to Him. I answer, that if, under that pretext, the bishop had stripped the sacred table of its ornaments under the Law, he would have spoken unseasonably, what, under the Gospel, he spoke piously and wisely; because at the coming of Christ the shadows of the Law ceased. But God would then have the loaves, which were offered to Him, deposited among the golden dishes and censers, and spoons placed with them, not that He had need of meat and drink, but that He might prescribe the duty of temperance to His people, by deigning to have His table among them; for, when they ate of the same wheat, of which the sacred loaves were made, they were reminded by that symbol that their meat and drink was to be taken, as if they sat before God, and were His guests. Finally, they were taught that the food, by which man's life is sustained, is in a manner sacred to God; that thus they might be contented with simple and sober food, and might not profane the things which were dedicated to His service. Although, therefore, this offering might appear to be gross and rude, yet it had a just object, i.e., that believers might acknowledge that God presided over their tables, because the loaves were presented in the temple before God in the name of all the people. The same was the intention of the first-fruits, in which the produce of the whole year was consecrated; that even in their feasts they might cherish a recollection of God, who fed them as a father does his children. They are called "the bread of faces" f135 by Moses, because they always appeared before God, in which sense the Greeks called them the bread proqe>sewv, because they were always in His presence; for it was not permitted them to remove the precious offering, until others were substituted in their place. I now pass over many points, because what I now omit will soon have to be treated of.
Exodus 25
Exodus 25:31-40
31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold; of beaten work shall the candlestick be made; his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same. 31. Facies item candelabrum ex auro puro: ductile fiet candelabrum illud: -restile ejus, et calamus ejus scyphi ejus, sphaerulae ejus, et flores ejus ex ipso erunt.
32. And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side: 32. Et sex calami egredientur a lateribus ejus: tres calami candelabri ex latere ejus uno, et tres calami candelabri ex latere ejus altero.
33. Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick. 33. Tres calices in speciem nucis amygdalinae deformati erunt in calamo uno, spaerula, et flos, et tres calices in speciem nucis amygdalinae deformati in calamo altero, sphaerula et flos: sic de sex calamis egredientibus e candelabro.
34. And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers. 34. Et in candelabro erunt quatuor calices in speciem nucis amygdalinae deformaft, sphaerulae ejus, et flores ejus.
35. And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. 35. Eritque sphaerula sub duobus calamis ex ipso, sphaerula item sub duobus calamis ex ipso, et sphaerula sub duobus calamis ex ipso: sic de sex calamis egredientibus e candelabro.
36. Their knops and their branches shall be of the same; all of it shall be one beaten work of pure gold. 36. Sphaerulae eorum et calami eorum ex ipso erunt: totum ipsum ductile unum, ex auro puro.
37. And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof; and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it. 37. Facies quoque lucernas ejus septem, quas collocabis in sublimi, ut luceant ad latus faciei ejus.
38. And the tongs thereof, and the snuff-dishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. 38. Et forcipes ipsius, et receptacula ejus ex auro puro.
39. Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. 39. Talento auri puri facies illud, et omnia vasa ista.
40. And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount. 40. Vide autem ut facias juxta similitudinem suam, quae tibi ostensa est in monte.

31. And thou shalt make a candlestick. God would have seven bright lamps burning day and night in the Tabernacle: first, that the people might know that they were directed by God Himself as to how they were to worship Him aright, and that a light was set before their eyes which might disperse all the darkness of error; and, secondly, lest they should obscure the very worship of God with their gross inventions, but that, intent on the instruction of the Law, they might with a pure and enlightened mind seek after God in all the ceremonies. Let us, therefore, remark a distinction here set forth between the rule of true religion and the superstitions of the Gentiles; because the Gentiles were carried away by their foolish and blind devotions, as they call them, into circuitous and erring ways, so that nothing was straight in them; for unless we have divine teaching to enlighten us, our own reason will beget nothing but mere vanity. But it was not enough for the Israelites that the right way should be pointed out, unless their eyes were open to direct them, since men sometimes are blind in the very midst of light. And this occurred to themselves not only when they went astray into strange and adulterous worships, for though they held fast the external form of the Law, they were, nevertheless, degenerate; and religion was corrupted among them by foul superstitions, when, in obedience to their carnal reason, they conceived that religion consisted in ceremonies. For when God is not worshipped spiritually according to His nature, this is to travesty Him. Hence there was so much security in the hypocrites, that they proudly despised all the reproofs of the Prophets, nay, that they broke out into open fury whenever their empty pomps were condemned. But the candlestick, shining with its seven lights, reminded the people that, in their worship of God, they should look attentively to the light of heavenly doctrine.
But, for the understanding of this type, the vision of Zechariah will be no slight assistance to us, since the truth of this symbol is there set forth. (<380402>Zechariah 4:2.) God there promises that the power of His Spirit will alone avail, and more than avail, for the preservation of His Church, although it may be destitute of all other aid. To awaken confidence in this, He represents the same image of a candlestick which is here described, with the addition of some other circumstances, whereby He reminds us that the shining lights were no vain show like stage plays, but that in the candlestick was represented what believers would really experience to take place. But, that the comparison may be made clearer, we must say a little respecting this passage. The material of the candlestick is pure gold, whereby the excellency of the thing signified is denoted. But, when we have spoken somewhat of its form, the application of Zechariah's prophecy will be more manifest. Some parts of it were merely for ornament, that its dignity might be increased by its very appearance, such as the flowers and the balls or knops; others for use, as the bowls or receptacles, to prevent the sacred oil from falling on the ground. The lamps were placed at the top, that the Israelites might know that men are surrounded with darkness on earth, if God did not enlighten His Church from on high, and that by day and by night. Thus Isaiah, describing the kingdom of Christ, in which the reality of this sign was at length exhibited, says, — "Behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee." And again,
"Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the Lord shall be thy everlasting light."
(<236002>Isaiah 60:2-20.)
Now, since God is called the Father of lights, the grace of illumination resides in the Spirit; and since a variety of gifts are distributed by the Spirit, there were seven lamps which visibly represented what Paul says, —
"The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: but all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will." (<461207>1 Corinthians 12:7-11.)
Some, however, have gratuitously invented a mystery in the number seven, whence the common notion f136 among the Papists about the sevenfold grace of the Spirit, which is refuted both by the above-cited passage of St. Paul and the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, where a greater number of gifts are enumerated. I suppose rather that perfection is denoted by the seven lamps according to the ordinary and acknowledged use (of the figure); as if God thus declared that nothing would be wanting for the full enlightenment of believers, who should seek it from its one and only source; secondly, that the Spirit presides over all religious rites when He shines forth to the Church in His gifts. Now, the Prophet, (<380402>Zechariah 4:2,) desiring to teach that what had been shewn forth in this visible symbol would be fulfilled in the restoration of the Church, adds to the lamps seven pipes and two olive-trees, from whence oil would continually flow, so that there was no fear of want or failure. Thus he signifies that God is possessed of a manifold abundance of blessings for the enrichment of the Church; and so that the virtue which flows down from heaven is sufficient for its preservation, according to what is added in connection,
"Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit,
saith the Lord of hosts." (<380406>Zechariah 4:6.)
For although God uses the ministry of men and earthly means at His discretion for the protection and maintenance of the Church, yet He would have, as is just, all the praise ascribed to Himself; whilst He would also have believers to be contented under His guardianship, and not to be discouraged although they should find no ground of confidence in the world.
40. And look that thou make them. He again inculcates, what we have already seen, that Moses should take care that all things were exactly modeled according to the original or pattern seen in the mount. But it is certain that it is not any mere vision which is here in question, but that the external ornaments of the sanctuary have reference to their spiritual object, as is plain from the explanation of Stephen and the Apostle. Wherefore we need not wonder that Zechariah should say that God would make manifest, and that by certain proof, under the reign of Christ, that it was no empty spectacle which God had set before His people under the Law.
Deuteronomy 27
Deuteronomy 27:5-7
5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the Lord thy God, an altar of stones: thou shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them. 5. AEdificabis in monte Ebal altare ex lapidibus Jehovae Deo tuo: non levabis super eos ferrum.
6. Thou shalt build the altar of the Lord thy God of whole stones; and thou shalt offer burnt-offerings thereon unto the Lord thy God: 6. E lapidibus integris aedificabis altare Jehovae Dei tui: et offeres super illud holocausta Jehovae Deo tuo:
7. And thou shalt offer peace-offerings, and shalt eat there, and rejoice before the Lord thy God. 7. Et offeres sacrificia prosperiratum, comedesque illic, ac laetaberis coram Jehova Deo tuo.

Leviticus 24
Leviticus 24:1-4
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure oil-olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamps to burn continually. 2. Praecipe filiis Israel ut afferant tibi oleum olivae purum, contusum pro luminari, ad accendendas lucernas semper.
3 Without the vail of the testimony, in the tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron order it from the evening unto the morning before the Lord continually: it shall be a statute for ever in your generations. 3. Extra velum testimonii in tabernaculo conventionis disponet eas Aharon a vespera usque ad mane, coram Jehova semper: statutum per-perpetuum erit in generationibus vestris.
4. He shall order the lamps upon the pure candlestick before the Lord continually. 4. Super candelabrum mundum disponet lucernas coram Jehova semper.

Exodus 27:20 And thou shalt command the children of Israel. I have transferred these two passages from elsewhere, since they relate to the service of the tabernacle; for the children of Israel are commanded to contribute as much oil as may be sufficient for the seven lamps. Now, since Divine illumination and the grace of the Holy Spirit were, as we have seen, the truth of this symbol, God requires pure oil, i.e., not muddy, or mixed with lees, for, had it been in any respect faulty, so much would have been detracted from the dignity of the mystery. Its purity, then, shewed that nothing mean or common was signified by it; that the Israelites also might bring with them pure minds, and duly prepared and disposed to consider the spiritual light. He again repeats, that the oil must be supplied seasonably at its proper hours, so that the lamps may be always burning; that thus the children of Israel might learn that nothing is more opposed to the worship of God than obscurity and darkness; and that it is not to be interrupted at intervals, f137 but that the direction of the Spirit should shine from heaven in a perpetual flow. Thus, in the second passage cited, He thrice reiterates the word "continually," to shew that the true light should never be put out in any respect. This office God enjoins upon the priests, because they ought to be ministers of light when they are interpreting the Law, which David calls "the lamp of our feet, and the light of our paths." (<19B401>Psalm 114:105.) But what is the meaning of the offering (of the oil) by the people, since men are possessed of no power for the spiritual enlightening of their own minds? I reply that, in the types of the Law, the several parts are not to be so scrupulously forced to the rule, as if there were nothing in the outward sign with which the reality did not correspond; and again, that although men having nothing of their own and of themselves to bring, yet, that they may more diligently exert themselves in their endeavors to serve God, they are justly required to dedicate themselves and all that they have to God. At the end, where the words "a statute for ever" are added, understand them to mean, until the real manifestation of those things, of which the candlestick and its lamps were a type. This point I have discussed in Genesis f138 It is called "a statute from the f139 children of Israel," (a filiis Israel,) since God requires its observance from them; unless it be preferred to translate it with Jerome, "Before (coram) the children of Israel." The exposition of others, "among (apud) the children of Israel," or from the fathers to the children, is harsher, and altogether forced.
Numbers 8
Numbers 8:1-4
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto Aaron, and say unto him, When thou lightest the lamps, the seven lamps shall give light over against the candlestick. 2. Loquere ad Aharon, et dicas illi, Quando accendes lucernam, contra faciem candelabri lucebunt septem lucernae.
3. And Aaron did so: he lighted the lamps thereof over against the candlestick; as the Lord commanded Moses. 3. Fecitque ita Aharon: contra faciem candelabri accendit lucernas ejus, quemadmodum praeceperat Jehova ipsi Mosi.
4. And this work of the candlestick was of beaten gold; unto the shaft thereof, unto the flowers thereof was beaten work: according unto the pattern which the Lord had shewed Moses, so he made the candlestick. 4. Et hoc est opus candelabri, ductile aureum usque ad hastile suum, usque ad flores suos ductile erat, juxta exemplar quod ostenderat Jehova ipsi Mosi, sic fecit candelabrum.

2. When thou lightest the lamps. This precept, like many others, is not inserted in its proper place. Moses again declares what was the use of the candlestick, and how the lamps should be arranged, so that their light might be spread through the sanctuary, and that the brightness of the gold might shine over against them; for this was the reason why God would have the lamps lighted against the face of, or opposite to, the candlestick, that the very stand of the light might retain its beauty. Moreover, it is expressly stated that Aaron obeyed God's command, as if in no despicable matter, as he had received it from Moses. To this also refers what immediately follows, that it was made "according unto the pattern" which Moses had seen in the mount; and this was, as I have before explained it, that God is the Father of lights, who illuminates His Church by His Spirit, that it may not wander in darkness; and so, whilst darkness covers the whole earth, He is as an everlasting light to believers instead of the sun and moon, as says <236019>Isaiah 60:19.
Exodus 26
Exodus 26:1-37
1. Moreover, thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purpl e, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them. 1. Tabernaculum vero facies e decem cortinis e bysso retorta, et hyacintho et purpura, et vermiculo cocci: cherubin opere phrygionico facies.
2. The length of one.curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains shall have one measure. 2. Longitudo cortinae unius erit octo et viginti cubitorum: et latitudo cortinae unius, quatuor cubitorum: mensura, una erit omnibus cortinis.
3. The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and other five curtains shall be coupled one to another. 3. Quinque cortiae erunt con junctae altera eum altera, et quinque aliae cortinae conjunctae altera cum altera.
4. And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain, from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the second. 4. Facies quoque, laqueolos hya cinthinos in ora cortinae unius in extremo in conjunetione: et sic facies in ora cortinae extrema in conjunctione secunda.
5. Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second, that the loops may take hold one of another. 5. Quinquaginta laqueolos facies in cortina una, et quinquaginta laqueolos facies in extremo cortintae quae est in conjunctione secunda: oppositi erunt laqueoli alter alteri.
6. And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches; and it shall be one tabernacle. 6. Facies item quinquaginta uncinos aureos, et ita conjunges cortinas alteram cum altera per uncinos: atque ita fiet tabernaculum unum.
7. And thou shalt make curtains o/goats' hair, to be a covering upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make. 7. Facies insuper cortinas e pilis caprarum in tentorium super tabernaculum: undecim cortinas facies eas.
8. The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains shall be all of one measure. 8. Longitudo cortinae unius, triginta cubitorum: et latitudo cortinae unius, quatuor cubitorum: mensura una erit undecim cortinis:
9. And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle. 9. Et conjunges quinque cortinas seorsum: et sex cortinas seorsum: et conduplicabis cortinam sextam e regione faciei tentorii.
10. And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second. 10. Facies autem quinquaginta laqueolos in ora cortinae unius in extremo in conjunctione, et quinquaginta laqueolos in ora cortinae con-junctionis secundae.
11. And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one. 11. Facies item uncinos aereos quinquaginta, quos induces in laqueolos, et conjunges tentorium, et erit unum.
12. And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the half-curtain that remaineth shall hang over the back.side of the tabernacle. 12. Superfluitas autem quae redundat in cortinis tentorii, nempe dimidium cortinae redundantis, su-perfluet a tergo tabernaculi.
13. And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side, of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side, and on that side, to cover it. 13. Cubitusque hinc, et cubitus illinc, qui redundat in longitudine cortinarum tentorii, redundabit super latera tabernaculi hinc et inde, ut tegat illud.
14. And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering above of badgers' skins. 14. Facies item operimentum tentorio e pellibus arietum rubifactis: operimentum item e pellibus taxorum superne.
15. And thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim-wood standing up. 15. Facies et tabulas tabernaculo e lignis sittim stantes.
16. Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and a half shall be the breadth of one board. 16. Decem cubitorum longitudo tabulae: cubiti vero et dimidii latitudo tabulae unius.
17. Two tenons shall there be in one board, set in order one against another: thus shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle. 17. Duo cardines erunt tabulae uni, instar graduum sealae dispositi, alter e regione alterius, sic facies omnibus tabulis tabernaculi.
18. And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side southward. 18. Facies autem tabulas tabernaculo, viginti tabulas ad latus meridianum ad austrum.
19. And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards: two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons. 19. Et quadraginta bases argenteas facies sub viginti tabulis, duas bases sub una tabula, pro duobus cardinibus ejus: et duas bases sub tabula altera, pro duobus cardinibus ejus.
20. And for the second side of the tabernacle, on the north side, there shall be twenty boards, 20. In latere vero tabernaculi secundo ad plagam Aquilonis, viginti tabulas.
21. And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board 21. Et quadraginta bases earum argenteas, duas bases sub una tabula, et duas bases sub tabula altera.
22. And for the sides of the tabernacle westward thou shalt make six boards. 22. Porro in latere tabernaculi ad occidentem facies sex tabulas.
23. And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. 23. Et duas tabulas facies angulis tabernaculi in latere occidentali:
24. And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it unto one ring: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners. 24. Quae erunt quasi gemellae inferne, et simul erunt quasi gemellae in fastigio ejus in circulum unum: sic erit de duabus illis: in duobus angulis erunt.
25. And they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. 25. Erunt igitur octo tabulae, et bases earum argenteae, sexdecim bases: duae bases erunt sub tabula una, et duae bases sub tabula altera.
26. And thou shalt make bars of shittim-wood: five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle. 26. Facies etiam vectes e lignis sittim, quinque tabulis pro latere tabernaculi uno.
27. And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle for the two sides westward. 27. Et quinque vectes tabulis pro latere tabernaculi altero: et quinque vectes tabulis pro latere tabernaeuli, pro latere inquam vergente ad occi- dentem.
28. And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end. 28. Vectis autem medius per medium tabularum transibit ab extremo ad extremum.
29. And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and make their rings of gold for places for the bars: and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold. 29. Tabulas vero teges auro, atque annulos earum facies ex auro, per quos trajicientur vectes, coope-riesque vectes ipso auro.
30. And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was shewed thee in the mount. 30. Et ita eriges tabernaculum secundum dispositionem ejus, quae tibi ostensa est in monte.
31. And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of cunning work: with cherubims shall it be made. 31. Facies et velum ex hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta, opere phrygionico facies illud cum figuris cherubin.
32. And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim-wood overlaid with gold: their hooks shall be of gold, upon the four sockets of silver. 32. Et pones illud super quatuor columnas sittim obductas auro (un-cini earum aurei) super quatuor bases argenteas.
33. And thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither within the vail the ark of the testimony: and the vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy. 33. Ponesque velum sub uncinis, et introduces illuc intra velum arcam testimonii, dividetque velum illud vobis inter sanctum et sanctum sanctorum.
34. And thou shalt put the mercy-seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place. 34. Pones insuper propitiatorium super arcata testimonii in sancto sanctorum.
35. And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side. 35. Pones quoque mensam illam extra velum, et candelabrum e regione mensae in latere tabernaculi ad meridiem, et mensam pones in latere aquilonis.
36. And thou shalt make an hanging for the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework. 36. Et facies velum ad ostium tabernaculi ex hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta opere acupictoris.
37. And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim-wood, and overlay them with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them. 37. Velo autem facies quinque columnas ex sittim, quas teges auro, et uncini earum aurei, fundesque els quinque bases aereas.

1. Moreover, thou shalt make the tabernacle. In the whole construction of the tabernacle we must remember what we have already seen, that the Israelites were instructed by external figures how precious a thing is the worship of God, and therefore that they must diligently beware lest it should be polluted by any meanness. For all this richness and magnificence of ornament was the very contrast to meanness. They were also reminded that, if they would be accounted pure worshippers of God, they must avoid all uncleanness, for the tabernacle was the type of the Church. Thus it is certain that by its external ornaments the excellency of spiritual gifts was designated. On this ground Isaiah, discoursing of the perfect glory of the Church as it would be under the reign of Christ, says,
"I will lay thy stones with fair colors, and lay thy foundations with sapphires; and I will make thy windows of agates, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant stones,"
(<235411>Isaiah 54:11, 12;)
by which words he plainly signifies that the Church would be adorned with heavenly beauty, since all kinds of graces shone forth in her But the chief excellency of her adornment must be referred to the instruction which renews us into the image of God. Thus David, when he celebrates the beauty of God's house, assigns this honor chiefly to the exercises of faith and piety:
"One thing have I desired of the Lord," he says, "that will I seek after, that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in his temple." (<192704>Psalm 27:4.)
Was this that he might feed his eyes with empty pictures, with its costly materials, and with the exquisite workmanship of it? Assuredly he does not speak of gazing inquisitively at it, but thus alludes to its visible workmanship, that with the spiritual eyes of faith he may consider the glory more excellent than the whole world, which was there represented. Nor indeed did anything magnificent appear in the tabernacle to delight men's eyes, but rather was all its richness and excellence covered up with goats' hair and paltry leather, in order that believers beneath that hidden beauty might reflect on something higher than the carnal sense.
It will suffice to have given these general hints; I now descend to particulars, in which let not my readers expect of me any conceits which may gratify their ears, since nothing is better than to contain ourselves within the limits of edification; and it would be puerile to make a collection of the minutiae wherewith some philosophize; since it was by no means the intention of God to include mysteries in every hook and loop; and even although no part were without a mystical meaning, which no one in his senses will admit, it is better to confess our ignorance than to indulge ourselves in frivolous conjectures. Of this sobriety, too, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews is a fit master for us, who, although he professedly shews the analogy between the shadows of the Law and the truth manifested in Christ, yet sparingly touches upon some main points, and by this moderation restrains us from too curious disquisitions and deep speculations. In the first place, curtains are made of twilled linen, and blue, purple, and scarlet, which, when coupled together, made an inclosure of forty cubits; for they were ten in number, and the breadth of each was four cubits. By "cunning work," commentators are agreed that embroidery is meant, especially when God commands that cherubim should be made in them. But some translate the word cherubim by the general name of pictures, f140 which, although it is not grammatically incorrect, yet, since we have before seen that angels were designated by this word, it; is more probable that figures of angels were everywhere scattered over them; for, when the majesty of God is represented to the life by <270710>Daniel 7:10, "ten thousand times ten thousand" are said to stand around His judgment-seat, Ridiculous is it of the Papists f141 to infer from hence that churches would be empty and unsightly unless they are adorned with images; for in order that the similitude should hold good, they must needs hide their images under a triple covering, lest the people should be able to see them; and then, how would they be "the books of the unlearned" (idiotarum), as they call them? f142
Now, since the seraphim, of which Isaiah makes mention, (<230602>Isaiah 6:2,) signify the same as the cherubim, and are said "with twain of their wings to cover their faces, and with twain their feet," their images must be veiled, in order to correspond with them. Besides, it is preposterous, as I have said, forcibly to transfer these rudiments, which God delivered only to His ancient; people, to the fullness of time, when the Church has grown up and has passed out of its childhood. But how far the Jews were from worshipping the cherubim, the heathen poets bear them witness; for Juvenal, speaking of them, said,
"Qui puras nubes, et coeli numen adorant;" f143
and God extorted these words from an impure and licentious man, that all might know that the Law of Moses lifted his disciples to things above. A threefold covering is then described, the inner one of goats' hair, another of rams' skins dyed red, and the outer one of badgers' skins; a wooden frame is then added, to strengthen the tabernacle within by its firmness, since otherwise the curtains would have got out of place at the slightest motion. The boards were of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, either only gilt or covered with gold plates; each of them was supported by two silver bases, f144 like feet, and they were joined together by bars, passed through rings of gold. In this space the whole tabernacle was contained, which then was distinguished into the outer sanctuary and the Holy of holies. Besides these there was the court in which the people were to stand, because it was not lawful for them to enter the sanctuary, to which the priests alone had access, and they only when clean. Thus David, after having exclaimed, "How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts," immediately adds, "My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for the courts of the Lord;" and again, "for a day in thy courts is better than a thousand," (<198401>Psalm 84:1, 2, 10;) and again, "Worship the Lord in his holy court." f145 (<192902>Psalm 29:2.) But on so plain a matter there is no need of the abundant proofs which he furnishes. The disposition of the tabernacle is said again, in ver. 30, to have been shewn in the mount, that the people should not rest their attention on the visible tabernacle, but with the understanding of faith should penetrate to heaven, and direct their minds to the spiritual pattern, the shadows and types of which they beheld. Neither here must we philosophize too curiously. The allegory will please the ears of many, that by the two bases are meant the Old and New Testament, or the two natures of Christ, because believers rest on these two supports. But with no less probability we might say, that two bases were placed beneath each of the boards; either because godliness hath the promise of this life and of that which is to come; or because we must resist on both sides the temptations which assail us from the right and from the left; or because faith must not limp nor turn to the right or left: thus there would be no bounds to trifling. They allegorically explain that the covering of the tabernacle was made of rams' skins, f146 because the Church is protected by the blood of Christ, who is the spotless lamb; but I ask, what do the badgers' skins, which were above, mean? Why was the covering of goats' hair put below? Wherefore, sobriety is our best course.
31. And thou shalt make a vail. The inner shrine or recess was covered by one vail; the sanctuary was divided from the court by another. By both the people were admonished how reverently God's majesty must be regarded, and with what seriousness holy things are to be engaged in, so that they might not approach God's presence without fear, nor boldly break in upon the mysteries of things sacred. But by the vail the obscurity of the shadows of the Law was principally denoted, that the Israelites might know that the time of full revelation had not yet come, but that the spiritual worship of God was as yet enshrouded in a vail; and thus might extend their faith to their promised Messiah, at whose coming the truth would be discovered and laid bare. Wherefore, when Christ rose again from the dead, "the vail of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom," (<402751>Matthew 27:51;) and an end was put to the ceremonies of the Law, because God then presented Himself in His living and express image, and the perfect reality of all the ceremonies was manifested. Now, therefore, in the light of the gospel, we behold "face to face," what was then shewn afar off to the ancient people under coverings. (<470314>2 Corinthians 3:14.) Yet, although there is now no vail to prevent us from openly and familiarly looking upon Christ, let us learn from this figure that the manifestation of God in the flesh is a hidden and incomprehensible mystery. (<540316>1 Timothy 3:16.) It is not without reason that Christ Himself compares His body to the temple, because the fullness of the Godhead dwells in it. (<430219>John 2:19.) Let us then know assuredly that the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father, (<431721>John 17:21;) but if it be asked in what manner, this is ineffable, except that the eternal Son of God, who, before the creation of the world, possessed the same glory with the Father, (<431705>John 17:5,) that even He is now man, that "He might be the firstborn among many brethren." (<450829>Romans 8:29.)
Exodus 27
Exodus 27:1-8
1. And thou shalt make an altar ofshittim-wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad: the altar shall be four-square; and the height thereof shall be three cubits. 1. Facies etiam altare e lignis sittim: quinque cubitorum exit longitudo: et quinque cubitorum latitudo: quadrature erit altare: et trium cubitorum altitudo ejus.
2. And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof: his horns shall be of the same: and thou shalt overlay it with brass. 2. Huic facies cornua in quatuor angulis ejus: ex ipso erunt cornua ejus, tegesque illud aere.
3. And thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his flesh-hooks, and his fire-pans: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass. 3. Facies deinde lebetes ejus: ad repurgandum cinerem ejus, et scopas (vel, forcipes) ejus, et crateras ejus, et fuscinulas ejus, et receptacula ejus: omnia vasa ejus facies ex aere.
4. And thou shalt make for it a grate of net-work of brass: and upon the net shalt thou make four brasen rings in the four corners thereof. 4. Facies etiam illi craticulam opere craticulato aeream, et ad rete quatuor annulos, in quatuor extremitatibus ejus.
5. And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may be even to the midst of the altar. 5. Ponesque illud sub ambitu altaris inferne, et erit rete illud usque ad medium altaris.
6. And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim-wood, and overlay them with brass. 6. Facies praeterea vectes alta vectes e lignis sittim, et cooperies eos aere.
7. And the staves shall be put into the rings, and the staves shall be upon the two sides of the altar, to bear it. 7. Et inserentur vectes ejus in illos annulos: et erunt vectes in utroque latere altaris, dum portabitur illud.
8. Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: as it was shewed thee in the mount, so shall they make it. 8. Cavum tabulis facies illud: quemadmodum ostendi tibi in monte, sic facient.

1. And thou shalt make an altar. The altar of whole burnt-offerings (holocaustorum) is here described, which, however, it was called by synecdoche, for not only entire victims were burnt there, but also parts of them only, as we shall see in Leviticus. The burnt-offerings received their name from their ascending, f147 whereby the Israelites were reminded that they had need to be purified, that they might ascend to God; and at the same time were instructed that whatever corruption there might be in the flesh did not prevent the sacrifices from being acceptable and of a sweet savor to God. It is clear that from the first beginning of the human race there were burnt-sacrifices, suggested by the secret inspiration of God's Spirit, since there was no written Law; nor can we doubt but that by this symbol they were taught that the flesh must be burnt by the Spirit, in order that men may duly offer themselves to God; and thus they acknowledged, under this type, that the flesh of Christ must receive this from the divine power, so as to become a perfect victim for the propitiation of God; thus, as the Apostle testifies, he offered himself through the Spirit. (<580914>Hebrews 9:14.) But fuller mention of this subject will be made elsewhere. The altar was so constructed that the sacrifices might be cast upon a grate placed within it, and thus they were covered by its external surface. The ashes were received into a pan, so that they should not fall about upon the ground and be trodden under foot, but that reverence might be inculcated even towards the very remnants of their holy things. f148 That the victims were bound to the four horns, which stood out from the four corners, is plain from the words of <19B827>Psalm 118:27, "Bind the sacrifice with cords, even unto the horns of the altar." And this also is the beginning of a proper offering of spiritual sacrifices, that all the lusts of the flesh should be subdued, and held captive as it were unto the obedience of God. Wherefore even Christ, although in Him there was nothing which was not duly regulated, was nevertheless bound, in order to prove His obedience; as He had said, "Not as I will, but as thou wilt." (<402639>Matthew 26:39.) The altar was carried on staves, to obviate the necessity of having more than one; else there would have been danger of their being compelled, by the very difficulty of carrying it, to leave it behind after it was made, if they were setting about a long journey; and this would have been the seed or ground of superstition, whilst no other could be built which was not spurious.
Exodus 27
Exodus 27:9-19
9. And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined linen, of all hundred cubits long for one side. 9. Facies insuper atrium tabernaculi ad plugam meridianam australem: cortinae erunt atrio e bysso retorta: centum cubitorum erit longitudo angulo uni.
10. And the twentypillars thereof, and their twenty sockets, shall be of brass: the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 10. Columnae autem ejus erunt viginti, et bases earum viginti aereae: capitella colunmarum et ilia earum argentea.
11. And likewise for the north side in length, there shall be hangings of an hundred cubits long, and his twenty pillars, and their twenty sockets of brass: the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 11. Et sic lateri aquilonari in longitudine erunt cortinae centum, et columnm ejus viginti, basesque earum viginti rerem: capitella columnarum, et fila earum argentea.
12. And for the breadth of the court on the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits: their pillars ten, and their sockets ten. 12. Porro in latitudine atrii ad latus occidentale, erunt cortinae quinquaginta cubitorum: et columnae earum erunt decem, et bases earum decem.
13. And the breadth of the court on the east side eastward shall be fifty cubits. 13. In latitudine vero atrii in latere orientali ad orientem, quinquaginta cubiti erunt.
14. The hangings of one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three. 14. Qindecim autem cubitorum erunt tortinto lateri uni: columnae earum tres, basesque earum tres.
15. And on the other side shallbe hangings, fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three. 15. Lateri vero secundo quindecim cortinae: columnae earum tres, et bases earum tres.
16. And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needle-work: and their pillars shall be four, and their sockets four. 16. Et portae atrii disponetur aulaeum viginti cubitorum ex hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta, opere acupictoris: columnae ejus quatuor, basesque earum quatuor.
17. All the pillars round about the court shall be filleted with silver: their hooks shall be of silver, and their sockets of brass. 17. Omnes columnae atrii in circuitu cinctae erunt argento: capitella vero earum erunt argentea, et bases earum aerea.
18. The length of the court shall be an hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty every where, and the height five cubits of fine twined linen, and their sockets of brass. 18. Longitudo atrii erit centum cubitorum, et latitudo quinquaginta in quinquaginta: altitudo autem quinque cubitorum: ex bysso retorta et bases earum aereae.
19. All the vessels of the tabernacle, in all the service thereof, and all the pins thereof, and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass. 19. Omnia vasa tabernaculi in omni ministerio ejus, et omnes paxilli ejus, et omnes paxilli atrii, ex aeare.

9. And thou shalt make the court. There were two courts divided from the sanctuary, one for the priests, the other common to the whole people. To the first chambers were annexed, in which the Levites dwelt, who were the keepers of the tabernacle; and thus sometimes the courts are spoken of in the plural number, and especially in the Psalms, (<196404>Psalm 64:4; 84:2; 92:13; 96:8.) It is the court of the people which is here referred to, where they consecrated the victims, offered their prayers, and were reconciled to God. In this manner the condition of mankind was shewn to the Israelites, by their being forbidden to enter the Temple, whilst at the same time they were reminded that men, although unworthy outcasts, are received by God, if only they seek Him simply, and with due humility, mindful of their own unworthiness. Hence the consolation in which David gloried, f149 "I had rather dwell in the courts of the Lord, than in the splendid tents of the ungodly." The court was formed by four curtains, two of which, on the north and south sides, were 100 cubits long, and supported by 20 pillars, whose bases were of brass, and their capitals f150 and fillets of silver; on the east and west, each curtain was 50 cubits long, supported by 10 pillars. The length spoken of is not from the ground upwards, but from their opposite corners: for the court was twice as long as it was broad, as is said in ver. 18. There would be an appearance of contradiction in the fact that Moses afterwards speaks of two sides, and assigns fifteen cubits to each, if he did not immediately go on to mention the hanging or curtain, which covered the gate of the court, and which he sets at twenty cubits. Thus the measure will be correct, and the passage will be quite accordant; for, after he has said in ver. 13 that the curtain on the east side should consist of fifty cubits, he adds in explanation that there were two curtains at the sides of the door, and a third between them to cover the door, making up in all the fifty cubits. But the door was covered by the hanging, that the Israelites might reflect in themselves, whenever they went into the sanctuary, that it was no profane or common (promiscuum) place; but if they came thither in purity and chastity, they might be assuredly persuaded that they were safe under the protection of God. Finally also the majesty of holy things was shewn them in this type, in order that they might reverently approach the worship of God; and they were reminded of their own unworthiness, that they might humble themselves the more before God, and that fear might beget penitence, whilst moderation in the desire of knowledge was recommended to them, that they might not be unduly inquisitive. The religion of the Gentiles also had its secret shrines with the same object, but for very different causes; for it was a brutal religion, for which veneration was sought by darkness, and the disguise of ignorance; whereas God, whilst He retained His people in modesty and simplicity, at the same time set before them the Law, from which they might learn whatever it was right and useful for them to know.
Exodus 29
Exodus 29:36, 37
36. And thou shalt offer every day a bullock for a sin-offering for atonement: and thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast made an atonement for it, and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it. 36. Juvencum pro peccato facies in singulos dies pro expiationibus: et expiabis altare expiando ipsum, ungesque illud ad ipsum sanctificandum.
37. Seven days thou shalt make an atonement for the altar, and sanctify it; and it shall be an altar most holy: whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy. 37. Septem diebus expiabis altare et sanctificabis illud: eritque sanctitas sanctitatum: quicquid tetigerit altare, sanctificabitur.

36. And thou shalt offer every day a bullock. Since the ancient altar was no less a type of Christ than the priest was, it may naturally be asked, what its expiation could mean, as if there were anything impure or polluted in Christ. But we must remember, what I before adverted to, that no similitude is identical (with the reality); for then the substance and reality of the shadows could not be represented in their perfection. Yet this was an apt similitude, shewing that God could only be propitiated towards the human race by an expiation made with blood. On this account not only was the altar to be cleansed, but; also dedicated to its use, that reconciliation might proceed from it; and this is expressed by the word "sanctify," especially when it is added, "it shall be the holiness of holinesses," f151 that it may sanctify whatever is put upon it. Others read it in the masculine gender: "Whosoever shall touch it, shall be holy;" and understand it of the priest, who by right of his anointing might approach the altar; but; it rather dignifies the consecration of the altar by its consequence, viz., because it sanctifies the victims themselves. The sum is that the body of Christ, inasmuch as it was offered as a sacrifice, and consecrated with blood, was acceptable to God; so that its holiness washes away and blots out all our uncleanness. We shall speak of the anointing a little further on.
Exodus 30
Exodus 30:1-10
1. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim-wood shalt thou make it. 1. Facies et altare suffimenti suffitus, ex lignis Sittim facies illud.
2. A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, (four-square shall it be,) and two cubits shall be the height thereof; the horns thereof shall be of the same. 2. Cubitus longitudo ejus, et cubitus latitudo ejus, quadratum erit: et duo cubiti altitudo ejus: ex ipso cornua ejus.
3. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof: and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about. 3. Teges illud auto puro, tectum ejus vel parietes ejus per circuitum, et cornua ejus: faciesque ei coronam auream per circuitum.
4. And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof; upon the two sides of it shalt thou make it: and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it withal. 4. Duos etiam annulos aureos facies ei infra coronam ejus, in duobus angulis ejus, in utroque latere ejus: et per illos trajicientur vectes ad illud cum ipsis portandum.
5. And thou shalt make the staves of shittim-wood, and overlay them with gold. 5. Facies autem vectes illos ex lignis sittim, et teges eos auro.
6. And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy-seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee. 6. Et pones illud ante velum, quod erit juxta aream testimonii, ante propitiatorium, quod erit super testimonium, ubi conveniam tecum.
7. And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it. 7. Et adolebit super illud Aharon suffitum aromatum singulis matutinis, quando aptabit lucernas adolebit illum.
8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it; a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations. 8. Et quando accendet Aharon lucernas inter duas vesperas, adolebit suffitum illum jugiter coram Jehova in generationibus vestris.
9. Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt-sacrifice, nor meat-offering; neither shall ye pour drink-offering thereon. 9. Non offeretis super illud suffitum alium, neque holocaustum, neque minha: sed nec libamen libabitis super illud.
10. And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin-offering of atonements; once in the year shall he make atonement upon it, throughout your generations: it is most holy unto the Lord. 10. Et expiabit Aharon super cornua ejus semel in anno sanguine oblationis pro peccato expiationum: semel in anno expiabit super illud in generationibus vestris. Sanctitas sanctitatum est Jehovae.

1. And thou shalt make an altar. God now issues His commands respecting the altar of burnt incense, whereby the people were assured that the odor of the worship under the Law was sweet to Him. This ceremony indeed also prevailed among the Gentiles; whence there is frequent mention made by heathen authors of incense-burning; but what its object was they knew not themselves, nor did they care to reflect upon its proper intention, since they conceived themselves to have done all that was required of them, by the bare sign itself. In this way, however, God would encourage His believing people, by giving them to know that the worship which they offered at this command sent up to him a sweet savor. Meanwhile He admonished them diligently to beware lest any uncleanness should profane their sacrifices, but that they should come cleansed and pure into His sight. And David applies this type specially to prayer, when he says:
"Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense."
(<19D102>Psalm 131:2.)
Therefore, as the other altar of which we have been hearing, was devoted to the victims for the purpose of propitiating God, so also this altar perfumed the sacrifices with the odor of its incense, that they might be acceptable to God. Hence it was placed near the ark of the testimony, though with the vail between, that its savor might ascend directly to God without any let or hindrance. There is no ambiguity in the words, except that some think there is a repetition where it is said, "every morning," and "between the two evens;" f152 others suppose that there are two separate oblations, and this latter view is the more probable, i.e., that the incense was offered morning and evening. He afterwards forbids either the altar itself to be transferred to other uses, or any other kind of incense to be burnt upon it; of this he will speak elsewhere.
10. And Aaron shall make an atonement. We should observe here the correspondence between the two altars; for, as the Israelites were admonished that the sacrifices would not please God, unless all uncleanness were wiped away by pure and holy prayers, so also the altar of incense was purified by the sprinkling of blood, that they might learn that their prayers obtained acceptance through sacrifices. Although this was only done once a year, yet it was daily to be called to mind, in order that they might offer the death of Christ by faith and prayer, f153 and yet might know that their prayers had no sweet savor, unless in so far as they were sprinkled with the blood of atonement.
Exodus 30:34-38
34. And the Lord said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices, with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight. 34. Et dixit Jehova ad Mosen, Accipe tibi aromata, stacten, et onychen, et galbanum, aromata, et thus purum: ut pondus ponderi respondeat.
35. And thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy. 35. Et facies ex eo suffimentum aromaticum, opus aromatarii, mistum, purum et sanctum.
36. And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with thee: it shall be unto you most holy. 36. Et contundes ex eo comminuendo: ponesque ex eo coram testimonio in tabernaculo conventionis, in quo conveniam tecum: sanctitas sanctitatum erit vobis.
37. And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord. 37. Suffimentum quod facies secundum compositionem ejus non facietis vobis: sanctitas tibi erit Jehovae.
38. Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people. 38. Quisquis fecerit simile ad adolendum ilhd, excidetur e populis suis.

34. Take unto thee sweet spices. This oblation might have been noticed with the others, yet, since it merely describes the composition of the incense, which is connected with the altar of incense, and in fact is but an appendage to it, I have seen no reason why I should separate them. Let the curious subtilely discuss, if they please, the ingredients themselves; it is enough for me that they were chosen at God's will to make a very sweet smell. For I know not whether it is likely, as some suppose, that galbanum f154 is of a strong and disagreeable savor, and, since they only offer this conjecture in an unknown matter, they deserve little credit. My conviction is that it was sweet, which the words of Moses himself a little further on confirm, where he denounces the penalty of death upon those who should use such perfume for their private gratification; for this prohibition would have been absurd, unless its odor had been very agreeable. Besides, the analogy between the sign and the thing signified would not have held good, unless its sweet savor had testified that God is greatly pleased with the prayers of His people. Moreover, in order that the sacred symbol might be the more reverenced, it was not allowable to transfer this mixture to private use; for since men are rude and earthly-minded, there is nothing they are more prone to than to mix up heavenly things with those of earth. Therefore, to elevate their minds the more, it was necessary that the incense, in which there was a special holiness due to God alone, should be set apart from common use.
Exodus 30:17-21
17. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 17. Loquutus est etiam Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
18. Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein. 18. Facies et concham aeneam, et basin ejus aeneam ad lavandum, ponesque illam inter tabernaculum conventionis et altare, et pones aquam ill ea.
19. For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat. 19. Lavabuntque ex ea Aharon et filii ejus manus suas et pedes suos.
20. When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the Lord. 20. Quando ingredientur tabernaculum conventionis lavabunt se aqua, ut non moriantur: aut quum appropinquabunt ad altare, ut ministrent, ut incendant oblationem ignitam Jehovae.
21. So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations. 21. Lavabunt inquam manus suas et pedes suos, ne moriantur: eritque illis statutum perpetuum, ei scilicet et semini ejus per generationes suas.

18. Thou shalt also make a laver of brass. Although this oblation was a sign of the purity which God required in His priests, yet, inasmuch as this hollow vessel (concha) or laver, which supplied the water, was a part or utensil of the sanctuary, I have thought it best to insert here what is ordained respecting it, not only as to its fashion, but also its use, which could not be well separated: for if bare mention had only been made of a laver or water-vessel, f155 the reader would have received no profit from it. But, when God expressly commands that water should always be ready in this basin for the priests to wash their hands and feet, we gather from hence with what reverence and sanctity God would have His holy service performed. It was, indeed, a common proverb among the Gentiles that they were guilty of impiety who handled holy things with unwashen hands, and they testified in this ceremony that they could not worship God aright except when purified from all pollution and uncleanness. One in Virgil says: —
"——— donec me flumine vivo Abluero." f156
"Till in some living stream I cleanse the guilt
Of dire debate and blood in battle spilt." — Dryden.
And such expressions are of constant occurrence. Sometimes they even seemed almost to hit the right point; as where the poet commands the ungodly and the criminal to depart from the sacrifices, lest they should contaminate them; f157 but this was only a fleeting imagination, since no anxiety to repent had awakened in them a desire to propitiate God; and so, even whilst they were diligent in performing ablutions, their minds, darkened with error, knew not what it meant. But the Israelites were thus chiefly reminded how unworthy they were to offer sacrifices to God, since the impurity of the very priests, who were chosen to this once, prevented them from exercising it, until they were cleansed with water. The washing of the hands and feet denoted that all parts of the body were infected with uncleanness; for, since Scripture often uses the word "hands" for the actions of life, and compares the whole course of life to a way or journey, it is very suitable to say by synecdoche that all impurity is purged away by the washing of the hands and feet. The comparison with Christ now remains to be considered; but this we shall understand better a little beyond in reference to the sacrifices.
The Priesthood
Exodus 28
Exodus 28:1-43
1. And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even. Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons. 1. Tu vero accerse ad to Aharonem fratrem tuum et filios ejus eum co, e medio filiorum Israel: ut sacerdotio fungatur mihi Aharon, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, et Ithamar filii Aharon.
2. And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for beauty. 2. Et facies vestes sacras Aharoni fratri tuo, in gloriam, et decorem.
3. And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. 3. Tu itaque alloqueris omnes sapientes corde quos replevi spiritu sapientiae, ut fadant vestes Aharon ad sanctificandum eum, ut sacerdotio fungatur mihi.
4. And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. 4. Hae sunt omnes vestes quas facient, pectorale et ephod, et pallium et tunicam ocellatam, mitram et baltheum: facient inquam vestes has sacras Aharoni fratri tuo et filiis ejus, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
5. And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen. 5. Qui accipient aurum et hyacinthum, et purpuram, et vermiculum cocci, et byssum.
6. And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work. 6. Facient autem ephod ex auro, hyacintho, et purpura, vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta, opere phrygionico.
7. It shall have the two shoulder-pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together. 7. Duae orae junctae erunt in duabus extremitatibus ejus, et ita conjungetur.
8. And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. 8. Cingulum autem ipsius ephod ejus quod in eo erit, simile erit texturae ipsius, in ipso erit, nempe ex auto, hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta.
9. And thou shalt take two onyx-stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel: 9. Accipies quoque duos lapides onychinos, et sculpes in eis nomina filiorum Israel.
10. Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth. 10. Sex e nominibus eorum in lapide uno, et nomina sex reliqua in lapide altero, secundum generationes eorum.
11. With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold. 11. Opere artificis lapidum et sculpturis annuli sculpes duos illos lapides nominibus filiorum Israel, circundatos palis aureis facies eos.
12. And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord, upon his two shoulders, for a memorial. 12. Ponesque duos illos lapides in lateribus ephod, lapides memoriae pro filiis Israel: et feret Aharon nomina eorum coram Jehova in duobus humeris suis ad memoriam.
13. And thou shalt make ouches of gold; 13. Facies itaque palas aureas:
14. And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches. 14. Et duas catenas ex auro puro terminatas, facies opere plectili, inseresque catenas plectiles palis illis.
15. And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blue, and of purple, and. of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, thou shalt make it. 15. Facies deinde pectorale judicii, opere phrygionico: sicut opus ephod facies illud, ex auro, et hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci, et bysso retorta.
16. Four-square it shall be, beinq doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof. 16. Quadratum erit et duplicatum: palmus erit longitudo ejus: et palmus latitudo ejus.
17. And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row. 17. Et implebis in eo impletione lapidum quatuor ordines lapidum: ordo erit talis: sardius, topazius, et carbunculus, ordo primus.
18. And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. 18. Ordo vero secundus: smaragdus, sapphirus, et jaspis.
19. And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. 19. Ordo praeterea tertius: lyncurius, achates, et amethystus.
20. And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings. 20. Postremo ordo quartus: chrysolithus, onychinus, et berillys: constricti auro erunt in plenitudinibus suis.
21. And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes. 21. Porro lapides illi erunt juxta nomina filiorum Israel, duodecim, secundum nomina ipsorum, sculpturis annuli singuli juxta nomen suum, erunt duodecim tribubus.
22. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold. 22. Facies et in pectorali catenas termini opere plectili ex auro puro.
23. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two things on the two ends of the breastplate. 23. Facies etiam in pectorali duos arnnulos aureos, et illos duos annulos pones in duabus extremitatibus pectoralis.
24. And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate. 24. Pones item duas catenas aureas in duobus annulis in extremitatibus pectoralis.
25. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod before it. 25. Et duas extremitates duarum catenarum inseres duabus palis, et pones in lateribus ephod a fronte ipsius.
26. And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate, in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward. 26. Facies et duos annulos aureos, quos pones in duabus extremitatibus ipsius pectoralis in ora ejus, quse est in latere ipsius ephod intrinsecus.
27. And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the fore-part thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod. 27. Facies item duos altos annulos aureos, quos pones in duobus lateribus ipsius ephod inferne a fronte ejus, e regione conjunctionis ejus, supra baltheum ephod.
28. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. 28. Ita jungent pectorale annulis suis ad annulos ipsius ephod filo hyacinthino, supra baltheum ipsius ephod, neque separetur pectorale ab ephod.
29. And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually. 29. Itaque feret Aharon nomina filiorum Israel in pectorali judieii supra cor suum, quando ingredietur in sanctuarium in memoriam coram Jehova jugiter.
30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually. 30. Pones autem in pectorali judicii Urim et Thummim, ut sint super cor Aharon quando ingredietur coram Jehova: gestabitque Aharon judicium filiorum Israel super cot suum coram Jehova semper.
31. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue. 31. Facies et pallium ipsius ephod totum ex hyacintho.
32. And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent. 32. Et erit foramen sumrose parris ejus in medio ejus: labrum erit foramini illius in circuitu opere textoris, sicut foramen loricae erit el, ne rumpatur.
33. And beneath upon the hem of it, thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about: 33. Facies et in fimbriis ejus malogranata ex hyacintho, et purpura, et vermiculo cocci: in fimbriis, inquam, ejus per circuitum, et tintinnabula aurea in medio per circuitum.
34. A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about. 34. Tintinnabulum aureum unum et malogranatum, tintinnabulum aureum alterum et malogranatum in fimbriis pallii per circuitum.
35. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not. 35. Erit autem Aharon ad ministrandum, et audietur sonus ejus quando ingredietur sanctuarium coram Jehova, et quando egredietur: et non morietur.
36. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, Holiness To The Lord. 36. Facies insuper laminam ex auto puro, et sculpes in ea sculpturis annuli. Sanctitas ipsi Jehovae.
37. And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre: upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be. 37. Quam pones in filo hyacinthino, eritque super cidarim, ex adverso faciei cidaris erit.
38. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord. 38. Et erit supra frontem Aharon, feretque Aharon iniquitatem sanctificationum quas sanctificabunt filii Israel in omnibus muneribus sanctificationum suarum: erit inquam supra frontem ejus jugiter in beneplacitum els coram Jehova.
39. And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework. 39. Et facies opere ocellato tunicam byssinam, facies item cidarim byssinam, cingulum quoque facies opere phrygionico.
40. And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty. 40. Filiis autem Aharon facies tunicas, facies quoque illis cingula et pileos ad gloriam et decorum.
41. And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. 41. Et vesties illis Aharon fratrem tuum, et filios ejus cure illo, atque unges illos: implebisque manum eorum, et sanctificabis cos, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
42. And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach. 42. Fac eis et feminalia linea ad tegendam carnem turpitudinis: a lumbis usque ad femora erunt,
43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die. It shall be a statute for ever unto him, and his seed after him. 43. Eruntque super Aharon et super filios ejus quando ingredientur tabernaculum conventionis, aut quum accedent ad altare ut ministrent in sanctuario: et non ferent iniquitatem, neque morientur. Statutum perpetuum illi et semini ejus post eum.

We now arrive at the second part of the Legal Worship, i.e., the Priesthood; for we must bear in mind what I have said, that there are three things to be considered, —
1. The Tabernacle;
2. The Priestly Office; and
3. The Sacrifices.
And indeed all the splendor of the tabernacle, of which we have been speaking, would have been an empty parade without the priest, who so mediated as an intercessor, that he reconciled men to God, and in a manner united heaven to earth. Now it is unquestionable, that the Levitical priests were the representatives of Christ; since, with respect to their office, they were even better than the very angels; which would be by no means reasonable, unless they had been the type of Him, who is Himself the head of the angels. The heathen nations, it is true, had their priests, who presided over their religious services, but they were but empty phantoms; for there was no mention with them of the Mediator, so that the people might know that God cannot be duly appeased, and that our prayers cannot be heard by Him, unless a peace-maker interfere between us. But the nature of the Levitical priesthood was widely different; for the Israelites were instructed that all of them were unworthy to stand before God, and so that there was need of an Intercessor to propitiate Him. Now, since the general rule had been laid down, that all things should be rigidly referred to the pattern which had been shewn to Moses in the mount, their minds were necessarily drawn upwards; and this too they might easily have arrived at, for various reasons. The whole body of the people saw a man like themselves, who could not enter the sanctuary trusting in his own innocence, and whose dignity was conferred upon him by adventitious rites; i.e., by anointing, and by investiture. The full truth, therefore, did not shine forth in this, but only a figure to direct them to the truth; and of this they were doubtless admonished, lest they should rest in earthly things. Besides, its interpretation was added (by the prophets f158); because, as the Apostle wisely teaches us in the Epistle to <580718>Hebrews 7:18, the promise to appoint hereafter a priest after the order of Melchisedec would not hold good, unless it were applied to Christ; for it is plain that the Levitical priesthood is there brought into comparison by contrast with one of a different nature; and since the latter is eternal, it follows that the former is temporary; and, whilst the one is sanctioned by an oath, it clearly is superior to the other. There is no doubt, then, but that David, as a faithful interpreter of the Law, more manifestly shewed forth what there was obscurely shadowed.
Thus far my wish has been to teach that the Levitical priest was ordained, that he might be a type of the true Mediator. It will now be worth our while briefly to advert to the marks by which our perpetual and only Priest, the Son of God, is to be distinguished from those of old; for a fuller exposition will follow hereafter in its proper place. The first distinction I have already pointed out, viz., that the type was temporary; since perpetuity is only to be sought in the reality itself: whence we learn that the priestly office was not so instituted by Moses to last for ever, but to direct the people to a better hope. But what I have said as to the office, must be transferred also to the persons. There was only one high priest under the Law, who was afterwards succeeded by one of his race, since they were all mortal. None, then, was ever such a priest as became us, except Christ; because none other could be perpetual; and hence we arrive at the second distinction. The third arises from Christ's divinity, which is proved by the fact, that the priest after the order of Melchisedec has no beginning; for we find nowhere the origin of Melchisedec; but he is only brought forward once and unexpectedly, as if be had come down from heaven. The fourth is the combination of the kingdom and the priesthood. Under the Law God would have some to be kings, and others to be priests; nor was it allowable to mix up the one office with the other; but He, of whom it is said that He should be a priest like Melchisedec, is honored with the title of king. The fifth is, that the legal priest only appeared before God in the visible and sanctuary, but Christ entered into heaven, to present us to His Father, not in the external symbols of (precious) stones, f159 but in the reality itself; for in Him as our Head we are all gathered together unto God. The sixth lies in the perfect righteousness of Christ; for the legal priest, since he was one of us sinners, had need to seek pardon for himself; but Christ, being free from all guilt, awakens favor towards us by His own purity. The seventh is, that the priest borrowed from external figures what was truly and really shewn forth in Christ. The sacred garments, as we have lately said, denoted something more than human; the anointing, too, was a symbol of the Spirit which dwells in Christ; and He therefore was not consecrated with visible and corruptible oil, but with the fullness of all gifts. The priest of old abstained from intercourse with his wife when he went into the sanctuary; he was only allowed to marry a virgin; the perfect and spiritual purity of Christ was contented with its own perfection. The last distinction consisted in the sacrifices themselves, respecting which I abstain at present from speaking more fully, because they will have their proper place hereafter. This only we must now recollect, that Christ expiated the sins of the world, not with the blood of beasts, but with His own blood. Now we turn to the words of Moses.
1. And take thou unto thee Aaron. The calling of God is here alleged to prove the importance and dignity of the priesthood, and this too the Apostle has well weighed in the words:
"And no man taketh the honor unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron." (<580504>Hebrews 5:4.)
Among heathen nations the priests were appointed by popular election, so that ambition alone governed their appointment; but God would only have those accounted lawful priests whom He had selected at His own sole will; and surely the whole human race together had no power to obtrude any one on God, who should interpose himself to obtain pardon and peace; nay, not even Christ Himself would have been sufficient to propitiate God, unless He had undertaken the office by the decree and appointment of His Father. To which refers the famous oath, whereby His heavenly Father appointed Him to be priest; and so much the more vile and detestable was the sacrilege which afterwards prevailed in the Jewish nation, viz., that the successors of Aaron bought the priesthood! This unworthy traffic of the office, which Josephus relates, ought to awaken horror in us now, when we see that sacred honor profaned by the family which had been chosen by God to represent Christ. Nevertheless, however they may have violated all law and justice, still the counsel of God remained inviolable, that believers might know that the priesthood depended on His authority, just as reconciliation flows from His mere mercy. For in order that it should be lawful for men to establish a priest, it would be necessary that they should anticipate God by their own deservings; and from this they are very far distant. The case is different as to the election of the pastors of the Church; since, after Christ had instituted the order itself, He commanded that there should be chosen out of the Church those who by their doctrine and integrity of life were fitted to exercise the office. Still He does not thus resign His own right and power to men, for He does not cease through them to call those (by whom He would be served. f160) Wherefore, to shew that He is the sole author of the priesthood, God commands Aaron and his sons to be separated from among the others; and the performance of this He entrusts to Moses, whom, however, He does not elevate to the like honor. Moses consecrates Aaron, although he was never himself dedicated by anointing and investiture to the service of God; f161 whence we perceive that the sacraments have their power and effect not from the virtue of the minister, but only from the commandment of God; for Moses would not have given to others what he had not himself, if it had not so pleased God.
2. And thou shalt make holy garments. These external ornaments denoted the want of those which are true and spiritual; for if the priest had been absolutely and entirely perfect, these typical accessories would have been superfluous. But God would shew by this symbol the more than angelical brightness of all virtues which was to be exhibited in Christ. Aaron was defiled by his own corruption, and therefore unworthy to appear in the presence of God; in order, then, that he might be a fit peacemaker between God and man, he put off his ordinary garments, and stood forth as a new man. Hence the holy garments were, first of all, supposed to conceal his faults; and, secondly, to represent the incomparable adornment of all virtues. The latter may indeed be in some measure applied to the pastors of the Church; nor will the comparison be absurd, if we say that no others are worthy of so excellent an honor, except those in whom surpassing and extraordinary virtue brightly manifests itself. But we must chiefly recollect what I have said, viz., that in these garments the supreme purity and wondrous glory of Christ were represented; as if God should promise that the Mediator would be far more august than the condition of man could produce. He therefore declares that they shall be "for glory and for beauty." We shall speak more fully hereafter, what I will touch upon now, as to the wisdom of the artificers, viz., that all who from the foundation of the world have invented arts useful to the human race, have been imbued with the Spirit of God; so that even heathen authors have been compelled to call them the inventions of the gods. But inasmuch as in this Divine work there was need of rare and unwonted skill, it is expressly spoken of as a peculiar gift of the Spirit.
4. And these are the garments. Here again I must remind my readers, that they should abandon all subtle speculations, and be contented with simplicity. I might repeat many plausible allegories, which perhaps would find more favor with some than a sound knowledge of facts. If any should delight in this kind of child's play, let him only read what Jerome wrote to Fabiola; in which he collected almost everything that he possibly could from the writings of others; but nothing will be found except dull trifling, the folly of which it is painful even to report, much more to refute. Those who are conversant with my writings, are aware that I do not willingly find fault with the opinions of others; but when I reflect how dangerous are those itching ears, with which many are troubled, I am obliged to prescribe this remedy. Six principal parts of the dress are enumerated. What the Greeks call the logei~on, and the Latins the pectorale, was like a square breastplate attached by small chains, so as to be connected with the ephod. Inclosed in it were twelve stones to represent the tribes of Israel; and the Urim and Thummim were also annexed to it. But what its form might be, cannot be certainly declared from the words of Moses; and since even the Jews also differ among themselves, let us be satisfied with its comparison to a breastplate. I have no objection to the opinion, that its name f162 was derived from strength, or a treasure. But this is worthy of the utmost attention, that the priest bore the sons of Abraham as it were upon his heart, not only that he might present them to God, but that he might be mindful of them, and anxious for their welfare. The twelve precious stones were by no means given to be symbols of the twelve tribes as a cause for awakening their pride, as if they were so highly esteemed on the score of their own dignity or excellence; but they were thus reminded that the whole value, in which believers are held by God, is derived from the sanctity of the priesthood. Therefore, let us learn from this figure, that:, however vile and abject we may be in ourselves, and so altogether worthless refuse, yet inasmuch as Christ deigned to ingraft us into this body, in Him we are precious stones. And to this Isaiah seems to allude in the passage before cited, where, speaking of the restoration of the Church, which was to take place under the reign of Christ, he says, "Behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colors, and lay thy foundations with sapphires; and I will make thy windows with carbuncles, and all thy borders with pleasant stones;" for immediately after the exposition follows, "And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord." (<235411>Isaiah 54:11-13.) Therefore what was to be fulfilled in Christ, was typified by the external sign under the Law; viz., that though we sojourn in the world, yet are we united with Christ by faith, as if we were one with Him; and, besides, that He takes care for our welfare, as if He bore us enclosed in His heart; and, finally, that when our heavenly Father regards us in Him, He esteems us above all the wealth and splendor of the world.
As to the Urim and Thummim, it appears probable to me that they were two conspicuous marks on the breastplate, corresponding to these names; for the supposition of some of the Jews, f163 that the ineffable name of God was placed beneath its texture, is not free from foolish and dangerous superstition. I pass over other fancies, which are equally frivolous; nor am I anxious to know what was the form of either of them; the fact itself is sufficient for me. By the Urim, therefore, or splendors, I doubt not but that the light of doctrine, wherewith the true Priest illuminates all believers, was represented; first, because He is the one "light of the world," without which all things are full of darkness; and because in Him "are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." (<430812>John 8:12; 9:5; <510203>Colossians 2:3.) Hence did Paul justly glory that he knew nothing but Jesus Christ, (<460202>1 Corinthians 2:2,) since His priesthood sufficiently and more than sufficiently enlightens us. As then the people were admonished that their eyes should be directed to the splendor of the priest, so now we must diligently remember what Christ Himself teaches, that "he that followeth him shall not walk in darkness." (<430812>John 8:12.) On the other hand, the Thummim, which signifies perfections, was a symbol of the perfect and entire purity which is only to be sought in Christ; for He would not have been a meet high priest unless He had been perfect, free from every spot, and deficient in nothing which is required unto complete holiness. It is not, then, an improper distinction, that the Urim refers to the light of doctrine, and the Thummim to the life; and this is indeed in some measure applicable to the pastors of the Church, who ought to shine both in sound doctrine and in integrity of life. But it was God's design to shew that neither of these things is to be sought anywhere except in Christ; since from Him we obtain both light and purity, when He deigns to make us partakers of them according to the measure of His free bounty. Whence it follows, that they who seek for the least spark of light or drop of purity out of Christ, plunge themselves into a labyrinth, where they wander in mortal darkness, and inhale the deadly fumes of false virtues unto their own destruction.
What the Scripture sometimes relates, as to the inquiries made by Urim and Thummim, it was a concession made by God to the rudeness of His ancient people. The true Priest had not yet appeared, the Angel of His Almighty counsel, by whose Spirit all the Prophets spoke, who, finally, is the fountain of all revelations, and the express image of the Father; in order then that the typical priest might be the messenger from God to man, it behooved him to be invested with the ornaments of Christ. Thus even then believers were taught in a figure, that Christ is the way by which we come to the Father, and that He also brings from the secret bosom of His Father whatever it is profitable for us to know unto salvation, hence that fiction of the Jews is contradicted, that the responses were given in this way: if a question was asked respecting a particular tribe, that the stone which represented it was lighted up; and that the colors of the stones were changed according as God refused or assented. For even if we allow that the Urim and Thummim were the rows of precious stones themselves, still this imagination is altogether unmeaning. But, as I have said, by the very form of the breastplate God would testify that the fulness of wisdom and integrity was contained in it; for which reason it is called "the breastplate of judgment," i.e., of the most perfect rectitude, which left nothing to be desired; for the word fpçm mishphot, often signifies in Scripture whatsoever is well and duly ordered. The interpretation which some give, that "judgment" means "inquiry," because the priest only asked for responses when he had the breastplate on, is too restricted, and is even proved to be erroneous by sundry passages. Let this then be deemed settled, that this honorable appellation is meant to express a correct and infallible rule (ordinem.) Because the breastplate was, as it were, a part of the ephod, it is therefore sometimes comprehended in that word; in which it may be well also to observe, that this peculiar ephod of the high priest's was different from the others, of which mention is made elsewhere; for all of the sacerdotal lineage wore an ephod in the performance of religious duties. (<091403>1 Samuel 14:3; 23:6.) Even David, when he danced before the Ark, wore his ephod, (<100614>2 Samuel 6:14;) and this custom is still retained by the Jews at their chief festivals. The rest I will introduce presently in their proper places.
9. And thou shalt take two onyx-stones. That the connection between the priest and the people might be made more plain, God not only placed on his breast the memorials of the twelve tribes, but also engraved their names on his shoulders. Thus all occasion of envy was removed, since the people would understand that this one man was not separated from the others for the sake of private advantage, but that in his one person they were all a kingdom of priests, which Peter teaches to have been at length really fulfilled in Christ, (<600205>1 Peter 2:5;) as Isaiah had foretold that there should be priests of God, and Levites brought from the Gentiles, (<236621>Isaiah 66:21;) to which John makes allusion in the Apocalypse, where he says that we are all priests in Christ, (<660106>Revelation 1:6.) But we must remember the reason why our High Priest is said to bear us on His shoulders, for we not only crawl on earth, but we are plunged in the lowest depths of death; how then should we be able to ascend to heaven, unless the Son of God should raise us up with Him; Now, since there is no ability in us unto eternal life, but all our powers of mind and body lie prostrate, we must be borne up by His strength alone. Hence then arises our confidence of ascending to heaven, because Christ raises us up with Him; as Paul says, we "sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus," (<490206>Ephesians 2:6;) however weak then we may be in ourselves, herein is all our strength, that we are His burden. Therefore in this old type was prefigured what Paul teaches, that the Church is "his body," and "the fullness of him," (<490122>Ephesians 1:22.) It remains that each of us, conscious of our own weakness, should rest on Christ; for when in foolish arrogance we exalt ourselves, we do not suffer ourselves to be lifted up by Him, to be borne and sustained by His power. Let the proud then, by lifting themselves on high, fall down in ruin, whilst Christ supports us upon His shoulders. These stones are called "stones of memorial;" and again, "for a memorial" to the children of Israel; as is also afterwards repeated of the twelve stones; which some expound, that "God may be mindful of the children of Israel;" others, that "the priest himself may remember them;" others, that "the children of Israel may remember that God is reconciled to them for the sake of the one Mediator;" but I simply interpret it, that they were a monument of the mutual agreement between God and them; as if God would shew by a visible sign that He embraced them and received them into His sanctuary, as often as they were offered in this manner.
30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate. From these words some infer that the Urim and Thummim were distinct from the whole work, which is before described; others think that they were the twelve stones, because no mention will be made of them when Moses relates that the whole was completed. But nothing is more probable, as I have already said, than that on the breastplate itself some representation was given of light in doctrine, and of entire uprightness of life; and therefore after Moses has called it "the breastplate of judgment," he also speaks of it as "the judgment of the children of Israel;" by which expression he means a certain and defined system, or an absolutely perfect rule, to which the children of Israel ought to direct and conform themselves.
31. And thou shalt make the robe. This robe was above the oblong coat between that and the ephod; and from its lower edge hung the bells and pomegranates alternately. Although there was no smell in the pomegranates, f164 yet the type suggested this to the eyes; as if God required in that garment a sweet smell as well as a sound; and surely we who stink through the foulness of our sins, are only a sweet smell unto God as being covered with the garment of Christ. But God would have the bells give a sound; because the garment of Christ does not procure favor for us, except by the sound of the Gospel, which diffuses the sweet savor of the Head amongst all the members. In this allegory there is nothing too subtle or far-fetched; for the similitude of the smell and the sound naturally leads us to the honoring of grace, f165 and to the preaching of the Gospel. By the pomegranates, therefore, which were attached to the hem of the garment, God testified that whatever was in the priest smelt sweetly, and was acceptable to Him, provided the sound accompanied it; the necessity of which is declared, when God denounces death against the priest if He should enter the sanctuary without the sound. And assuredly it was a general invitation which awakened the peoples' minds to attention, whilst the sacred offices were performed. There is no absurdity in the fact, that the punishment which God threatens does not properly apply to Christ; because it was necessary to issue severe injunctions to the Levitical priests, lest they should omit these external exercises of piety, until the truth was manifested. The ancients do not unwisely make a spiritual application of this to the ministers of the Church; for the priest is worthy of death, says Gregory, f166 from whom the voice of preaching is not heard; just as Isaiah reproves "the dumb dogs." (<235610>Isaiah 56:10.) But this we must especially remember, that the garment of Christ is sonorous, since only faith, which cometh by hearing, clothes us with His righteousness.
36. And thou shalt make a plate. It is not without reason that this inscription is placed upon the priest's forehead, that it may be conspicuous; for not only did God thus testify that the legal priesthood was approved of, and acceptable to Him, since He had consecrated it by His word, but also that holiness was not to be sought elsewhere. These two things, then, are to be observed, — first, that the priesthood of His own appointment is pleasing to God, and so, that all others, however magnificently they may be spoken of, are abominable to Him, and rejected by Him; and secondly, that out of Christ we are all corrupt, and all our worship faulty; and however excellent our actions may seem, that they are still unclean and polluted. Thus, therefore, let all our senses remain fixed on the forehead of our sole and perpetual Priest, that we may know that from Him alone purity flows throughout the whole Church. To this His words refer,
"For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth." (<431719>John 17:19;)
and the same thing is expressed in this passage of Moses, "that Aaron may hear the iniquity of the holy things," etc. It is undoubtedly a remarkable passage, whereby, we are taught that nothing proceeds from us pleasing to God except through the intervention of the grace of the Mediator; for here there is no reference to manifest and gross sins, f167 the pardon of which it is clear that we can only obtain through Christ; but the iniquity of the holy oblations was to be taken away and cleansed by the priest. That is but a poor exposition of it, that if any error were committed in the ceremonies, it was remitted in answer to the prayers of the priest; for we must look further, and understand that on this account the iniquity of the offerings must be purged by the priest, because no offering, in so far as it is of man, is altogether free from guilt. This is a harsh saying, and almost a paradox, that our very holinesses are so impure as to need pardon; but it must be borne in mind that nothing is so pure as not to contract some stain from us; just as water, which, although it may be drawn in purity from a limpid fountain, yet, if it passes over muddy ground, is tinged by it, and becomes somewhat turbid: thus nothing is so pure in itself as not to be polluted by the contagion of our flesh. Nothing is more excellent than the service of God; and yet the people could offer nothing, even although prescribed by the Law, except with the intervention of pardon, which none but the priest could obtain for them. There is now no sacrifice, nor was there ever, more pleasing to God than the invocation of His name, as He himself declares,
"Call upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me," (<195015>Psalm 50:15;)
yet the Apostle teaches us that "the sacrifice of praise" only pleases God when it is offered in Christ. (<581315>Hebrews 13:15.) Let us learn, then, that our acts of obedience, when they come into God's sight, are mingled with iniquity, which exposes us to His judgment, unless Christ should sanctify them. In sum, this passage teaches us that whatsoever good works we strive to present to God are so far from deserving reward, that they rather convict us of guilt, unless the holiness of Christ, whereby God is propitiated, obtains pardon for them. And this is again asserted immediately afterwards, where Moses says that by favor of the priest the sins of the sacred oblations are taken away f168 "for favorable acceptation," i.e., that the Israelites may be sure that God is reconciled and favorable to them. I have nothing to say of the tiara itself, which some call a mitre, (cidarim,) and others a cap; neither do I choose to philosophize too subtilely about the belt or girdle. f169
40. And for Aaron's sons. The sons of Aaron also are separated not only from the body of the people, but likewise from the Levites; for a peculiar dignity was attached to that family, from whom his successor was afterwards to be taken. f170 And since no single individual was able to perform all their offices, they were distributed amongst them. Hence it was that they were adorned with the coat, the girdle, and the bonnet, "for glory and for beauty." We shall see as to their anointing in the next chapter. Their hands are said be filled, f171 when they are made fit for offering sacrifices, for as long as their hands are unconsecrated (profanae) they are accounted empty, even though they may be very full, since no gift is acceptable to God except in right of the priesthood; consequently their fullness arose from consecration, whereby it came that the oblations duly made had access to God. But we must observe that it is not their father Aaron, but Moses, who sanctifies them, that the power itself, or effect of their sanctification, may rest in God, and may not be transferred to His ministers. Perhaps, too, God would anticipate the calumnies of the ungodly, lest any should afterwards object that Aaron had fraudulently and unjustly extended the honor conferred upon himself alone to his sons also, and thus had unlawfully made it hereditary. He was protected against this reproach by the fact, that the sacerdotal dignity came to them from elsewhere. Besides, by these means the posterity of Moses was more certainly deprived of the hope they may have conceived in consideration of what their father was. Therefore Moses, by inaugurating the children of Aaron, reduced his own to their proper place, lest ally ambition should hereafter tempt them, or lest envy should possess them when they saw themselves put below others.
42. And thou shalt make them linen breeches. Since men, in their natural levity and frowardness, lay hold of the very slightest causes of offense to the disparagement of holy things, and so religion easily sinks into contempt, God here, as a precaution against such a danger, delivers a precept respecting an apparently trivial matter, viz., that the priests should cover their nakedness with breeches. The sum is, that they should conduct themselves chastely and modestly, lest, if anything improper or indecorous should appear in them, the majesty of holy things should be impaired. Some, therefore, thus explain the clause, "that they may minister in holiness," f172 as if it were said, "that they may be pure from every stain, and may not desecrate God's service." In my opinion, however, the word çdwq kodesh, should be taken for the sanctuary; and this is the more natural sense. A threat is added, that if they neglected this observance it would not be with impunity, since they would bring guilt upon themselves. Nor can we wonder at this, since all carelessness and negligence in the performance of sacred duties is closely connected with impiety and contempt of God. What immediately follows as to its being a perpetual law or statute, some, in my judgment improperly, restrict to the precept respecting the breeches, for it has a natural reference to the other ordinances of the priesthood. God therefore declares generally, that the Law which He gives is not for a little time, but that it may always remain in force as regards His elect people; whence we infer that the word µlw[ gnolam f173 whenever the legal types are in question, attains its end in the advent of Christ; and assuredly this is the true perpetuity of the ceremonies, that they should rest in Christ, who is their full truth and substance. For, since in Christ was at length manifested what was then delineated in shadows, these figures are established, because their use has ceased after the manifestation of their reality. And this we have already seen was long ago foretold by David, when he substitutes for the Levitical priesthood another "after the order of Melchisedec," (<19B004>Psalm 110:4;) but the dignity being transferred, as the Apostle well reminds us, the Law and all the statutes must be of necessity transferred also. (<580712>Hebrews 7:12.) The ancient rites, therefore, are now at an end, because they do not accord with the spiritual priesthood of Christ; and herein the twofold sacrilege of the Papacy betrays itself, in that mortal men have dared to substitute another third priesthood for that of Christ, as if His were transitory; and also, in their foolish imitation of the Jews, have heaped together ceremonies which are directly opposed to the nature of Christ's priesthood. They reply, indeed, that His priesthood remains entire, although they have innumerable sacrifices; but they vainly endeavor to escape by this subterfuge, for if it was unlawful to change, or to innovate anything in the legal priesthood, how much less is it lawful to corrupt the priesthood of Christ by strange inventions, when its integrity has been ratified by the inviolable oath of God? The Father says to the Son, "Thou art a priest for ever;" how, then, does it avail to make the silly assertion that nothing is taken away from Christ, when an innumerable multitude (of priests) are appointed? How do these things accord, that He was anointed to offer Himself by the Spirit, and yet that He is offered by others? that by one offering He completed His work unto our full justification, and yet that He is offered daily? Now, if there be now-a-days no lawful priest except such an one as possesses in himself what was foreshewn in the ancient types, let them bring forth priests adorned with angelic purity, and as it were separate from the ranks of men, otherwise we shall be at liberty to repudiate all who are defiled by the very slightest stain. Hence, too, has arisen their second sacrilege, viz., that they have dared to obscure the brightness of the gospel with a new Judaism. They were altogether without the means of proving their priesthood, and so their easiest plan was to envelop their vanity in an immense mass of ceremonies, and, as it were, to shut out the light by clouds. So much the more diligently, then, must believers beware of departing from the pure institution of Christ, if they desire to have Him for their one and eternal Mediator.

Exodus 29
Exodus 29:1-35
1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them, to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without bleufish, 1. Hoc quoque facies eis ad sanctificandum eos, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi: Tolle juvencum unum filium bovis, et arietes duos immaculatos.
2. And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil; of wheaten flour shalt thou make them. 2. Panes praeterea infermentatas, et placentas infermentatas mixtas oleo, et lagan infermentata uncta oleo: ex simila triticea facies ea.
3. And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. 3. Ponesque ea in canistrum unum, et offeres ea in canistro, una cum juveneo, et duobus arietibus.
4. And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. 4. Tum Aharonem et filios ejus accedere fades ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis, et lavabis cos aqua.
5. And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: 5. Et accipies vestes, induesque Aharon tunicam, et pallium ephod, et ephod pectorale, cingesque cum baltheo ephod.
6. And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. 6. Pones praeterea cidarim super caput ejus: coronam autem sanctitatis pones super cidarim.
7. Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. 7. Postremo accipies oleum unctionis, et fundes super caput ejus, et unges eum.
8. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them. 8. Post haec filios ejus accedere facies, et indues cos tunicas.
9. And thou shalt gird them with girdles, (Aaron and his sons,) and put the bonnets on them; and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons. 9. Cingesque illos baltheo: Aharon et flios ejus, et aptabis eis pileos, et erit eis sacerdotium in statutum perpetuum, implebisque manum Aharon, et manum filiorum ejus.
10. And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the bullock. 10. Et offeres juveneum coram tabernaculo conventionis, imponentque Aharon et filii ejus manus suas super caput juvenei.
11. And thou shalt kill the bullock before the Lord, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 11. Tunc mactabis juveneum coram Jehova ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
12. And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar. 12. Accipiesque e sanguine juvenci, et pones super cornua altaris digito tuo: reliquum autem sanguinem fundes ad fundamentum altaris.
13. And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar. 13. Tollesque omnem adipem operientem intestina, et reticulum quod est super jecur, et duos renes, et adipem qui est super illos, et incendes ea super altare.
14. But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin-offering. 14. At carnem juvenei, et pellem ejus, fimumque ejus combures igni extra castra: sacrificium pro peccato est.
15. Thou shalt also take one ram; Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram. 15. Arietem quoque alterum accipies, et imponent Aharon et filii ejus manus suas super caput arietis.
16. And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it round about upon the altar. 16. Tunc mactabis arietem, accipiesque sanguinem ejus, et asperges super altare per circuitum.
17. And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, and wash the inwards of him, and his legs, and put them unto his pieces, and unto his head. 17. Arietem autem concides ix, frusta sua, et lavabis intestina ejus, cruraque ejus, et pones super frusta ejus, et super caput ejus.
18. And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a burnt-offering unto the Lord: it is a sweet savor, an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 18. Incendes praeterea totum arietem super altare: nam holocaustum est Jehovae in odorem quietis: oblatio ignita Jehovae est.
19. And thou shalt take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram. 19. Accipies insuper arietem secundum, imponentque Aharon et filii ejus manus suas super caput arietis.
20. Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. 20. Tunc mactabis arietem, accipiesque de sanguine ejus, et pones super tenerum antis Aharon, et super tenerum auris filiorum ejus dextrae, et super pollisem manus eorum dextrae, et super pollicem pedis corum dextri, aspergesque sanguinem super altare per circuitum.
21. And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him. 21. Tollesque de sanguine qui erit super altare, et de oleo unctionis: atque asperges super Aharon, et super vestes ejus, et super illlos ejus, et super vestes filiorum ejus cum eo.
22. Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat, and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration: 22. Deinde tolles de ariete adipem, et caudam, et adipem operientem intestina, et reticulum jecoris, duosque renes, atque adipem qui est super eos, et armum dextrum: quia aries consecrationum est:
23. And one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the Lord. 23. Et tortam panis unam, et placentam panis ex oleo unam, et laganum unum e canistro infermentatorum qui est coram Jehova.
24. And thou shalt put all in the hands of Aaron, and in the hands of his sons, and shalt wave them for a wave-offering before the Lord. 24. Ponesque omnia ilia in manibus Aharon, et in manibus filiorum ejus, exaltabisque ilia exaltationem coram Jehova.
25. And thou shalt receive them of their hands, and burn them upon the altar for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savor before the Lord: it is an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 25. Accipies autem illa e manu eorum, et incendes super altare, ultra holocaustum in odorem quietis coram Jehova: oblatio ignita est Jehovae.
26. And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it. for a wave-offering before the Lord: and it shall be thy part. 26. Accipies item pectus arietis consecrationum quod est ipsi Aharon, et exaltabis illud exaltationem coram Jehova, eritque tibi in partem.
27. And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave-offering, and the shoulder of the heave-offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons. 27. Sanctificabis itaque pectus exaltationis, et armum elevationis quod exaltatum est, et qui elevatus est de ariete consecrationum ipsius Aharon et filiorum ejus.
28. And it shall be Aaron's and his sons by a statute for ever from the children of Israel; for it is an heave-offering: and it shall be an heave-offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace-offerings, even their heave-offering unto the Lord. 28. Et erit ipsi Aharon et filiis ejus in statutum perpetuum a filiis Israel: quia exaltatio est: et exaltatio erit a filiis Israel de sacrificiis prosperitatum suarum, exaltatio inquam eorum erit Jehovae.
29. And the holy garments of Aaron shall be his son's after him, to be anointed therein, and to be consecrated in them. 29. Porro vestes sanctae quae sunt ipsius Aharon, erunt filiis ejus post eum ad ungendum cos cure eis, et ad consecrandum cum els manum eorum.
30. And that son that is priest in his stead shall put them on seven days, when he cometh into the tabernacle of the congregation to minister in the holy place. 30. Septem diebus induct eas sacerdos qui fuerit loco ipsius de filiis ejus, qui ingredietur tabernaculum conventionis ad ministrandum in sanctuario.
31. And thou shalt take the ram of the consecration, and seethe his flesh in the holy place. 31. Arietem autem consecrationum tolles, et coques carnem ejus in loco sanctitatis.
32. And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 32. Comedetque Aharon et filii ejus carnem arietis, et panem qui est in canistro, ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
33. And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was made, to consecrate and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are holy. 33. Comedent inquam illa quibus expiatus fuit ad consecrandum manum earum, ad sanctificandum cos: et alienigena non comedet, quia sanctificatio sunt.
34. And if ought of the flesh of the consecrations, or of the bread, remain unto the morning, then thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: it shall not be eaten, because it is holy. 34. Quod si superfuerit de carne consecrationum, et de pane, usque mane, combures quod supcrest igni: non comedettur, quia sanctitas est.
35. And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, according to all things which I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou consecrate them. 35. Facies igitur ipsi Aharon et filiis ejus sic, juxta omnia quae praecepi tibi: septem diebus consecrabis manum eorum.

1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them. Since I shall again repeat and more fully explain these things as they are written in Leviticus 9, in the history of the consecration of the tabernacle, it will be sufficient to give nothing more than a brief summary of them here; nor is it my custom to invent mysteries out of vague speculations, f174 such as may rather gratify than instruct my readers. First, since the whole human race is corrupt and infected with many impurities, so that his uncleanness prevents every single individual from having access to God, Moses, before he consecrates the priests, washes them by the sprinkling of water, in order that they may be no longer deemed to be of ordinary rank. Hence we gather that true purity and innocence, which was but typical in the Law, is found in Christ alone. "For such an high priest became us," says the Apostle, "who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners," to present Himself before God for us. (<580726>Hebrews 7:26.) After they had been washed, God commands that they should be invested with the sacerdotal dress, according to their respective ranks: that the high priest should wear the ephod with the Urim and Thummim, and the mitre with the golden plate, on which shone forth "holiness to Jehovah;" and in the third place, He adds the anointing. This preparation was for the purpose of initiating them, before they performed the office of sacrificing; but it must be observed that, as to this first sacrifice, the duties which were afterwards transferred to Aaron were imposed upon Moses, as if he were the only priest; and, in point of fact, the temporal dignity which he afterwards resigned to his brother, was still in his own hands. What Moses introduces about the division of the victim, we shall more conveniently explain elsewhere, in treating of the offerings, which we have stated to be the third part of the legal worship.
16. And thou shalt slay the ram. Moses had previously been commanded to take the parts of the victim from the hands of Aaron, to propitiate God with them, in order that he and his posterity might be able hereafter to perform the same office; but here a peculiar ceremony is described, that he should smear the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the toe of the right foot, both of Aaron and his sons, with the blood of a ram; and then that he should sprinkle them and their garments with the blood which was deposited upon the altar. What we must first observe here is, that the priest must be sprinkled with blood, in order that he may conciliate the favor of God towards himself for the purpose of intercession. Thus the priesthood of Christ was dedicated with blood, so that it might be efficacious to reconcile God with us. The question now arises, why only the right ear and the right thumb and toe were sprinkled with blood, as if the priests were consecrated and devoted to God only in half of their persons? I reply, that in this one part the other was comprehended; since both the ears, and both the hands and feet have the same object, and their offices are so connected, that what is said of one ear applies to the other. Again, it is asked, why the ear, and foot, and hand, were smeared rather than the breast and the tongue? and I do not doubt but that by the ear obedience was designated, and by the hands and feet all the actions and the whole course of life; for there is scarcely anything more common in Scripture than these metonymies, by which the cleanness of the hands is taken for the integrity of the whole life, and the way, or course, or walk for the direction, or manner of living. It is therefore very appropriate that man's life should be consecrated by blood; and, inasmuch as the foundation of welldoing is obedience, which is preferred to all sacrifices, Moses is commanded to begin with the ear. And we know that the "odor of a sweet smell" in the sacrifice of Christ was obedience, (<500418>Philippians 4:18;) on which account, David, in the spirit of prophecy, introduces himself, saying, "Mine ears hast thou bored." f175 (<194006>Psalm 40:6.) If any should object that the tongue is of no less importance, because the priest is the messenger of the Lord of hosts, I answer that the office of teaching is not here referred to, but only that of intercession; wherefore in these three members Moses embraced whatever related to atonement. But we must remember that what is said of the consecration of Christ does not apply to His own person, but refers to the profit of the whole Church; for neither was He anointed for His own sake, nor had He need to borrow f176 grace from the blood; but He had regard to His members, and devoted Himself altogether to their salvation, as He himself testifies, "For their sake I sanctify myself." (<431719>John 17:19.)
28. And it shall be Aaron's. Lest the dignity of the sacred offerings, which are called the holiness of the Lord, should be impaired, strangers are prohibited from partaking of them; for, if it had been permitted that every one should touch them and eat of them, there would have been no distinction between them and ordinary food. Of the priests' portion some parts were common to all their families; but the holy parts were excepted, to the intent that by this particular instance the reverence due to all might be inculcated. The reference to place has the same object, for it was not lawful to eat what was holy within the walls of their houses, in order that it might be distinguished from their common and ordinary food. For the same reason, whatever remained of it was to be burnt, lest, if the flesh became rank, or the bread moldy, their ill savor and filthy appearance might somewhat detract from the dignity of the holy things; for the infirmity of the ancient people had need of childish rudiments, which might still have a tendency to elevate the minds of the pious to things above. This was the object of all these things, that no corruption should creep in which might pollute or render contemptible the service of God.
Leviticus 8
Leviticus 8:1-3
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est deinde Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Take Aaron, and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin-offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread; 2. Tolle Aharon et filios ejus cure illo, et vestes, et oleum unctionis, et juvencum sacrificii pro peccato: et duos arietes, et canistrum azymorum.
3. And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 3. Atque omnem coetum congrega ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.

19. And the Lord spake. It is well known that in conjunction with the sacrifices there was an offering, which they call minha, but we shall elsewhere see that this was also used separately; for it was lawful without a victim to offer either plain meal, or cakes, or wafers seasoned with oil. Therefore, besides the sacrifice of consecration, of which Moses has already treated, this second offering is required from the priest, that he should present at his inauguration a cake fried in a pan, and cut in pieces. The reason of this appears to have been, that he might thence become the legitimate minister of all the people, and might duly offer in the name of others, when he had done what was right for himself. But a distinction is drawn between the demand upon the priest and that, upon the people, viz., that it should be "wholly burnt; " the reason for which, since it will be explained elsewhere, it will be now sufficient to advert to in a single word. The fact was that God was unwilling that the priests should indulge themselves in vain ostentation, which might have been easily the case, if the oblation had been preserved for their use, like the minha of the people which remained in their hands.
Numbers 8
Numbers 8:5-19, 23-26
5. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 5. Loquutusque est praeterea Jehova ipsi Mosi, dicendo:
6. Take the Levites from among the children of Israel, and cleanse them. 6. Cape Levitas e medio filiorum Israel, et purifices illos.
7. And thus shalt thou do unto them, to cleanse them: Sprinkle water of purifying upon them, and let them shave all their flesh, and let them wash their clothes, and so make themselves clean. 7. Sic autem facies illis ut purifices illos: sparge super eos aquam purificationis, et transire faciant novaculam super totam carnem suam, laventque vestimenta sua, et purificentur.
8. Then let them take a young bullock with his meat-offering, even. fine flour mingled with oil, and another young bullock shalt thou take for a sin-offering. 8. Postea capient juvencum filium bovis, et minham ejus similam conspersam oleo: et juvencum alterura filium bovis capies in sacrificium pro peccato.
9. And thou shalt bring the Levites before the tabernacle of the congregation; and thou shalt gather the whole assembly of the children of Israel together. 9. Tunc offeres Levitas coram tabernaculo conventionis: et congregabis omnem coetum filiorum Israel.
10. And thou shalt bring the Levites before the Lord; and the children of Israel shall put their hands upon the Levites: 10. Offeres inquam Levitas eoram Jehova, et conjungent filii Israel marius suas super Levitas.
11. And Aaron shall offer the Levites before the Lord for an offering of the children of Israel, that they may execute the service of the Lord. 11. Offeretque Aharon Levitas in oblationem coram Jehova a filiis Israel, et ministrabunt in ministerio Jehovae.
12. And the Levites shall lay their hands upon the heads of the bullocks: and thou shalt offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering, unto the Lord, to make an atonement for the Levites. 12. Levitae autem conjungent manus suas super caput juvencorum: postea facies unum pro peccato, et alterum in holocaustum Jehovae ad expiandum Levitas.
13. And thou shalt set the Levites before Aaron, and before his sons, and offer them for an offering unto the Lord. 13. Statuesque Levitas coram Aharon et coram fillis ejus, et offeres illos oblationem Jehovae.
14. Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be mine. 14. Ac segregabis Levitas e medio filiorum Israel: erunt mei Levitae.
15. And after that shall the Levites go in to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation: and thou shalt cleanse them, and offer them for an offering. 15. Posted autem venient Levitae ad ministrandum in tabernaculo conventionis, et expiabis illos, offeresque cos oblationem.
16. For they are wholly given unto me from among the children of Israel; instead of such as open every womb, even instead of the first-born of all the children of Israel, have I taken them unto me. 16. Quid dati, dati inquam sunt mihi e medio filiorum Israel pro aperiente omnem vulvam, pro primogenito filiorum Israel accepi cos mihi.
17. For all the first-born of the children of Israel are mine, both man and beast: on the day that I smote every first-born in the land of Egypt I sanctified them for myself. 17. Meus est enim omnis primogenitus in filiis Israel tam hominum quam jumentorum: a die quo percussi omne primogenitum in terra AEgypti, sanctificavi illa mihi.
18. And I have taken the Levites for all the first-born of the children of Israel. 18. Cepi autem Levitas pro onmi primogenito in filiis Israel.
19. And I have given the Levites as a gift to Aaron, and to his sons, from among the children of Israel, to do the service of the children of Israel in the tabernacle of the congregation, and to make an atonement for the children of Israel; that there be no plague among the children of Israel, when the children of Israel come nigh unto the sanctuary. 19. Et dedi Levitas dono datos Aharoni et filiis eius e medio filiorum Israeli, ut fungantur officio filiorum Israel in tabernaculo conventionis, et expient filios Israel: neque sit in filiis Israel plaga, quum ipsi appropinquaverint sanctuario.
23. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 23. Loquutns est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
24. This is it that belongeth unto the Levites: from twenty and five years old and upward they shall go in to wait upon the service of the tabernacle of the congregation: 24. Hoc quoque est quod ad Levitas pertinet, vicesimo quinto anno et supra ingredientur militare militiara in cultu tabernaculi conventionis.
25. And from the age of fifty years they shall cease waiting upon the service thereof, and shall serve no more; 25. A quinquagesimo autem anno revertetur a militia cultus, nec ministrabit ultra:
26. But shall minister with their brethren in the tabernacle of the congregation, to keep the charge, and shall do no service. Thus shalt thou do unto the Levites touching their charge. 26. Sed ministrabit cum fratribus suis in tabernaculo conventionis, ut munere suo illi fungantur et ministerium non administrabit: sic facies de Levitis in custodiis eorum.

5. And the Lord spake unto Moses. Although the Levites were not allowed to go into the sanctuary, but were only the priests' ministers, and chiefly employed in servile duties, yet, inasmuch as they carried the tabernacle and the sacred vessels, prepared the sacrifices, took away the ashes and other offscourings from the altar, God would have them consecrated to Himself by a solemn rite. For as all Israel, with respect to the Gentiles, was God's peculiar people, so the house of Levi was chosen out of the people itself to be His own property, as it is here said. But, lest they should arrogate to themselves more than was right, God anticipates their presumption: first, by putting off their consecration for some time; secondly, by desiring that they should not be initiated by Moses, but by Aaron; and thirdly, by appointing a different ceremony for it. For, if they had been initiated at the same time as the priests, under this pretext they might have contended to be on an equality with them; therefore, although the priests were already separated from the common people, yet the Levites still remain unconsecrated, (privati,) in order that they may learn to reverence the priestly office. And again, since, if they had been dedicated likewise by Moses, there was a danger of their being puffed up with pride against all others, Aaron is appointed to preside over their consecration, that they may modestly submit themselves to his authority. Since, too, they were only purified by water, and sacrifice, and without the addition of anointing, the difference in the external rite reminded them that their degree of honor was not similar or the same.
6. Take the Levites from among. To take them from among the children of Israel, is equivalent to subtracting them from the number of the people, that they might not be included in the general census, and accounted to be one of the tribes. This separation, then, as he will more clearly express a little further on, devoted the Levites to God for the service of the sanctuary. That under this pretext the Papal clergy should claim immunity for themselves, so that they may live as they like in exemption from the laws, is not only an unsound deduction, but one full of impious mockery; for, since the ancient priesthood attained its end in Christ, the succession, which they allege, robs Christ of His right, as if the full truth had not been manifested in Him. Besides, inasmuch as all their privileges only depend on the primacy of the Pope, if they would have them ratified they must needs prove, first of all, that the Pope is appointed by God's command to be the head of the whole Church, and therefore that he is the successor of Christ. As to Aaron, since he was the minister of their installation, in this way he was set over the Levites to rule them at his discretion. Meanwhile this ministry is thus entrusted to a man, in such a manner as not to stand in the way of God's gratuitous good pleasure.
7. And thus shalt thou do unto them. Aaron is commanded first to sprinkle the water of purifying upon them, to cleanse them from their uncleanness; and not only so, but they are commanded to wash their clothes, that they may diligently beware of any impurity being anywhere about them, whereby their persons may be infected. Thirdly, they are commanded to shave their skin with a razor, that, putting off their flesh, they may begin to be new men. A sacrifice is afterwards added, and that twofold, to make an atonement for them. These things being completed, Aaron, in right and to the honor of the priesthood, is commanded to offer them just like the holy bread or incense. But the end of this was, that they might acknowledge that they were no longer their own masters, but devoted to God, that they might engage themselves in the service of the sanctuary. It was in testimony of alienation that some of the people were ordered at the same time to lay their hands upon them; as if by this ceremony all the tribes bore witness that with their consent the Levites passed over to be God's peculiar property, that they might be a part or appendage of the sanctuary. For private individuals (as we shall see hereafter) were accustomed to lay their hands on their sacrifices, yet not with the same object as the priests. f177
16. For they are wholly given. Lest the other tribes should complain that the number of the people was diminished, God declares that the Levites were alienated from the race of Abraham, since He had acquired them to Himself when He smote all the first-born of Egypt; for it is certain that the first-born of the people, as well as those of their animals, were miraculously rescued from the common destruction. Since, then, God delivered them by special privilege, He thus bound them to Himself by the blessing of their redemption. But this reason would seem no longer to hold good, when God, in demanding the price of redemption, set the first-born free, f178 as was elsewhere stated; else He would require the same thing twice over, which would be unjust. The solution, however, of this is easy; when, in the first census, the first-born of the twelve tribes were counted, they were found to exceed the Levites in number. An exchange was then made, viz., that all the first-born of the twelve tribes, being 22,000 in number, should be free from the tribute, and that God should take the Levites in their place as His ministers. Only 273 were redeemed, because this was the excess of their number above that of the Levites. Thus was it brought to pass, that God was content with these just and equal terms, so as not to oppress the people by a heavy burden. But this compensation, which was only made on that one particular day, did not prevent the Israelites from owing their children, who were not then born, to God. Since, then, this obligation still lay upon them as regarded their posterity, the law was passed that they should redeem their first-born. If any should object that it was not fair for those who should be born of the Levites to be consecrated to God, — I reply, that on this point there was no unfairness, for of whatever tribe they might be descended, they were already His property, together with all their offspring; the condition of the people was not therefore made worse by the exchange; and hence, in all equity, God appointed for the future at what price the Israelites should redeem their first-born. In saying that they were "given" to Him, He means to assert that they were His by compact; f179 and in this sense He declares that from the day in which He smote the first-born of Egypt, the first-born of Israel had become His; and then adds, that He then took the Levites; as much as to say, that He only dealt with his people with respect to the time past.
19. And I have given the Levites. He declares on what terms He desires to have them as His own, viz., that they may be directed by Aaron, and obey his commands; for by "a gift" is not to be understood such an act as that whereby a person resigns and cedes his own right to another; but, when He devotes them to the ministry of the sanctuary, He desires that they should have a leader and master. At the end of the verse, Moses teaches that this is done for the advantage and profit of the whole people: whence it follows, that there was no room for ill-will towards them, unless the people should perhaps be annoyed that God had taken measures for their welfare. A two-fold advantage is pointed out; first, because they were to be the intercessors or ministers of reconciliation, (for either sense would be appropriate;) secondly, because, whilst they would be the guardians of the sanctuary, they would prevent the Israelites from bringing destruction upon themselves, by their rash approach to it.
24. This is it, that belongeth to the Levites. The age is here prescribed when the Levites should begin and end the execution of their office. God commands them to commence in their 25th year and grants them their dismissal in their 50th; and for both these provisions there is very good reason. For, if they had been admitted in early youth, their levity might have greatly detracted from the reverence due to sacred things: not only because those, whose manhood is not yet mature, are generally given to pleasure and intemperance, but because either by negligence, or levity, or want of thought, or ignorance and error, they might have made many grievous mistakes in the service of God; and, whilst they were by no means fitted to exercise their charge until they should have attained prudence and gravity, so also, lest they should fail from old age, it was right that they should be seasonably dismissed; for as we have before said, their duties were laborious, and such as demanded bodily strength. If, however, any should choose to make an application of this to the pastoral office, it should be generally remembered, that none should be chosen to it except such as have already given proofs of their moderation, and float those who diligently devote themselves to it should not be unreasonably pressed upon, nor should more be required of them than their ability can bear; for some foolishly count their years, as if it were a sin to choose a pastor before his 24th year, although he might be otherwise fully provided with the necessary qualifications.
Numbers 3
Numbers 3:5-10
5. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 5. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
6. Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present them before Aaron the priest, that they may minister unto him. 6. Appropinquare fac tribum Levi, et siste eam coram Aharone sacerdote, ut ministret ei.
7. And they shall keep his charge, and the charge of the whole congregation, before the tabernacle of the congregation, to do the service of the tabernacle. 7. Et custodiant custodiam ejus, et custodiam universi coatus coram tabernaculo conventionis, ut exequantur cultum tabernaculi.
8. And they shall keep all the instruments of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the charge of the children of Israel, to do the service of the tabernacle. 8. Custodiant quoque omnia utensilia tabernaculi conventionis, custodiamque filiorum Israel, ut exequantur culture tabernaculi.
9. And thou shalt give the Levites unto Aaron, and to his sons: they are wholly given unto him out of the children of Israel. 9. Da inquam Levitas ipsi Aharon, et filiis ejus: dati, dati namque sunt illi ex filiis Israel.
10. And thou shalt appoint Aaron and his sons, and they shall wait on their priest's office; and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death. 10. Aharon autem et filios ejus praeficies, custodientque sacerdotium suum: externus sane qui accesserit morietur.

5. And the Lord spake unto Moses. This passage contains two heads: first, That the Levites should be set apart for the ministry of the sanctuary and altar; and, secondly, That they should obey the chief priests of the family of Aaron, and do nothing except by their authority and command. But it has been already said, and we shall hereafter see again, that the tribe of Levi in general was divinely chosen to perform the sacred offices; so that the people might know that no one was worthy of so honorable a charge; but that it depended on the gratuitous calling of God, whose attribute it is to create all things out of nothing. In this way, not only was the temerity of those repressed who might be foolishly ambitious of the honor, but the whole Church was taught that, in order to worship God aright, there was need of extraneous aid. For, if the Levites had not stood between, the Law prohibited the rest of the people from having access to God, since it brought in the whole human race guilty of pollution. But, in order that they might be more certainly directed to the One Mediator, the high priesthood was exalted, and one priest was chosen to preside over all the rest: on this account God would have the Levites subject to the successors of Aaron. At the same time, He had regard to order, for a multitude, which is not governed by chiefs, will always be disorderly. Yet, it is unquestionable that the supreme power of Christ was represented in the person of Aaron; and hence the folly of the Papists is refuted, who transfer, or rather wrest, this example to the state of the Christian Church, f180 so as to set the bishops over the presbyters, and thus to fabricate the primacy of the Roman See. But if the true meaning of this figure be sought, it will be more appropriate to reason that, whatever ministers and pastors of the Church are now appointed, they are placed as it were under the hand of Christ, in order that they may usurp no dominion, but behave themselves modestly, as having to render an account to Him who is the Prince of pastors. (<600504>1 Peter 5:4.) Hence we conclude that the Papacy is only founded in wicked sacrilege; for Christ is unjustly deprived of His own, if any one else is feigned to be Aaron's successor. Meanwhile, the political distinction of ranks is not to be repudiated, for natural reason itself dictates this in order to take away confusion; but that which shall have this object in view, will be so arranged that it may neither obscure Christ's glory nor minister to ambition or tyranny, nor prevent all ministers from cultivating mutual fraternity with each other, with equal rights and liberties. Hence, too, was taken that declaration of the Apostle, that it is not lawful for any man to take this honor upon himself, but that they are the legitimate ministers of the Church who are "called" to be so. (<580504>Hebrews 5:4)
Exodus 30
Exodus 30:22-33
22. Moreover, the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 22. Loquutus est etiam Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
23. Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels, 23. Tu sume tibi aromata optima: myrrhae fluidae ad quingentos siclos, cinnamomi aromatici dimidium ipsius, ducentos et quinquaginta: et calami atomatici ducentos et quinquaginta:
24. And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil-olive an hin. 24. Casiae vero quingentos siclos, pondere sanctuarii: et olei olivae hin:
25. And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil. 25. Et facies ex ea oleum unctionis sanctitatis, unguentum unguenti, opus unguentarii; oleum unctionis sanctitatis erit.
26. And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony, 26. Unges eo tabernaculum conventionis, et arcam testimonii,
27. And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense, 27. Et mensam onmiaque vasa ipsius, et candelabrum omniaque vasa ipsius, et altare suffimenti:
28. And the altar of burnt-offering with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot. 28. Altare quoque holocausti et omnia vasa ipsius, et concham et basin ejus.
29. And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy. 29. Ita sanctificabis ea, erunt sanctitas sanctitatum: quicquid tetigerit ea, sanctificabitur.
30. And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. 30. Aharon praeterea et filios ejus unges, et sanctificabis eos, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
31. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations. 31. Ad filios autem Israel loqueris, dicendo, Oleum unctionis sanctitatis erit hoc mihi per generationes vestras.
32. Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured; neither shall ye make any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you. 32. Super carnem hominis non ungent: neque compositioni ejus facietis similes: sanctum est, sanctum erit vobis.
33. Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people. 33. Quisquis confecerit unguentum simile, et qui posuerit ex eo super extraneum, succidetur e populis suis.

23. Take thou also unto thee principal spices. Although the oil here treated of was not only destined for the anointing of the priests, but also of the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altars, and all the vessels, yet no fitter place occurs for discussing the sacred unction, than by connecting it with the priesthood, on which it depends. First of all its composition is described, exquisite both in expensiveness and odor; that by its very excellence and costliness the Israelites may learn that no ordinary thing is represented by it; for we have already often seen that there had been set before this rude people a splendor in sacred symbols, which might affect their external senses, so as to uplift them as it were by steps to the knowledge of spiritual things. We must now see why the priest as well as all the vessels and the other parts of the tabernacle had need of anointing. I conclude that without controversy this oil mixed with precious perfumes was a type of the Holy Spirit; for the metaphor of anointing is everywhere met with, when the prophets would commend the power, the effects, and the gifts of the Spirit. Nor is there any doubt but that God, by anointing kings, testified that He would endow them with the spirit of prudence, fortitude, clemency, and justice. Hence it is easily gathered that the tabernacle was sprinkled with oil, that the Israelites might learn that all the exercises of piety profited nothing without the secret operation of the Spirit. Nay, something more was shewn forth, viz., that the efficacy and grace of the Spirit existed and reigned in the truth of the shadows itself; and that whatever good was derived from them was applied by the gift of the same Spirit for the use of believers. In the altar, reconciliation was to be sought, that God might be propitious to them; but, as the Apostle testifies, the sacrifice of Christ's death would not otherwise have been efficacious to appease God, if He had not suffered by the Spirit, (<580914>Hebrews 9:14;) and how does its fruit now reach us, except because the same Spirit washes our souls with the blood, which once was shed, as Peter teaches us? (<600102>1 Peter 1:2.) Who now consecrates our prayers but the Spirit, who dictates the groans which cannot be uttered; and by whom we cry, Abba, Father? (<450815>Romans 8:15, 26.) Nay, whence comes the faith which admits us to a participation in the benefits of Christ, but from the same Spirit?
But we were especially to consider the anointing of the priest, who was sanctified by the Spirit of God for the performance of his office; thus, as Isaiah, in the person of Jesus Christ, declares that he was anointed with the spirit of prophecy, (<236101>Isaiah 61:1;) and David affirms the same of the royal spirit, (<194507>Psalm 45:7;) so Daniel is our best interpreter and witness how the sacerdotal unction was at length manifested (in Him f181), for when he says that the time, when by the death of Christ the prophecy shall be sealed up, was determined upon "to anoint the holy of holies," he plainly reminds us that the spiritual pattern, which answers to the visible sanctuary, is in Christ; so that believers may really feel that these shadows were not mere empty things. (<270924>Daniel 9:24.) We now perceive why Aaron was anointed, viz., because Christ was consecrated by the Holy Spirit to be the Mediator between God and man; and why the tabernacle and its vessels were sprinkled with the same oil, viz., because we are only made partakers of the holiness of Christ by the gift and operation of the Spirit. f182 Some translate it in the masculine gender, where of the vessels it is said, "whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy;" ver. 29: as if they were not to be touched by any but the priests; but it appears to me to be rather spoken for another reason, viz., that they may embue the oblations with their own sanctity.
25. And thou shalt take it an oil of holy ointment. Although the genitive is put in the place of an epithet, as if Moses had said "a holy oil;" yet it is so called from its effect, because without it nothing is accounted pure. And assuredly the Spirit of God sanctifies ourselves and all that is ours, because without Him we are unholy, and all that belongs to us corrupt. He enjoins the use of the ceremony throughout all the generations of the ancient people, ver. 31. In these words there is an implied contrast with the new Church, which wants no shadows since the manifestation of the substance; and justly does the only begotten Son of God possess the name of Christ, since by His coming He has abolished these figures. And Simeon, when he took Him in his arms, and called Him "the Lord's Christ," f183 taught that the external use of the legal oil had ceased. So much the sillier is the superstition of the Papacy, when in imitation of the Jews it anoints its priests, and altars, and other toys: f184 as if they desired to bury Christ again with their ointments; wherefore let us hold this invention in detestation as blasphemous, because it overthrows the limits prescribed by God.
In order that the Jews may hold this mystery in just reverence, he forbids similar ointment to be made. We know that ointments were then among the luxuries of a fine banquet; but it is accounted profanation if they make use of this kind; and we must mark the reason, that what is holy, may be holy unto them, ver. 32, i.e., that they may reverently observe what is peculiarly devoted to their salvation. For although the sacred things divinely instituted always retain their nature, and cannot be either corrupted or made void by our vices, yet may we by our filthiness, by our impure use or neglect of them, pollute them as far as in us lies.
Leviticus 8
Leviticus 8:1-3
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est deinde Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Take Aaron, and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin-offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread; 2. Tolle Aharon et filios ejus cure illo, et vestes, et oleum unctionis, et juvencum sacrificii pro peccato: et duos arietes, et canistrum azymorum.
3. And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 3. Atque omnem coetum congrega ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
2. Take Aaron. He more clearly explains the mode of anointing and investing the priests, by appointing the place and the assistants; for he commands the congregation to be convoked at the sanctuary; and then that Aaron and his sons should be brought out before them to be inaugurated by God's authority in their office; and that the whole people together may acknowledge that they are appointed and ordained by God. The execution of the command, which we find connected with it in the text of Moses, must be undoubtedly referred to another time; viz., when the solemn dedication of the tabernacle was made. I have therefore thought fit to transfer thither what is here related out of its place, that the history may proceed uninterruptedly; which will not a little facilitate its comprehension.
Leviticus 21
Leviticus 21:1-6, 10-12
1. And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them, There shall none be defiled for the dead among his people: 1. Et dixit Jehova ad Mosen, Alloquere sacerdotes filios Aharon, et dicito eis, Super animam non contaminabit se quisquam vestrum it, populis suis:
2. But for his kin that is near unto him, that is, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother, 2. Sed super propinquo suo, propinquo sibi, nempe super matre sua, et super patre suo, et super filio suo, et super filia sua, et superfratre suo.,
3. And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh unto him, which hath had no husband; for her may he be defiled. 3. Et super sorore sua virgine propinqua sibi, quae non fuerit viro: super ea contaminabit se.
4. But he shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself. 4. Non contaminabit se in principe in populis suis, ut polluat sese.
5. They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh. 5. Non decalvabunt calvitium in capitc suo, et extremitatem barbae suse non radent, et in carne sua non incident ullam incisuram.
6. They shall be holy unto their God, and not profane the name of their God: for the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and the bread of their God, they do offer: therefore they shall be holy. 6. Sancti erunt Dco suo, neque polluent nomen Dei sui: quia oblationes ignitas Jehovoe, et panem Dei tui offerunt, proinde erunt sancti.
10. And he that is the high priest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes; 10. Sacerdos autem praecipuus inter fratres suos super cujus caput fusum fuerit oleum unctionis, et consecraverit manum suam ut induat vestes, caput suum non discooperiet, et vestes suas non scindet.
11. Neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother; 11. Et ad omnes animas mortui non ingredietur, ne super patre quidem suo, ant matre sua, contaminabit se.
12. Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the Lord. 12. Et de sanctuario non ingredietur, neque polluet sanctuarium Dei sui: quia corona olei unctionis Dei sui est super eum. Ego Jehova.
1. Speak unto the priests. All these things which follow tend to the same end, i.e., that the priests may differ from the rest of the people by notable marks, as if separated from ordinary men; for special purity became those who represented the person of Christ. It seems, indeed, as if God here gave precepts respecting small and unimportant things; but we have elsewhere said that the legal rites were as it were steps by which the Israelites might ascend to the study of true holiness. The declaration of Paul indeed was always true, that "bodily exercise profiteth little," (<540408>1 Timothy 4:8;) but the use of the ancient shadows under the Law must be estimated by their end. Although, therefore, the observation of the things which are now treated of did not of itself greatly please God, yet inasmuch as it had a higher tendency, it was sinful to make light of it. Now though the priests were thus admonished that holiness was to be cultivated by them with peculiar diligence, as the sanctity of their office required; yet the principal design of God was to set forth the image of perfect holiness which was at length beheld in Christ. The first law contains a prohibition of mourning, absolutely and without exception as regarded the high priest, and as regarded the sons of Aaron with certain specified restrictions; for although God elsewhere forbids the people generally to imitate the custom of the Gentiles in excessive mourning, yet here he requires something more of the priests, viz., that they should abstain even from ordinary mourning, such as was permitted to others. This prohibition indeed was again repeated, as we shall see, arising from an actual occurrence; for when Nadab and Abihu, who had offered incense with strange fire, were consumed with fire from heaven, God allowed them to be mourned for by all the people, except the priests; f185 but on this occasion the general law was again ratified afresh, lest the priests should pollute themselves by mourning for the dead; except that there mourning was forbidden even for a domestic loss, that they might acquiesce in God's judgment, however sad it might be. For by these means they were impeded in the discharge of their duties; because it was not lawful for mourners to enter the sanctuary. Therefore God threatens them with death, unless they should restrain their grief even for the death of a near relative. But this (as is elsewhere said) is a rare virtue, so to repress our feelings when we are deprived of our brothers or friends, as that the bitterness of our grief should not overcome our resignation and composure of mind. In this way, therefore, the exemplary piety of the priests was put to the proof. Besides, abstinence from mourning manifests the hope of the blessed resurrection. Therefore the priests were forbidden to mourn for the dead, in order that the rest of the people might seek for consolation in their sorrow from them. f186 This was truly and amply fulfilled in Christ, who although He bore not only grief, but the extreme horror of death, yet was free from every stain, and gloriously triumphed over death; so that the very recollection of His cross wipes away our tears, and fills us with joy. Now when it is said, "They shall not profane the name of their God;" and in the case of the high priest, "neither shall he go out of the sanctuary;" this reason confirms what; I have just stated, that mourning was forbidden them, because it prevented them from the discharge of their duties; for their very squalidness would have in some sense defiled God's sanctuary, in which nothing unseemly was to be seen; and being defiled too, they could not intercede as suppliants for the people. God then commands them to remain pure and clear from all defilement, lest they should be compelled to desert their office, and to leave the sanctuary, of which they were the keepers. Moreover, we learn that the fulfillment of this figure was in Christ, from the reason which is immediately added: viz., because the holy oil is on the head of the high priest; whereby God intimates that it is by no means right that His glory and dignity should be profaned by any pollution.
As to the words themselves; first, greater liberty is granted to the rest of the posterity of Aaron, than to the high priest; but only that they should mourn for their father, mother, children, their own brothers, and unmarried sisters. Lest ambition should carry them further, they are expressly forbidden to put on mourning even upon the death of a prince. Nor can we doubt but that the mourning was improper which God permitted to them out of indulgence; but regard was had to their weakness, lest immoderate strictness might drive them to passionate excess; yet God so spared them as still to distinguish them from the multitude. To "defile" one's-self, (as we have elsewhere seen,) is equivalent to putting on mourning for the dead, celebrating the funeral rites, or going to the burial; because the curse of God proclaims itself in the death of man, so that a corpse infects with contagion those by whom it is touched; and again, because it must needs be that where lamentation is indulged, and as it were excited, the affection itself must burst out into impatience. As to the prohibition to make "baldness," this was not allowed even to the rest of the people; but God expressly forbids it to the priests, in order to keep them under stricter restraint. With regard to the high priest, something greater seems to be decreed besides the exceptions, that he "shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes:" which is still enjoined elsewhere on the sons of Aaron. But here what would be allowable in others is condemned in the high priest; and it was surely reasonable that he should present a peculiar example of moderation and gravity; and therefore the dignity of his office, in which he was superior to others, is called to mind, that he may acknowledge his obligations to be so much the greater. This is indeed the sum, that since the priesthood is the holiness of God, it must not be mixed up with any defilements.
Deuteronomy 31
Deuteronomy 31:9
9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and unto all the elders of Israel. 9. Scripsitque Moses Legem istam, et dedit eam sacerdotibus filiis Levi portantibus arcata foederis jehovae, et cunctis senioribus Israel.

9. And Moses wrote this law. It is unquestionable that Moses deposited the Book of the Law in the custody of the Levites, to enjoin upon them the duty of teaching; for although it is only related that they were commanded to recite the book before the people every seventh year, yet it is easy to gather that they were appointed the constant proclaimers of its doctrine. For it would have been absurd that the Law should lie buried for seven whole years, and that not a word should be heard of its instruction; besides, the difficulty of hearing in so great a multitude would be great, and the recollection of it would soon have vanished. In a word, very little would have been the use of the ceremony, if at all other times the Levites had been dumb, and nothing should have been heard throughout the land regarding the worship of God. This then was the object of the solemn promulgation of the Law, (<053110>Deuteronomy 31:10, etc.), which was made in the year of release, that the people should daily inquire the right way of serving God of the Levites, who were chosen to be as it were nomofu>lakev (guardians of the Law), that they might bring forward in due season whatever it was profitable to know. Here, then, is represented to us as in a mirror what Paul says, that the Church of God is "the pillar and ground of the truth," (<540315>1 Timothy 3:15;) because purity of doctrine is preserved unimpaired in the world, and propagated by the ministry of pastors, whilst piety would soon decay if the living preaching of doctrine should cease. Therefore Paul also elsewhere commands that the sound doctrine, of which he was a minister, should be committed by Timothy
"to faithful men, who should be able to teach others also."
(<550202>2 Timothy 2:2.)
First, then, we must remember, that the Book of the Law was given in trust, as it were, to the Levites, that the people might learn from them what was right. The addition of "the elders" is not superfluous; for although the office of teaching was not committed to them, yet were they given as coadjutors to the Levites, in order that they might uphold the doctrine of the Law, and not suffer it to be scorned. We know how great is the insolence of the people in rejecting pious teachers, unless they are restrained by those in authority; nor do the latter indeed duly fulfill their duty, if they do not keep their subjects to the study of religion, who would be otherwise too much disposed to impiety.
Moses in this passage calls by the name of "the Law," not the Ten Commandments engraved on the two tables, but the interpretation of it contained in the four books. The circumstances took place thirty-nine years after God had spoken on Mount Sinai. What follows, that it was to be read every seven years, I have commented on elsewhere; f187 but there will be no harm in repeating what may serve for the understanding of this passage. The seventh year was chosen for this purpose, because all, both males and females, might then assemble at Jerusalem without detriment to their private interests, for there was a cessation from all labor; they neither sowed, nor reaped, and agriculture was altogether at a stand-still. There was therefore no business to prevent them from celebrating that festival, whereby God represented to them in a lively manner, how miraculously He had preserved their fathers in the desert. Lest the recollection of so great a benefit should ever perish, the Law indeed commanded them, wherever they might be, to go forth from their houses every year, and to pass seven days under the boughs of trees; but in the Sabbatical Year, when all was at rest at home, it was more convenient for them to go up to Jerusalem from all quarters, that by their very multitude they might the better testify their gratitude. Therefore it is added, "when all Israel is come," etc. And it must be observed, that in that assembly they were more solemnly pledged, one and all, to keep the Law, because they were mutually witnesses against each other if they should break the covenant thus publicly renewed. On this account it is added, "Gather the people together, men, women, and children." But that it might not be a mere empty spectacle, it is expressly commanded that the book should be read "in their hearing:" by which words a recitation is expressed, from whence the hearers might receive profit, else it would have been a sham and ludicrous parade; just as in the Papacy, when they loudly bellow out the Scriptures in an unknown tongue, they do but profane God's name. To this end, therefore, did God desire the doctrine of His Law to be heard; viz., that He might obtain disciples for Himself; not that He might fill their ears with a senseless and unprofitable clamour. And indeed when the Popish priests were a little ashamed of altogether driving the people away from hearing God's word, they devised this foolish plan of shouting to the deaf, as if this silly formality would satisfy God's command, when He ordains that all should be taught from the least to the greatest: for it is afterwards again expressed, "that they may hear, and that they may learn." Hence we lay it down, that the legitimate use of Scripture is perverted when it is enunciated in an obscure manner such as no one can understand. But whilst no other mode of reading Scripture is approved by God, except such as may instruct the people, so also the fruit of understanding, i.e., that they may learn to fear God, is required in the hearers. But it is undoubted, that "the fear of God" comprehends faith, nay, that properly speaking it springs from faith; and by this expression Moses indicates that the Law was given for the purpose of instructing men in piety and the pure service of God. At the same time we may learn from this passage, that all the services which are paid to God in ignorance, are extravagant, and illegitimate. The beginning of wisdom is to fear God; and on this point all agree; but then each one slips away to his own imaginations and erroneous devotions, as they choose to call them. God, however, in order to restrain such audacity as this, declares that he is not duly worshipped, except He shall first have been listened to. As to "the strangers," when their participation in sacred things is in question, I have elsewhere observed that all foreigners are not so called, but only those who, being Gentiles by origin, had devoted themselves to God, and having received circumcision, had been incorporated into the Church; otherwise it would not have been lawful to admit them into the congregation of the faithful; and this is confirmed by the additional words, "that is within thy gates:" which is as much as if Moses had said, inhabitants of your cities, and dwelling together with the people. Finally, when their children are mentioned, reference is made to the propagation of sound doctrine, that the pure worship of God may continually be maintained. He therefore commands that the Law should be recited, not in one generation only, but as long as the status of the people may last; and surely all God's servants ought to take care, that they may transmit to posterity what they have learnt themselves. Yet we must remark, that all doctrine which may have been handed down from their ancestors, is not here promiscuously commended; but God rather claims for Himself the entire authority, both towards the fathers and the children.
Leviticus 10
Leviticus 10:8-11
8. And the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, 8. Loquutus est etiam Jehova ad Aharon, dicendo:
9. Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations: 9. Vinum et siceram non bibes tu et filii tui tecum, quando intrabitis in tabernaculum conventionis, ne moriamini: statutum perpetuum est in generationibus vestris:
10. And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean; 10. Et ut discernatis inter sanctum et profanum, et inter immundum et mundum.
11. And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses. 11. Et ut doceatis filios Israel omnis statuta qum loquutus est Jehova ad eos per manum Mosis.

9. Do not drink wine, nor strong drink. The second cleanness required in the priests is that they should abstain from wine, and strong drink; f188 in which word Jerome says that everything intoxicating is included; and this I admit to be true; but the definition would be more correct, that all liquors espressed from fruits are denoted by it, in whose sweetness there is nearly as much to tempt men as in wine. Even in these days the Orientals compose of dates as well as of other fruits, liquors, which are exceedingly sweet and delicious. The same rule is, therefore, here prescribed for the priests, whilst in the performance of their duties, as for the Nazarites. Both were allowed freely to eat of all the richest foods; but God commanded them to be content with water, because abstinence in drinks very greatly conduces to frugality of living. For few are intemperate in eating, who do not also love wine; besides, an abundance of food generally satisfies the appetite, whilst there is no limit to drinking, where the love of wine prevails. Therefore, abstinence from wines was enjoined upon the priest, not only that they might beware of drunkenness, but that they might be temperate in eating, and not luxuriate in their abundance. But, inasmuch as sobriety is the main point in moderate living, God especially limited His priests in this respect, lest the rigor of their minds, and rectitude, and integrity of judgment, should be impaired by drinking. Hence it appears how great is man's proneness to all defilements. Wine is very wholesome as one of our means of nutriment; but by the too free use of it many enervate their strength, becloud their understanding, and almost stupify all their senses so as to make themselves inactive. Some, too, degrade themselves into foul and brutish stupidity, or are driven by it to madness. Thus a pleasure, which ought to have incited them to give God thanks, is taken away from them on account of their vicious excess; and not without disgrace, because they know not how to enjoy God's good gifts in moderation. He afterwards confirms the fact, that He interdicted wine to the priests when exercising their office, that they may distinguish "between clean and unclean," and be sound and faithful interpreters of the Law. On this score it became them to be abstemious throughout their whole life, because they were always appointed to be masters to instruct the people; but lest immoderate strictness should tend to disgust them, so that they might be less disposed for the willing performance of the rest of their duty, God deemed it sufficient to admonish them by this temporary abstinence, that they should study to be sober at other times. Thus, then, it must be concluded that none are fit to teach who are given to gluttony, which corrupts the soundness of the mind, and destroys its rigor. The comment of Jerome is indeed a childish one, that "A fat belly does not engender a quick understanding:" for many corpulent men are of vigorous and active intellect, and indeed leanness is often the consequence of drinking too much. But those who stuff their bodies will never have sufficient activity of mind to execute the office of teaching. In conclusion, we gather from this passage, as Malachi says, (<390207>Malachi 2:7,) that the priests were interpreters of the Law, and messengers of the Lord of hosts, and not dumb masks For though the Law was written, yet God would ever have the living voice to resound in His Church, just as now-a-days preaching is inseparably united with Scripture.
Concerning the High Priest
Leviticus 21
Leviticus 21:1-6, 10-12
1. And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them, There shall none be defiled for the dead among his people: 1. Et dixit Jehova ad Mosen, Alloquere sacerdotes filios Aharon, et dicito eis, Super animam non contaminabit se quisquam vestrum it, populis suis:
2. But for his kin that is near unto him, that is, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother, 2. Sed super propinquo suo, propinquo sibi, nempe super matre sua, et super patre suo, et super filio suo, et super filia sua, et superfratre suo.,
3. And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh unto him, which hath had no husband; for her may he be defiled. 3. Et super sorore sua virgine propinqua sibi, quae non fuerit viro: super ea contaminabit se.
4. But he shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself. 4. Non contaminabit se in principe in populis suis, ut polluat sese.
5. They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh. 5. Non decalvabunt calvitium in capitc suo, et extremitatem barbae suse non radent, et in carne sua non incident ullam incisuram.
6. They shall be holy unto their God, and not profane the name of their God: for the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and the bread of their God, they do offer: therefore they shall be holy. 6. Sancti erunt Dco suo, neque polluent nomen Dei sui: quia oblationes ignitas Jehovoe, et panem Dei tui offerunt, proinde erunt sancti.
10. And he that is the high priest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes; 10. Sacerdos autem praecipuus inter fratres suos super cujus caput fusum fuerit oleum unctionis, et consecraverit manum suam ut induat vestes, caput suum non discooperiet, et vestes suas non scindet.
11. Neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother; 11. Et ad omnes animas mortui non ingredietur, ne super patre quidem suo, ant matre sua, contaminabit se.
12. Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the Lord. 12. Et de sanctuario non ingredietur, neque polluet sanctuarium Dei sui: quia corona olei unctionis Dei sui est super eum. Ego Jehova.

7. They shall not take a wife. The third kind of purity is in marriage itself, that the priests' home may be chaste and free from all dishonor. At this time also God commands by the mouth of Paul, that pastors should be chosen, who rule well their own houses, whose wives are chaste and modest, and their children well-behaved. (<540302>1 Timothy 3:2; <560106>Titus 1:6.) The same cause for this existed under the Law, lest those appointed for the government of the Church should be despised and looked down upon on account of their domestic vices. But God most especially had regard to the priesthood of Christ, that it should not be exposed to contempt. It was indeed permitted that men should marry with impunity a woman divorced from her husband; though in the sight of God such an union was unlawful. No law forbade private individuals from marrying a deflowered woman; but what was permitted to the multitude God condemned in the priests, in order to withdraw them from every mark of infamy. And this reason is also expressed when he says that He would have the priests holy, because He has chosen them for Himself; for if the people had not reverenced them, all religion would have been contemptible. Therefore that their dignity might be preserved, He commands them to take diligent heed not to expose themselves to ignominy. Finally, still more highly to commend reverence to their holy office, He reminds them that it related to the welfare of the whole people: "I the Lord (He says) do sanctify him," ver. 15. In these words He intimates that the grace of adoption, whereby they were chosen as His heritage, was based on the priesthood.
13. And he shall take a wife in her virginity. More is required in the high priest, viz., that he should not marry a widow, nor a woman of any other tribe than his own. A question may indeed arise as to the latter clause, whether the plural word ought to be restricted to one tribe, f189 whereas it is elsewhere applied to all. But, if we examine it more closely, it is plain that "his peoples" is equivalent to "of his people," (populares.) But nothing peculiar will be here required of the priest, if his wife is to be taken only from the children of Abraham. I admit that the chief priests married wives of Other tribes, as Elizabeth, sprung of the tribe of Judah, married Zacharias; but, since the high priest is here distinguished from all others, I do not see how it would follow that a law or privilege referring to him should be observed by the whole posterity of Aaron. On this point, however, I will not contend, if any one thing is otherwise. But assuredly, since he presented the brightest type of Christ, it was right that superior and more perfect holiness should be beheld in him. f190 For this was the tendency of the restriction, that his wife, not having known another man, should manifest the modesty worthy of her station and quality of sacred honor. If any should object that the marriage of, an old priest with a young girl was ridiculous and somewhat indecorous, as well as liable to many inconveniences; I answer, that special regulations should be so expounded as not to interfere with general principles. If a decrepit old man falls in love with a young girl, it is a base and shameful lust; besides he will defraud her if he marries her. Hence, too, will jealousy and wretched anxiety arise; or, by foolishly and dotingly seeking to preserve his wife's love, he will cast away all regard for gravity. When God forbade the high priest to marry any but a virgin, he did not wish to violate this rule, which is dictated by nature and reason; but, regard being had to age, He desired that modesty and propriety should be maintained in the marriage, so that, if the priest were of advanced years, he should marry a virgin not too far from his own age: but, if he were failing and now but little fitted for marriage on account of his old age, the law that he should marry a virgin was rather an exhortation to celibacy, than that he should expose himself to many troubles and to general ridicule.
9. And the daughter of any priest. The moderation and chastity (required in the priest f191 ) is extended also to his daughter; and by synecdoche all that relates to good discipline is comprised under a single head; viz., that his children should be educated in the study of virtue, and in decent and pure morality. A heavy punishment is denounced against a priest's daughter if she should play the harlot, because sacrilege would be combined with her disgraceful licentiousness. But it is no light crime to violate God's sanctuary; and, if the priest had tolerated such an iniquity in his daughter, he would have been no severe avenger of the same turpitude in strangers; nay, he would not have been at liberty to punish crimes, unless he made a beginning in his own house.
Leviticus 21
Leviticus 21:16-24
16. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 16. Loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
17. Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever he be of thy seed in their generations that hath any blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his God: 17. Loquere ad Aharon, dicendo, Vir e semine tuo per aetates suas, in quo fuerit macula, non accedet ut offerat panem Dei sui.
18. For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach; a blind man, or a lame, or he that hath a flat nose, or any thing superfluous, 18. Quippe nullus vir in quo fuerit macula, aecedet: vir crocus, vel claudus, aut diminutus, aut superfluus:
19. Or a man that is broken-footed, or broken-handed, 19. Aut vir in quo fuerit fractura pedis, vel fractura manus:
20. Or crook-backt, or a dwarf, or that hath a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, or hath his stones broken: 20. Aut gibbosus, aut lippus, aut qui habebit maeulam in oculo suo, aut cui fuerit scabies vel impetigo, aut qui contritus fuerit testiculo.
2l. No man that hath a blemish of the seed of Aaron the priest shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the Lord made by fire; he hath a blemish, he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God. 21. Omnis vir in quo fuerit macula, e semine Aharon sacerdotis, non accedet ad offerendum oblationes ignitas Jehovae: in quo fuertit macula, non accedet ad offerendum panem Dei sui.
22. He shall eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy; 22. Panem quidem Dei sui e sanctitatibus sanctitatum et e sanctis comedet.
23. Only he shall not go in unto thevail, nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a blemish; that he profane not my sanctuaries: for I the Lord do sanctify them. 23. Atqui intra velum non ingredietur, et ad altare non aceedet: quia macula est in eo, ne polluat sanctuaria mea: quoniam ego Jehova qui sanctifico vos.
24. And Moses told it unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel. 24. Loquutus est itaque Moses ad Aharon et filios ejus, et ad omnes filios Israel.

17. Speak unto Aaron, saying. Priests in whom there was any notable bodily defect are here forbidden from approaching the altar. I will not curiously inquire into the defects which Moses enumerates, since the same rule is here laid down, which is afterwards applied to the sacrifices, whereof none but perfect ones were to be offered. For God rejected whatever was defective or mutilated, in order that the Israelites might know that no victim would suffice for the expiation of sin, except such as possessed complete perfection; and this is justly required in a priest, who cannot be a mediator between God and men unless he is free from every spot. But the analogy must be kept in view between the external figures and the spiritual perfection which existed only in Christ. God could bear no defect in the priests; it follows, then, that a man of angelic purity was to be expected, who should reconcile God to the world. The bodily imperfections, then, which were here enumerated, must be transferred to the soul. The offering of bread comprehends by synecdoche the other offerings, and the whole legal service, which the priests were wont to perform in their course; and this the words of Moses immediately afterwards confirm, wherein he mentions all "the offerings made by fire," besides the bread. We have seen elsewhere that any of the people wounded in the testicles were prohibited from entering the sanctuary; that they were, not even to set foot in the court; but there was a special reason for this as regarded the priests, lest they should pollute the sanctuary by their defects. Hence it appears how needful for us is the intercession of Christ; for, if his perfect cleanness did not wash away our impurity, no oblation could proceed from us except what would be foul and unsavory. Moreover, it is worthy of observation that the sanctuary of God is polluted by any defect or imperfection; and, consequently, that whatever of their own men obtrude upon God, is condemned as profane, so far are they from conciliating God's favor by any merit.
22. He shall eat the bread of his God. He permits them indeed to eat of the sacrifices, because no uncleanness on account of their natural defects could prevent them from partaking of the sacred meals; f192 they are only forbidden to appear in God's presence as mediators to propitiate Him. And here the imperfection of the legal service betrays itself; for nothing could be found among men which could fully represent the truth. Since then the defects of men rendered it necessary to separate the two connected things, viz., the honor and the burden, hence the Israelites were admonished that another priest was promised them, in whom nothing would be wanting for the consummation of all virtues and perfection. Finally, Moses relates that he delivered God's commands not only to Aaron and his sons, but to all the people likewise; so that the humblest of them might be the censor of the priests f193 if in anything they fell short.
Leviticus 22
Leviticus 22:1-16
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est insuper Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, and that they profane not my holy name in those things which they hallow unto me: I am the Lord. 2. Loquere ad Aharon, et filios ejus ut separent sese a sanctificationibus filiorum Israel et ne polluant nomen sanctitatis mese in his quae ipsi sanctificant mihi: ego Jehova.
3. Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your seed, among your generations, that goeth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from my presence: I am the Lord. 3. Dic illis, in generationibus vestris omnis vir qui accesserit ex omni semine vestro ad sanctificationes quae sanctificaverint filii Israel Jehovae, et immunditia sua fuerit super ipsum, excidetur anima ipsius a facie mea: ego Jehova.
4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath a running issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the dead, or a man whose seed goeth from him; 4. Quicunque e semine Aharon fuerit leprosus, vel seminifluus, de sanctificationibus non comedet donec mundet se: et qui tedgerit immundum super morticinio, ant virex quo egreditur effusio seminis,
5. Or whosoever toucheth any creeping thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath; 5. Ant vir qui tetigerit quodcunque reptile per quod immundus erit, ant hominem propter quem immundus erit, secundum omnem immunditiam eius:
6. The soul which hath touched any such shall be unclean until even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he wash his flesh with water. 6. Anima inquam quae tetigerit illum, immunda erit usque ad vesperam: et non comedet de sanctificationibus nisi laverit carnem suam aqua.
7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean, and shall afterward eat of the holy things, because it is his food. 7. Quum autem occubuerit sol, turn erit mundus, et postea comedet de sanctificationibus: quia cibus ejus est.
8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn with beasts, he shall not eat, to defile himself therewith: I am the Lord. 8. Cadaver et rapture non comedet, et polluat se in eo: ego Jehova.
9. They shall therefore keep mine ordinance, lest they bear sin for it, and die therefore, if they profane it: I the Lord do sanctify them. 9. Et custodiant custodiam meam, et ne portent peccatum propter illud, et moriantur propter illud, quum polluerint illam: ego Jehova sanctificans eos.
10. There shall no stranger eat of the holy thing: a sojourner of the priest, or an hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing. 10. Omnis autem alienigena non comedet sanctificationem: inquilinus sacerdotis, et mercenarius non comedet sanctificationem.
11. But if the priest buy any soul with his money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born in his house: they shall eat of his meat. 11. Quod si sacerdos emerit hominem emptione argenti sui: ipsc comedet ex ea, et vernaculus ejus: illi comedent de cibo ejus.
12. If the priest's daughter also be married unto a stranger, she may not eat of an offering of the holy things. 12. Filia autem sacerdotis quum fuerit viro alieno: ipsa de oblatione sanctificationum non comedet.
13. But if the priest's daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father's house, as in her youth, she shall eat of her father's meat; but there shall no stranger eat thereof. 13. Filia vero sacerdotis quum fuerit vidua, ant repudiata, et semen non erit el, et reversa fuerit ad domran parris sui, sicut in pueritia sua, de eibo patris eomedet: onmis autem alienigena non comedet ex co.
14. And if a man eat of the holy thing unwittingly, then he shall put the fifth part thereof unto it, and shall give it unto the priest with the holy thing. 14. Quod si aliquis comederit sanctificationem per imprudentiam, addet quintam partem ejus, et dabit sacerdoti eum sanctificatione.
15. And they shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, which they offer unto the Lord; 15. Et non contaminabunt sanctificationes filiorum Israel, quas obtulerint Jehovae.
16. Or suffer them to bear the iniquity of trespass when they eat their holy things: for I the Lord do sanctify them. 16. Neque portare facient cos iniquitatem delicti, dum comederint sanctificationes eorum: ego enim Jehova sanctificans eos.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. Moses here treats of the accidents whereby pollution is contracted, although a man may be by nature pure and sound. If any labored under natural defects, Moses prohibited them from exercising the sacerdotal office; now, if any extrinsic pollution may have affected a priest, he commands him to abstain from his duties until he shall have been purified. He had already commanded that any unclean person should be separated from the people lest their contagion should infect others; it may therefore seem superfluous to prescribe to the priests what had been universally enjoined. But since men placed in any position of honor are apt to abuse God's favor as a pretext for sin, lest the sacerdotal dignity might be used as a covering for the indulgence or excuse of scandals, it was necessary to enact an express law, that the priests should not plead their privilege to eat in their uncleanness of the sacrifices which none but the clean might offer. And that their sacrilege might be the more detestable, he denounces death against any who should intrude their pollutions into the sacrifices; for it was necessary to arouse by the fear of punishment, and as it were to drive by violence to their duty those who would not have been otherwise restrained by any religious feeling from making God's service contemptible. He then enumerates the particular kinds of pollution of which we have before spoken. Whence it appears, that the priests were brought into discipline by this law, lest they should think themselves more free than the rest of the people, thus might indulge themselves in security; and this is afterwards more clearly expressed where God admonishes them to "keep his ordinance," f194 (ver. 9:) i.e., diligently to observe whatever He commanded; and the greater dignity He had honored them with, that the greater should be their study to persevere in the exercises of piety; for he shews them that so far from their sacerdotal rights conducing to the alleviation of their sin, they were more strongly bound by them to keep the Law.
10. There shall no stranger. It was also necessary to add this, that the majesty of sacred things might not be impaired; for if it had been promiscuously permitted to all to eat of the sacred bread and the other oblations, the people would have straightway inferred that they differed not from ordinary food. And unless the avarice of the priests had been thus anticipated, f195 an unworthy trade would have prevailed; for banquets would have been see up for sale, and the priest's house would have been a kind of provision-market. The prohibition, therefore, that the meats offered in sacrifice should be eaten by strangers, was not made so much with reference to them as to the priests, who would have else driven a profitable trade with the offerings, or, by gratifying their guests, would not have hesitated to bring disrepute on the whole service of God. The Law consequently prohibits that either a sojourner, or a hired servant, should eat of them; and only gives this permission to their slaves, and those who were incorporated into their families. Moreover, He counts the priests' daughters who had married into another tribe as aliens. The sum has this tendency, that whatsoever depends on the service of God should obtain its due reverence; nor could this be the case, if what was offered in the temple were not distinguished from common food. Inasmuch as they were human beings, they were allowed to subsist in the ordinary manner; yet was this distinction necessary, which might savor of the sanctity of Christ. This was the cleanness of the priests as regarded food.
14. And if a man eat of the holy thing unwittingly. A question may here arise, why God would have satisfaction made to the priests, if any one should have eaten of the offerings; for they deserved punishment rather than reward, if they had suffered sacred things to be brought into contempt by their promiscuous use. But the error of those is here dealt with, who had not reserved for the priests their lawful share. A portion, as we shall see, was assigned by God, which they were to set aside before they tasted any part of the victim; those, therefore, who had sinned by inadvertency, are commanded by Him to expiate their fault, to restore so much to the priest, and to add a fifth part. And this was done with the object of which we have spoken, lest, if the things offered to God were exposed to common use, religion should be brought into contempt. What follows afterwards, "and they shall not profane the holy things," I interpret as addressed to the priests themselves; for this sentence is connected with the previous one, in which the injunctions were directed to the priests alone; and this is further confirmed by the next verse, which declares that the whole people would be accomplices in the sin of the priests if they should have polluted the sacred oblations. For thus I take the words, "that they should not suffer the people to bear the iniquity," or the punishment of the transgression, if the unclean should have touched things offered to God. For as the priest is the mediator of reconciliation to propitiate God towards men, so his impiety is a common iniquity, which brings guilt upon all. The translation which some give, "that they should not lade themselves," f196 is further from the sense, and altogether wrested. Finally, God again declares that in proportion to the greatness of the honor which He had put upon them, would be the heaviness and inexcusableness of the crime, if they acted unworthily of their calling.
Exodus 20
Exodus 20:26
26. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon. 26. Non ascendes per gradus ad altare meum, ne detegatur turpitude tua juxta illud.

26. Neither shalt thou go up. When God had prescribed modesty to the priests in their whole life, and in their private actions, no wonder that He should require especial care of decency and propriety in the performance of their sacred duties. He had indeed already desired that the priests should wear drawers or breeches when they went into the sanctuary; yet not content with this symbol of purity, He forbids them to ascend the altar by steps, lest haply the drawers themselves should be seen; since the dignity and sanctity of sacred things would thus be impaired. By all means, therefore, He would induce the Israelites to conduct themselves most purely and most chastely in the exercises of religion.
Numbers 6
Numbers 6:22-27
22. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 22. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
23. Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, saying, On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, saying unto them, 23. Alloquere Aharon et filios ejus, dicendo, Sic benedicetis filiis Israel, dicendo eis:
24. The Lord bless thee, and keep thee; 24. Benedicat tibi Jehova, et custodiat te:
25. The Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee; 25. Lucere faciat Jehova faciem suam super re, et misereatur tui:
26. The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. 26. Attollat Jehova faciem suam ad te, et constituat tibi pacem.
27. And they shall put my name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them. 27. Et ponent nomen meum super filiosIsrael, et ego benedicam eis.

22. And the Lord spake unto Moses. A part of the sacerdotal duties, of which mention is constantly made in the Law, is here briefly set forth; for God says that He had appointed the priests to bless the people. To this David seems to allude in the words:
"We have blessed you out of the house of the Lord."
(<19E302>Psalm 143:26.)
This doctrine is especially profitable, that believers may confidently assure themselves that God is reconciled to them, when He ordains the priests to be witnesses and heralds of His paternal favor towards them. The word to bless is often used for to pray for blessings, which is the common duty of all pious persons; but this rite (as we shall see a little farther on) was an efficacious testimony of God's grace; as if the priests bore from His own mouth the commandment to bless. But Luke shews that this was truly fulfilled in Christ, when he relates that "He lifted up His hands," according to the solemn rite of the Law, to bless His disciples. (<422450>Luke 24:50.) In these words, then, the priests were appointed ambassadors to reconcile God to the people; and this in the person of Christ, who is the only sufficient surety of God's grace and blessing. Inasmuch, therefore, as they then were types of Christ, they were commanded to bless the people. But it is worthy of remark, that they are commanded to pronounce the form of benediction audibly, and not to offer prayers in an obscure whisper; and hence we gather that they preached God's grace, which the people might apprehend by faith.
24. The Lord bless thee. Blessing is an act of His genuine liberality, because the abundance of all good things is derived to us from His favor as their only source. It is next added, that He should "keep" the people, by which clause lie intimates that He is the sole defender of the Church, and protects it under His guardianship; but since the main advantage of God's grace consists in our sense of it, the words, "and make His face shine on you," are added; for nothing is more desirable for the consummation of our happiness, than that. we should behold the serene countenance of God; as it is said in <190406>Psalm 4:6,
"There be many that say, Who will shew us any good? Lord, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us."
Thus then I interpret this clause, that the people may perceive and taste the sweetness of God's goodness, which may cheer them like the brightness of the sun when it illumines the world in serene weather. But immediately afterwards the people are recalled to the First cause; viz., God's gratuitous mercy, which alone reconciles Him to us, when we should be otherwise by our own deserts hated and detested by Him. What follows, "The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee," is a common phrase of Scripture, meaning, May God remember His people; not that forgetfulness can occur in Him, but because we suppose that He has cast away His care of us, unless He actually gives proof of His anxiety for our welfare. Finally, it is added, may He "establish peace upon his people," which others translate a little less literally, f197 "put thee into peace:" and since this word signifies not only rest and a tranquil state, but also all prosperity and success, I willingly embrace this latter sense, although even its proper signification is not disagreeable to me. f198
27. And they shall put my name. Although Jerome has rightly translated this, "They shall call upon my name:" yet since the Hebrew phrase is emphatic, I have preferred retaining it; for God deposits His name with the priests, that they may daily bring it forward as a pledge of His good will, and of the salvation which proceeds from thence. The promise, which is finally subjoined, gives assurance that this was no empty or useless ceremony, when He declares that He will bless the people. And hence we gather, that whatsoever the ministers of the Church do by God's command, is ratified by Him with a real and solid result; since He declares nothing by His ministers which He will not Himself fulfill and perform by the efficacy of His Spirit. But we must observe that He does not so transfer the office of blessing to His priests, as to resign this right to them; for after having entrusted this ministry to them, He claims the accomplishment of the thing for Himself alone.
Numbers 35
Numbers 35:1-8
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses in the plains of Moab, by Jordan near Jericho, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova in campestribus Moab juxta Jordanem. Jericho, dicendo:
2. Command the children of Israel, that they give unto the Levites, of the inheritance of their possession, cities to dwell in; and ye shall give also unto the Levites suburbs for the cities round about them. 2. Praecipe filiis Israel ut dent Levitis de haereditate possessionis suae urbes ad habitandum, et suburbana urbium ipsarum, per circuitus earum dabitis ipsis Levitis.
3. And the cities shall they have to dwell in; and the suburbs of them shall be for their cattle, and for their goods, and for all their beasts. 3. Eruntque urbes illis ad habitandum: suburbana vero earum erunt animalibus eorum, et substantia eorum, et omnibus bestiis eorum.
4. And the suburbs of the cities, which ye shall give unto the Levites, shall reach from the wall of the city and outward a thousand cubits round about. 4. Et suburbana urbium earum quas dabitis Levitis, a pariete urbis, et forinsecus, mille cubitorum erunt per circuitum.
5. And ye shall measure from without the city on the east side two thousand cubits, and on the south side two thousand cubits, and on the west side two thousand cubits, and on the north side two thousand cubits; and the city shall be in the midst: this shall be to them the suburbs of the cities. 5. Praeterea metiemini extra urbem a plaga orientali duo millia cubitorum, eta plaga meridiana duo millia cubitorum, eta plaga occidentali duo millia cubitorum, eta plaga aquilionari duo millia cubitorum: et urbs ipsa erit in medio: ista mensura erit eis suburbanorum urbium.
6. And among the cities which ye shall give unto the Levites there shall be six cities for refuge, which ye shall appoint for the manslayer, that he may flee thither: and to them ye shall add forty and two cities. 6. De urbibus autem quas dabitis Levitis, erunt sex urbes refugii, quas dabitis ut fugiat illuc homicida: et praeter illas dabitis quadraginta duas urbes.
7. So all the cities which ye shall give to the Levites shall be forty and eight cities: them shall ye give with their suburbs. 7. Omnes urbes quas dabitis Levitis, erunt quadraginta octo urbes, ipsas et suburbana earum dabitis:
8. And the cities which ye shall give shall be of the possession of the children of Israel: from them that have many ye shall give many; but from them that have few ve shall give few: every one shall give of his cities unto the Levites according to his inheritance which he inheriteth. 8. Et urbes quas dabiris de possessione filiorum Israel, ab eo qui plures habuerit, plures accipietis: et ab eo qui pauciores, pauciores capietis: singuli pro quantitate possessionis suae quam possederint, dabunt ex urbibus suis Levitis.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. Although there was no inheritance assigned to the tribe of Levi, yet it was necessary that they should be supplied with dwelling-places. No lands were given then where they might sow and reap; but by way of compensation the tithes were a sufficient means of subsistence, even after deducting the tithes which were paid to the poor. God now, however, makes provision for their residences; and here we must carefully remark, that they were so distributed over the whole land, as to be, as it were, guards regularly posted for the preservation of the worship of God, lest any superstition should creep in, or the people should fall into gross contempt of God. For we know that they were chosen by Him, not only to attend to the ceremonies, but to be the interpreters of the law, and to cherish sincere piety among the people. Now if all had been placed in one station, it was dangerous lest the doctrine of the Law should immediately fall into oblivion through the whole land; and thus the other tribes should grow irreligious. Wherefore the incomparable goodness of God here shone forth, since their punishment was turned as it were into a reward of virtue, and their disgrace into honor; for this dispersion of the tribe of Levi had been foretold by the holy patriarch Jacob, (<014607>Genesis 46:7,) that their posterity should be scattered in that land, which Levi the father of their race had polluted by a detestable murder and wicked perfidy. God proved eventually that this prophecy, which proceeded from Him, did not fall to the ground unfulfilled; nevertheless, although the Levites were to be banished here and there in token of their disgrace, yet were they set in various parts of the land, that they might retain the other tribes under the yoke of the Law. It was then in God's wonderful providence that they were rather placed in peculiar and fixed residences, than allowed to mingle themselves promiscuously with the rest of the people; for the cities which God assigned to them were so many schools, where they might better and more freely engage themselves in teaching the Law, and prepare themselves for performing the office of teaching. For if they had lived indiscriminately among the multitude, they were liable to contract many vices, as well as to neglect the study of the Law; but when they were thus collected into separate classes, such an union reminded them that they were divided from the people that they might devote themselves altogether to God. Besides, their cities were like lamps shining into the very furthest corners of the land. They were therefore fortified, as it were, by walls, lest the corruptions of the people should penetrate to them. Their association together also should have stimulated them mutually to exhort each other to confinehey, decent and modest manners, temperance, and other virtues worthy of God's servants; whilst, if they fell into dissolute habits, they were the less excusable. Thus their cities were like watch towers in which they might keep guard, so as to drive impiety away from the borders of the holy land. Hence was the light of heavenly doctrine diffused; hence was the seed of life scattered; hence were the examples to be sought of holiness and universal integrity.
4. And the suburbs of the cities. A discrepancy here appears, from whence a question arises; for Moses first limits the suburbs to a thousand cubits from the city in every direction; and then seems to extend them to two thousand. Some thus explain the difficulty, viz., that the parts nearest to the city were destined for cottages and gardens; and that then there was another space of a thousand cubits left free for their flocks and herds; but this seems only to be invented, in order to elude by the subterfuge the contradiction objected to. My own opinion rather is, that after Moses had given them a boundary of a thousand cubits on every side, he proceeds to shew the way in which they were to be measured, that thus he may obviate all the quarrels which might aria: from their neighbors. It is plain that, when he repeats the same thing twice, the latter verse is only an explanation of the former; and thus it would be absurd, that after having fixed a thousand cubits, he should immediately double that number. But it will be all very consistent, if this measurement be taken in a circuit; for if you draw a circle, and then a line from the center to the circumference, that line will be about a tenth part of the whole circumference; compare then the fourth part of the circle with the straight line which goes to the center, and it will be greater by one part and a half. But, if you leave a thousand cubits for the city, the two thousand cubits f199 in the four parts of the circumference will correspond with one thousand cubits from the city towards each of the boundaries.
It is afterwards prescribed, in accordance with equity, that a greater or less number of cities should be taken according to the size of the possessions belonging to each tribe; for, just as in paying tax or tribute, regard is had to each man's means, so it was just that every tribe should contribute equitably in proportion to its abundance. As to the cities of refuge, I now omit to explain what their condition was, because this matter relates to the Sixth Commandment; only let us observe that the wretched exiles were entrusted to the care of the Levites, that they might be more safely guarded. Besides, it was probable that those who presided over holy things would be upright and honest judges, so as not to admit men indiscriminately out of hope of advantage, or from carelessness, but only to protect the innocent, after duly examining their case.
Numbers 23
Numbers 23:1-7, 22, 23
1. And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou, and thy sons, and thy father's house with thee, shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood. 1. Et dixit Jehova ad Aharon, Tu et filii tui, et domus patris tui tecum, portabitis iniquitatem sanctuarii: tu quoque et alii tui tecum portabitis iniquitatem sacerdotii vestri.
2. And thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee: but thou and thy sons with thee shall minister before the tabernacle of witness. 2. Et etiam fratres tuos, tribum Levi, tribum patris tui, accedere fac ad te, et adhaereant tibi, ministrentque tibi: tu autem et filii tui tecum stabitis coram tabernaculo testimonii.
3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tabernacle: only they shall not come nigh the vessels of the sanctuary and the altar, that neither they, nor ye also, die. 3. Et custodient custodiam tuam, et custodiam totius tabernaculi: veruntamen ad vasa sanctitatis, et ad altare non accedent, ne moriantur tam ipsi quinn vos.
4. And they shall be joined unto thee, and keep the charge of the tabernacle of the congregation, for all the service of the tabernacle: and a stranger shall not crone nigh unto you. 4. Et adhaerebunt tibi, et custodient custodiam tabernaculi conventionis ad omnem cultum tabernaculi: externus autem non accedet ad vos.
5. And ye shall keep the charge of the sanctuary, and the charge of the altar; that there be no wrath any more upon the children of Israel. 5. Custodietis igitur custodiam sanctuarii, ne sit posthac indignatio contra filios Israel.
6. And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel; to you they are given as a gift for the Lord, to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. 6. Ego enim ecce, sumpsi fratres vestros Levitas e medio filiorum Israel vobis donum datos, Jehovae ut ministrent in cultu tabernaculi conventionis.
7. Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest's office for every thing of the altar, and within the vail; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest's office unto you as a service of gift: and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death. 7. Tu autem et filii tui tecum custodietis sacerdotium vestrum in omni ratione altaris, et intra velum exequemini ministerium: munus dedi sacerdotii vobis, itaque extraneus qui acceder morietur.
22. Neither must the children of Israel henceforth come nigh the tabernacle of the congregation, lest they bear sin, and die. 22. Neque accedent posthac filii Israel ad tabernaculum conventionis, ut portent iniquitatem ad moriendum.
23. But the Levites shall do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall bear their iniquity. It shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations. 23. Sed ipsi Levitse facient opus; tabernaculi conventionis, et ipsi portabunt iniquitatem suam statuto perpetuo per generationes vestras.

1. And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou and thy sons. By this solemn appeal God stirs up the priests to devote themselves to their duty with the greatest fidelity and zeal, for He declares that if anything should be done contrary to the requirements of religion, they should be accounted guilty of it, since those are said to "bear the iniquity of the sanctuary" who sustain the crime and the punishment of all its pollutions. God would have the sanctuary kept clear from every stain and defect; and also the dignity of the priesthood was to be maintained in chastity and pureness; a heavy burden, therefore, was imposed upon the priests when they were set over the holy things as their guardians, on this condition that if anything were done amiss they were to be exposed to punishment, because the blame rested on them; just as if God had said that negligence alone was tantamount to sacrilege. Thus their honor, conjoined as it was with so much difficulty and danger, was by no means to be envied.
In this way did God admonish them that the legal rites were of no trifling importance, since he so severely avenged all profanations of them; for thus it was easily to be gathered that something far more excellent and altogether divine was to be sought for in these earthly elements. This may also be very properly applied spiritually to all pastors, to whom blame is justly imputed, if religion and the holiness of God's worship be corrupted, if purity of doctrine impaired, if the welfare of the people endangered, since the care of all these things is entrusted to them.
2. And thy brethren also. He here assigns their duties to the Levites, that they also may minister, but, as it were, under the hand of the priests, viz., that they may be ruled by their commands. Thus the authority was in the hands of the priests, but the Levites afforded them their assistance. On this ground they are prohibited from approaching the altar, or entering the greater sanctuary; in fact, a lower degree is assigned to them, half-way between the priests and the people. Hence did all learn how reverently God's majesty must be served; for although He had adopted the whole people, yet so far was it from being lawful that any of the multitude should penetrate to the altar, that the Law even kept back the Levites from thence, although they were God's peculiar ministers. Moreover, in this figure, we perceive how necessary is a Mediator for us to conciliate God's favor towards us; for, if it was not allowable for the holy and chosen seed of Abraham to approach the typical sanctuary, how should we, who were aliens, f200 now penetrate to heaven, unless a way of access were opened to us through Christ? Finally, when He forbids strangers from meddling with holy things, He does not mean only foreigners, but all the people, except the tribe of Levi; for here a distinction is drawn, not between the Church and heathen nations, but between the ministers of the sanctuary and the rest of the people.
5. And ye shall keep the charge. He again exhorts the priests to be diligent in the performance of their office, with the addition of a denunciation of punishment if they failed in zeal and earnestness. Nor does He now threaten them alone, but the whole people; neither does this contradict the foregoing declaration, inasmuch as the common fault of all by no means lightened theirs. Nay, if God punished the innocent people on account of the pollution of the sanctuary, how much heavier a punishment awaited the priests, (antistites,) by whose fault the sin was committed, so that they might be justly accounted its authors. Meanwhile let us learn from this passage how sincerely we ought to demean ourselves in the service of God, the profanation of which is intolerable to Him. Moreover, in order that the priests might engage themselves in their duties more actively, and with greater sedulity, He shews that they cannot give way to idleness without base ingratitude, since they reign in a manner over the whole tribe of Levi, or at any rate they hold the supremacy among their brethren. An indirect reproof of their negligence, if they do not faithfully fulfill their duties, is implied, when God reminds them that He has of His liberality honored them with the priesthood. "I have appointed your office, as a gift," f201 i.e., I have gratuitously conferred on you what was otherwise yours by no right. Others read it differently, viz., "I have appointed your priesthood as a ministration of gift:" but since the meaning amounts to the same thing, nor does it make any difference in the main, we may freely take our choice.
22. Neither must the children of Israel. He again inculcates what he had before said, that the Levites were chosen to attend to the sacred things; since God would not admit all the people promiscuously, as before the giving of the Law, when others also offered the sacrifices. But, nevertheless, He strongly charges them that they should be attentive to the performance of their duties, since, if any of them should offend, their crime would be fatal; for so we must understand His words, "they shall bear their iniquity f202 to die:" just as in the next verse He says that they shall be guilty of all the pollutions, for, if the service of God should be defiled by inadvertency, the crime shall be imputed to them.
Numbers 4
Numbers 4:4-20, 24-28, 31-33
4. This shall be the service of the sons of Kohath, in the tabernacle of the congregation, about the most holy things. 4. Istud erit opus filiorum Cehath in tabernaculo conventionis Sancti sanctorum.
5. And when the camp setteth forward, Aaron shall come, and his sons, and they shall take down the covering vail, and cover the ark of testimony with it. 5. Veniet autem Aharon et filii ejus quando transferenda erunt castra, et deponent velum tentorii, et operient illo arcata testimonii.
6. And shall put thereon the covering of badgers' skins, and shall spread over it a cloth wholly of blue, and shall put in the staves thereof. 6. Potentque super illam operimentum pellis taxram, et expandent pannum totum hyacinthinum desuper, et imponent vectes ejus.
7. And upon the table of shew-bread they shall spread a cloth of blue, and put thereon the dishes, and the spoons, and the bowls, and covers to cover withal: and the continual bread shall be thereon. 7. Et super mensam panum hyacinthinum expandent pannum hyacinthinum, ponentque super eum scutellas, et cochlearia, et crateras, et opercula operimenti: et pants ille jugis super eam erit.
8. And they shall spread upon them a cloth of scarlet, and cover the same with a covering of badgers' skins, and shall put in the staves thereof. 8. Et expandent super ilia pannum vermiculi coccini, operientque ilia opertorio pellis taxaeoe, postea imponent vectes ejus.
9. And they shall take a cloth of blue, and cover the candlestick of the light, and his lamps, and his tongs, and his snuff-dishes, and all the oil-vessels thereof, wherewith they minister unto it. 9. Tollent praeterea pannum hyacinthinum, et operient candelabrum luminaris, et lucernas ejus, et forcipes ejus, et receptacula ejus, et omma vasa olei ejus quibus ministrabunt ei.
10. And they shall put it, and all the vessels thereof, within a covering of badgers' skins, and shall put it upon a bar. 10. Ponentque illud cum omnibus vasis ejus in opertorio pellis taxaeae, et portent super vectes ejus.
11. And upon the golden altar they shall spread a cloth of blue, and cover it with a covering of badgers' skins, and shall put to the staves thereof. 11. Super altare autem aureum expandent pannum hyacinthinum, et operient illum operimento pellis taxaeae, ponentque vectes ejus.
12. And they shall take all the instruments of ministry, wherewith they minister in the sanctuary, and put them in a cloth of blue, and cover them with a covering of badgers' skins, and shall put them on a bar. 12. Tollent quoque omnia vasa ministerii quibus ministrabunt: in sanctuario, et ponent in panno hyacinthino, operientque illa operimento pellis taxaeae, et ponent super vectes.
13. And they shall take away the ashes from the altar, and spread a purple doth thereon. 13. Auferent et cinerem ab altari, et expandent super illud pannum purpureum.
14. And they shall put upon it all the vessels thereof, wherewith they minister about it, even the censers, the flesh-hooks, and the shovels, and the basohs, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread upon it a covering of badgers' skins, and put to the staves of it. 14. Ponentque super illud omnia vasa ejus quibus ministrant, receptecula, fuscinculas et scopas, et crateras, cuncta vasa altaris: et expandent super illud operimentum pellis taxaeae, et imponent vectes ejus.
15. And when Aaron and his sons have made an end of covering the sanctuary, and all the vessels of the sanctuary, as the camp is to set forward; after that, the sons of Kohath shall come to bear it: but they shall not touch any holy thing, lest they die. These things are the burden of the sons of Kohath in the tabernacle of the congregation. 15. Quum autem finen fecerit Aharon et filii ejus operiendi santuarium, et omnia vasa sanctuarii quando transferenda erunt castra, tum postea venient filii Cehath ut portent: ne contingant sanctuarium et moriantur: istae sunt onera filiorum Cehath in tabernaculo conventionis.
16. And to the office of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, pertaineth the oil for the light, and the sweet incense, and the daily meat-offering, and the anointing oil, and the oversight of all the tabernacle, and of all that therein is, in the sanctuary, and in the vessels thereof. 16. Praefeetura autem Eleazar filii Aharon sacerdotis est oleum luminaris, et suffimentum aromaticun, et minha jugis, oleumque unctionis, atque praefectura totius tabernaculi, et omniran quae sunt in eo, in sanctuario et vasis ejus.
17. And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 17. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen et Aharon, dicendo:
18. Cut ye not off the tribe of the families of the Kohathites from among the Levites: 18. Ne excidatis tribum familiarum Cehath e medio Levitarum.
19. But thus do unto them, that they may live, and not die, when they approach unto the most holy things: Aaron and his sons shall go in, and appoint them every one to his service, and to his burden. 19. Sed hoe facite illis, tum vivent et non morientur: quando accesserint ad sanctitatem sanctitatum, Aharon et filii ejus venient, et constituent illos, quemque super opus suum, et super onus suum.
20. But they shall not go in to see when the holy things are covered, lest they die. 20. Ne ingrediantur ut videant quando operient sanctitatem, et moriantur.
24. This is the service of the families of the Gershonites, to serve, and for burdens. 24. Istud erit opus familiarum Gersonitarum ad ministrandum et ad portandum
25. And they shall bear the curtains of the tabernacle, and the tabernacle of the congregation, his covering, and the covering of the badgers' skins that is above upon it, and the hanging for the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 25. Portabunt cortinas tabernaculi, et tabernaculum conventionis, operimentum ejus, et operimentum pellis taxmaeae, quod super illud est superne, et aulaeum ostii tabernaculi conventionis.
26. And the hangings of the court, and the hanging for the door of the gate of the court, which is by the tabernacle, and by the altar round about, and their cords, and all the instruments of their service, and all that is made for them: so shall they serve. 26. Cortinas item atrii, et aulaeum ostii portse atrii, quod est juxta tabernaculum, et juxta altare per circuitum, et funes eorum, et omnia vasa operis eorum, et quaecunque facta sunt pro illis: et ita ministrabunt.
27. At the appointment of Aaron and his sons shall be all the service of the sons of the Gershonites, in all their burdens, and in all their service: and ye shall appoint unto them in charge all their burdens. 27. Secundum sermonem Abaton et filiorum ejus erit universum ministerium filiorum Gersonitarum, juxta omnia onera eorum, et juxta omnem culture eorum: et deponetis apud eos in custodiam universa onem ipsorum.
28. This is the service of the families of the sons of Gershon in the tabernacle of the congregation: and their charge shall be under the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. 28. Istud erit ministerium familiarum filiorum Gersonitarum in tabernaculo conventionis: et custodia eorum erit per manum Ithamar filii Aharon sacerdotis.
31. And this is the charge of their burden, according to all their service in the tabernacle of the congregation; the boards of the tabernacle, and the bars thereof, and the pillars thereof, and sockets thereof, 31. Haec autem erit custodia oneris filiorum Merari, pro ministerio eorum in tabernaculo conventionis, tabulae tabernaculi, et vectes ejus, et columnae ejus, et bases ejus.
32. And the pillars of the court round about, and their sockets, and their pins, and their cords, with all their instruments, and with all their service: and by name ye shall reckon the instruments of the charge of their burden. 32. Columnae item atrii per circuitum, et bases earum, et clavi earum, et funes earum, cum omnibus instrumentis earum, et omne ministerium earum, et per nomina numerabis vasa custodiae oneris eorum.
33. This is the service of the families of the sons of Merari, according to all their service, in the tabernacle of the congregation, under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 33. Hoc erit ministerium familiarum filiorum Merari, juxta omne ministerium eorum in tabernaculo conventionis per manum Ithamar filii Aharon sacerdotis.

4. This shall be the service of the sons of Kohath. He assigns their various offices to the Levites: firstly, lest their promiscuous sedulity should beget confusion; secondly, lest ambition should stimulate certain of them, f203 from whence disputes and contentions might arise. We know how confusedly men work unless a certain rule is prescribed to them, lest they should run about in an aimless hurry; and whilst each individual desires to anticipate others, an unworthy emulation ensues, which afterwards vents itself in quarrels. If, therefore, this had not been prevented, the Levites would soon have made disturbances in their duty, and contentions would have taken place between them. God, then, comes forward, and by His own authority confines them all within their proper bounds, and restrains their foolish passions. That a more honorable office is assigned to the sons of Kohath than to the others, proceeds from God's gratuitous favor; and thus all pride was suppressed, lest any should boast of his dexterity, or industry, or other gifts. The charge of the Holy of holies is, therefore, entrusted to the sons of Kohath; not that they should handle any part of it, but only that they should carry on the march its vessels, when packed by the priests; for God commands the sons of Aaron to come and take down the sanctuary, and carefully cover the veil, the altar, and other sacred vessels with their proper covers, before the sons of Kohath laid a finger upon them, that thus the reverence of the people for holy things might be increased; and besides, that when the other tribes should see even the Levites forbidden from touching the sanctuary, they might be reminded of their unworthiness and humbled the more. Moreover, all cause of envy was removed when the other Levites heard that a perilous duty was entrusted to the sons of Kohath, for God threatens them with death if they touch any forbidden thing: and lastly, admonishes the priests, the sons of Aaron, lest by their carelessness they should destroy their brethren; for, if they should leave anything uncovered, they would be the cause of their destruction.
24. This is the service of the families of the Gershonites. The tasks which He enjoins upon the sons of Gershon, as well as the sons of Merari, are apparently mean and laborious, for it was a hard and also a servile work to carry the curtains and the tabernacle, together with its coverings, the boards, too, and the bars, and the pillars. But hence we learn that in God's service nothing is to be despised, but that each and every part of our duty should be cheerfully performed, inasmuch as it ought abundantly to satisfy us, that God should have deigned to choose us as ministers of His sanctuary, so that neither weariness nor pride should ever hinder us in our duty.
Leviticus 27
Leviticus 27:1-9
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them, This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, saying, 2. Loquere ad Aharon, et ad filios ejus, et ad omnes filios Israel, et dic illis, Hoc est verbum quod praecepit Jehova, dicendo:
3. What man soever there be of the house of Israel that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, 3. Quicunque de domo Israel mactaverit bovem, ant agnum, aut capram in castris, aut qui mactaverit extra castra.
4. And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood: and that man shall be cut off from among his people; 4. Et ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis non adduxerit eum, ut offerat oblationem Jehovae coram tabernaculo Jehovae: sanguis imputabitur viro illi: ipse sanguinem fudit, excideturque vir ille e medio populi sui.
5. To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices which they offer in the open feld, even that they may bring them unto the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace-offerings unto the Lord. 5. Ut afferant filii Israel sacrificia sua quae mactaturi sunt in superficie agri: ut afterant inquam illa Jehovae ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis ad sacerdotem, et sacrificent ilia sacrificia prosperitatum Jehovae.
6. And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savor unto the Lord. 6. Spargetque sacerdos sanguinem ad altare Jehovae, ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis, et adolebit adipem in odorem quietis Jehovae.
7. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. 7. Et non sacrificabunt ultra sacrificia sua daemonibus cum quibus fornicantur: statutum perpetuum erit hoc illis ill generationibus eorum.
8. And thou shalt say unto them, Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers which sojourn among you, that offereth a burnt-offering or sacrifice, 8. Dices praeterea illis, Quicunque e domo Israel, aut de peregrinis qui peregrinantur in medio vestri, obtulerit holocaustum, aut sacrificium:
9. And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto the Lord, even that man shall be cut off from among his people. 9. Et ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis non adduxerit illud Jehovae: tunc excidetur vir ille e populis suis.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. In this, and similar passages, God appoints the priests to offer the sacrifices; for although they were common to all the people, nevertheless He would have them offered to Him by the hand of one person, and in a particular place: first, because, if they had been allowed to build altars everywhere, His pure and genuine worship would have been corrupted by this variety; and secondly, that He might direct the people to the Mediator, because this principle was ever to be held fast by believers, that no offerings could be legitimate except by His grace. The same doctrine will often occur hereafter, where the sacrifices are treated of; but, since we are here discussing the priests' office, let it be sufficient to have said once for all that it was not lawful for private persons to offer anything to God, except by the hands of the priest, to whom this duty was enjoined. But, since in this point vain glory is marvelously apt to affect men's minds, He threatens His severe vengeance against whosoever shall have attempted it. It has already been explained why God chose a single sanctuary. He now declares that, unless the victims are brought thither, this profanation will be equivalent to the murder of a man. He therefore commands that all the victims should be brought before the altar, even although those who offer them may be far away; for "the surface of the field" f204 means a distant place, lest any one should excuse himself by the inconvenience of the journey. He expressly names the peace-offerings, because that was the kind of sacrifice whereby private individuals were accustomed to testify their piety. God declares, then, that their service would be acceptable to Him, if the priest should intervene to make the oblation in right of the charge committed to him. Finally, this law is ratified unto all generations, that its abrogation may never be attempted. The reason for this is stated, which has been elsewhere more fully explained, i.e., that a single place had been ordained at which they were to assemble; and again, that a priest was appointed who might observe the ceremonies enjoined by the Law, in order that they might worship God in purity; and pollute not nor adulterate His sacrifices by strange superstitions. For we have stated that the ancient people were tied to the sanctuary, lest religion should be twisted and altered according to men's fancies, and lest any inventions should creep in whereby they might easily decline into idolatry. The commandment which He gave, then, that the priest only should offer the victims, is recommended on the score of its great usefulness; viz., because it would restrain the people from prostituting themselves to devils. Hence a profitable doctrine is gathered, that men cannot be restrained from turning away to idolatry, except by seeking from God's mouth the one simple rule of piety.
8. And thou shalt say unto them. The law is now extended to strangers, not those who were heathens, but those who, springing originally from other nations, had devoted themselves to pure religion. For, if more had been allowed to them than to the genuine children of Abraham, the corruption would, according to their wont, have soon spread more widely. God, then, would not have His sanctuary defiled by foreigners, lest their liberty might make its way amongst the whole people. From this latter portion we may gather that the word "kill" f205 which is elsewhere taken in a sense, is here confined to the sacrifices; since permission is elsewhere given to the people to eat (meat) in all their cities and villages, provided they abstain from blood. We must remember, therefore, that the question is not here as to their ordinary food, but only as to the victims, which were never to be offered except at the tabernacle.
Deuteronomy 27
Deuteronomy 27:8-11
8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, being matters of controversy, within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place which the Lord thy God shall choose: 8. Si quid latuerit te in judicio inter sanguinem et sanguinem, inter causam et causam, et inter plagam et plagam, in rebus rixarum, intra portas tuas, tunc surges, et ascendes ad locum quem elegerit Jehova Deus tuus.
9. And thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and enquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment. 9. Et venies ad sacerdotes, Levitas, et ad judicem qui fuerit in diebus illis, et quaeres, et indicabunt tibi verbum judicii.
10. And thou shalt do according to the sentence which they of that place which the Lord shall choose shall shew thee; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee: 10. Et facies juxta verbum quod indicaverint tibi e loco illo quem elegerit Jehova, et observabis facere secundum omnia quae docuerint te.
11. According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand, nor to the left. 11. Secundum legem quam docuerint re, et secundum judicium quod dixerint tibi, facies: non declinabis a verbo quod indicaverint tibi, ad dextram, aut ad sinistram.

8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee. The principal office of the priests is here described under a single head, viz., that they should declare what was right in doubtful and obscure matters out of the Law of God; for although God seems only to refer to civil controversies, yet there is no doubt but that by synecdoche He appoints them to be interpreters of the doctrine of the Law. That their authority might be more reverenced in general, He commands the people to acquiesce in their judgment even on the most disagreeable points: for if their sentence is to be submitted to where a man's life is in question, or when any disputes are to be settled, much more is all exception taken away with respect to God's worship and spiritual doctrine. I confess that the priests are not the sole judges here appointed, but that others of the people are associated with them as colleagues, yet the dignity of the priesthood is especially exalted. The opinion which some hold, that the high priest alone is intended by the word judge, is easily refuted; because Moses distinctly enumerates the priests, the Levites, and the judge. But it is probable that there is by enallage a change of number in it; for it appears from the sacred history that several were appointed, where Jehoshaphat is related to have chosen "of the Levites, and of the priests, and of the chief of the fathers of Israel" to preside at Jerusalem in judgment. (<141908>2 Chronicles 19:8.) Assuredly the pious king would have been unwilling to depart in the very least degree from the rule of the Law, and his zeal is praised by the Holy Spirit Himself: but this was the arrangement made, as appears a little further on, that the high priest held the primacy "in matters of the Lord," and the king's governor attended to civil causes and earthly affairs. And thus again is confirmed what I have lately adverted to, i.e., that the office of teaching was entrusted to the priests, that they might solve any difficult questions, which is also supported by the words of Jehoshaphat, when he says, "And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren — between blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments, ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the Lord." (<141910>2 Chronicles 19:10.)
Certainly, as the cognisance of capital crimes properly belonged to judges of the other tribes, so determinations as to precepts and statutes, and the interpretation of the whole Law, was the peculiar province of the priests; nor can we doubt but that the words of Malachi, (<390207>Malachi 2:7,) "the priests' lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts," were taken from this passage. Now, to come to the sum of this, God appoints the seat of judgment to be at the sanctuary; for, although in the first verse He seems to nominate the priests and judges indiscriminately to the decision of earthly quarrels, yet in the fourth verse from this He sufficiently shews that another province is committed to the priests, i.e., to keep the people in sound and pure doctrine, and to expound what is right — in a word, to be the teachers of the Church. But, although the people were to assent to whatever they should decide, so that it would be sinful for them to decline from it to the right hand or the left, yet a tyrannical power was not thus put into their hands, as if, when they had arbitrarily changed light into darkness, their perverted decisions were to be deemed oracular. Their interpretation was to be received without appeal; yet, on the other hand, this rule was prescribed to them, that they should speak as from the mouth of God. It is true that the word here used is, hrwt, f206 thorah; which, although it means teaching, yet undoubtedly signifies that teaching which is comprised in the Law, nay, it is equivalent to the word law. And of this Jehoshaphat is a faithful interpreter, when he enumerates the divisions, of which Scripture everywhere shews the Law of Moses to consist. Although yp, phi, taken metaphorically, is equivalent in Hebrew to discourse, yet it here emphatically expresses the sentence which shall be taken from the pure teaching of the Law. The children of Israel, therefore, are commanded to do what the priests shall have taught them; but how? according to the sentence taken from the Law. Nor can it be doubted but that God at the same time furnished those, whom He desired to exalt to such a high dignity, with the spirit of understanding and rectitude, that they might not deliver any improper sentence. And this also is conveyed by the promise, "They shall shew thee the sentence of judgment:" since it would have been absurd that the people should have obeyed God in vain, and to their own destruction. Since now one sole Priest, who is also our Master, even Christ, is set over us, wo be unto us if we do not simply submit ourselves to His word, and are not ready to obey Him, with all the modesty and teachableness that becomes us.
Rights of the Priests
Numbers 5
Numbers 5:9, 10
9. And every offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they bring unto the priest, shall be his. 9. Omnis oblatio sanctificationum in filiis Israel, sacerdoti quam efferent erit ipsius.
10. And every man's hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his. 10. Qued quisque sanctificaverit sacerdotis erit, et tradetur in manum ejus.

9. And every offering. Thus far I have brought together the passages, in which Moses treats of the office of the priests, and have briefly expounded them, I will now begin to treat of their rights, i.e., of the honor which God invested them with, that He might have them ready and cheerful in their obedience. Here, however, Moses lightly touches upon what he more fully sets forth in other passages, as we shall presently see, viz., He assigns to the priests all the holy oblations, the various kinds of which He afterwards enumerates. Now, there were three principal grounds for this law; — First, Lest what had been already dedicated to God should be profaned by its promiscuous use; for, that the sacrifices might retain their proper dignity, it was necessary to distinguish the sacred from ordinary meats. Secondly, A vainglorious excess in respect to the ceremonies was restrained; for if after the victims were killed all the flesh had been returned to the owners, a desire of ostentation f207 would have grown up amongst foolish men, the rich would have come emulously to gain applause, and when they had feasted magnificently, they would have exposed the rest for sale. Thus would they have abused their false pretense of worshipping God to the acquirement of favor towards themselves. The third ground is that which Paul touches upon, viz., that it is just that the ministers of the altar should live by the altar, (<460913>1 Corinthians 9:13;) for though it is an unworthy thing that the servants of God should be attracted by their hire, yet was God unwilling that the priests, when they had freely bestowed their labor on the worship of the sanctuary, should suffer from hunger, lest their alacrity might thus be repressed. For if they desired to execute their office properly, it was necessary that they should attend altogether to spiritual things, and abandon the care of their domestic affairs. If any should object that these were incentives to avarice, and that an excellent and profitable calling was set before the priests, the reply is easy: whatever came to their share, since it was restricted to their own eating, could not have been excessive in quantity; for they were not allowed to sell any, nor even to give it away to others, as we have already seen, and as will hereafter be repeated. Thus then the foul dishonesty of those, who taunt Moses as if he had enriched the priests by the spoils of the people, is abundantly reftired; for if there were any whose interests he would have desired to consult, surely his own sons would have been preferred to all; yet to them there is no reference here. Nay, whatever he grants to the priests, he takes away from his own sons and their posterity; as if he purposely deprived them of advantages which were not otherwise unlawful. In a word, the dignity of holy things was alone consulted, without any endeavor being made to enrich the priests.
Numbers 28
Numbers 28:8-19
8. And the Lord spake unto Aaron, Behold, I also have given thee the charge of mine heave-offerings of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel; unto thee have I given them, by reason of the anointing, and to thy sons, by an ordinance for ever. 8. Loquutus est Jehova ad Aharon, Ecce, ego dedi tibi custodiam oblationum incarum, omnes sanctificationes filiorum Israel dedi tibi propter unctionem, et filiis tuis in statutum perpetuum.
9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: Every oblation of theirs, every meat-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every trespass-offering of theirs, which they shall render unto me shall be most holy for thee, and for thy sons. 9. Hoc erit tuum ex sanctitate sanctitatum, residua ab igni: onmis oblatio eorum, sire minha eorum sit, sire oblatio pro peccato eorum, sive oblatio pro delieto eorum quam reddent mihi, sanctitas sanetitatum tibi erit et filiis tuis.
10. In the most holy place shalt thou eat it; every male shall eat it: it shall be holy unto thee. 10. In sanctitate sanctitatum comedes eam, omnis masculus comedet eam: sanetitas erit tibi.
11. And this is thine; the heave-offering of their gift, with all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel: I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons, and to thy daughters with thee, by a statute for ever; every one that is clean in thy house shall eat of it. 11. Hoc etiam tuum erit, levationem muneris eorum, omnes oblationes filiorum tibi dedi, et fillis tuis, et filiabus tuis tecum in statutum perpetuum: omnis mundus in domo tua comedet eam.
12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the wheat, the first-fruits of them, which they shall offer unto the Lord, them have I given thee. 12. Omnem pinguedinem olei, et omnem pinguedinem vini et frumenti, primitias eorum quas dabunt Jehovae, tibi dem.
13. And whatsoever is first ripe in the land, which they shall bring unto the Lord, shall be thine: every one that is clean in thine house shall eat of it. 13. Primitiae omnium qum in terra eorum, quas afferent Jehovae, tute erunt: omnis mundus in domo tua comedet eas.
14. Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine. 14. Omne anathema in Israel tuum erit.
15. Every thing that openeth the matrix in all flesh, which they bring unto the Lord, whether it be of men or beasts, shall be thine: nevertheless the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. 15. Quicquid aperit vulvam in omni carne quod afferent Jehovae, tam de hominibus quam de animalibus, tuum erit: sed redimendum dabis primogenitum hominis, primogenitum quoque animalis immundi redimendum dabis.
16. And those that are to be redeemed, from a month old shalt thou redeem, according to thine estimation, for the money of five shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty gerahs. 16. Redemptiones autem ejus a filio mensis redimendas dabis secundum aestimationem tuam, pecunia quinque siclorum, secundum siclum sanctuarii, qui viginti obolorum est.
17. But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savor unto the Lord. 17. Veruntamen primogenitum bovis, et primogenitum ovis, aut primogenitum caprae non dabis redimendum: sunt enim sanctificata: sanguinem eorum sparges ad altare, et adipem eorum adolebis: oblatio ignita in odorem quietis Jehovae.
18. And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right shoulder are thine. 18. Et caro eorum tua erit, ut pectus elevationis, et armus dexter, tua erit.
19. All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the Lord, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: it is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord unto thee, and to thy seed with thee. 19. Omnes oblationes sanctificationum quas obtulerint filii Israel Jehovae, dedi tibi, et filiis tuis et filiabus tuis tecum in statutum perpetuum: pactum salis perpetuum est coram Jehova tibi et semini tuo tecum.

8. And the Lord spake unto Aaron. He now proceeds to state more fully what he had been lately adverting to, as to the rights of the priests with respect to the sacred oblations. We must, however, remember the contrast, which I spoke of, between the priests of the higher order and the Levites; for, whilst the family of Aaron is invested with peculiar honors, the other families of the tribe of Levi are abased. God, then, assigns to the priests alone all the offerings, in which was the greater consecration, called "the holy of holinesses." f208 An exception will afterwards appear; viz., that the whole was to be deposited, by way of honor, with the priests, out of which they were to pay a part to the Levites, who were performing their office in the service of the sanctuary. He tells them that this privilege is given them "by reason of the anointing," lest the priests should pride themselves or magnify themselves on this score; for God's gratuitous liberality ought to instruct us in modesty and humility. It is by this argument that Paul corrects and represses all vain boasting: "Why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?" (<460407>1 Corinthians 4:7.) Now, the sons of Aaron had obtained their anointing by no other right, than that God had been pleased to elect them to it. This is also indicated by their privilege being spoken of as "a gift:" but God thus more expressly commends His grace, for He makes mention of His gift for another reason, i.e., that none should enter into any dispute or controversy with the priests on this point.
9. This shall be thine. He enumerates certain kinds of sacrifices which He desired to come to the share of the priests; viz., all the residue of the burnt-offerings; secondly, the minha, or meat-offering; thirdly, what was consecrated of the sin and trespass-offerings; although the following clause, "which they shall restore unto me," seems to be added by way of restriction, as if it only designated those sacrifices of which mention will be elsewhere made, f209 and by which they purged themselves from the guilt of theft, unless it may perhaps be preferred to read it as if to the sin and trespass-offerings this third were added, wherein people restored what did not belong to them, that they might be freed from the guilt of theft. After this He adds the free gifts, which the children of Israel vowed, and the first-fruits of oil, as well as of wine and corn. But this distinction was laid down, that God might more surely prevent jealousy and ill-will; for if there had been any ambiguity, many disputes would have straightway arisen, and thus the reverence due to sacred things would have been impaired. At the same time, however, God prescribes to the priests, that none but males should eat of the burnt-offerings, and nowhere else but in the sanctuary; for there would have been danger (as we said before) that the dignity of these holy offerings would have been lessened, if they had been carried away to private houses and mixed with ordinary meats; besides, God was unwilling to indulge the priests in sumptuous living, but by the very sight of the sanctuary induced them to be frugal and sober in their repasts. For this was a kind of military discipline to encourage abstinence, that they should go away from their wife and family to take their meal. But whatever was offered as a vow, and the first-fruits, He allows to be eaten of by the women, and in their houses, provided only that no unclean person should touch what had once been sacred.
15. Every thing that openeth the matrix. The same thing is now ordained as to the first-born, viz., that the priests should have them also for themselves; though at the same time a distinction is inserted, that the first-born of man should be redeemed. With regard to unclean beasts, the owners were free either to redeem or to kill them. But, since this matter is not professedly treated of here, God only briefly declares that He gives to the priests whatever profit may be made of the first-born. The command that the first-born should be redeemed according to the estimation of the priests, does not mean that the priests should themselves prescribe the value, as if they had the authority to do so; but that estimation is referred to by which they were bound according to God's command, as we saw elsewhere; and this may be readily gathered from the context, because the price is presently added, which God Himself had fixed. As to the first-born of clean animals, another law is given, viz., that they should be killed at the altar, and their fat burned, whilst the flesh was to belong to the priests, like the breast and the right shoulder of the burnt-offerings. But, lest any of the Levites or of the people — since men are always eager for innovation — should ever attempt to violate this decree, all controversy is removed in future ages, when God declares that what He gave to the priests He would never have taken away from them. First, He uses the word edict or decree, f210 which others translate "statute:" and then adds the title "covenant," f211 in order that its observation may be more sacred, and less exposed to contentions and quarrels; for nothing could be more indecent than that the priests should dispute regarding their rights and privileges. God, then, signifies that He shall be Himself outraged, if any one should trouble the priests. By the word "salt," perpetuity is metaphorically expressed; in which, however, God appears to allude to the sacrifices, which it was not lawful to offer unless seasoned with salt; that the Israelites might learn that, by earthly and corruptible things, something greater was designated; for we know that salted meats do not so easily become corrupt. In a word, this metaphor implies inviolable stability.
Leviticus 6
Leviticus 6:16-18, 26-29
16. And the remainder thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat: with unleavened bread shall it be eaten in the holy place: in the court of thetabernacle of the congregation they shall eat it. 16. Quod superfuerit ex minha, comedent Aharon et filii ejus: azymum comedetur in loco sancto, in atrio tabernaculi conventionis, comedent illud.
17. It shall not be baken with leaven. I have given it unto them for their portion of my offerings made by fire: it is most holy, as is the sin-offering, and as the trespass-offering. 17. Non coquetur fermentatum: portionem eorum dedi illud ex oblationibus meis ignitis: sanctitas sanctitatum est, sicut oblatio pro peccato, et sicut oblatio pro delicto.
18. All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations concerning the offerings of the Lord made by fire: every one that toucheth them shall be holy. 18. Omnis masculus in filiis Aharon comedet illud, statutum perpetuum est satatibus vestris de oblationibus ignitis jehovae: qui tetigerit eas sanctificabitur.
26. The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it; in the holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation. 26. Sacerdos oblationem pro peccato comedet, in loco sancto comedetur, in atrio tabernaculi conventionis.
27. Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the holy place. 27. Qui tetigerit carnem ejus sanetificabitur, et si defluxerit de sanguine ejus super vestera, illud super quod defiuxerit lavabis in loco sancto.
28. But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken: and if it be sodden in a brazen pot, it shall be both scoured, and rinsed in water. 28. Et vas testaceum in quo coquetur, confringetur: quod si in vase aeneo cotta fuerit, defricabitur et lavabitur aqua.
29. All the males among the priests shall eat thereof: it is most holy. 29. Omnis masculus in sacerdotibus comedet illam: sanctitas sanctitatum est.

16. And the remainder thereof. He repeats what we have seen just before, that the residue of those oblations, in which there was peculiar holiness, should belong to the priests; but upon condition that they should be eaten nowhere except in the sanctuary. A special precept is also given as to the minha, (meat-offering,) that it should not be made into leavened bread; for thus the meal, which had been already dedicated to God, would be changed into common food, which could not be done without profanation. Since, then, God admits the priests, as it were, to His own table, the dignity of their office is not a little heightened by this privilege; yet in such a manner as that by their liberty the reverence due to God's service may not be impaired. Afterwards Moses confirms in general terms that right, which had been before assigned to them, that they should take what remained of the burnt-offerings, on condition that it should be eaten by males only, and in the sacred place; in order that God's presence may not only act as a restraint on their luxury and intemperance, but, also instruct them in the sobriety due from His servants, and, in a word, accustom them to exceeding purity, whilst they reflect that they are separated from all others. At the end of ver. 18, some translate it in the neuter gender, "every thing that shall have touched them shall be holy:" but in this passage Moses seems to me to prescribe that none but the priests should touch the minha. It was said elsewhere of the altar and its vessels, that by virtue of their anointing they sanctified whatever was placed upon them; but we now see that ordinary men are prohibited from touching sacred things, that their sanctity may be inviolate. For we know that the sons of Aaron were anointed with this object, that they alone might be allowed to touch whatever was consecrated to God. Therefore the verb in the future tense is put for the imperative. So also it is soon afterwards said of the victims, ver. 27, "Whosoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy:" f212 because Moses enacts this special law for the priests, that they alone should handle the sacrifices. Nor does what immediately follows contradict this, "when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof on any garment," etc.; for he does not mean to say that the garments or any vessels would be consecrated by the mere touch; but it is an argument from the less to the greater; if it were not lawful to take a garment sprinkled with the blood, or the pots in which the flesh was dressed, out of the tabernacle, unless the garment were washed, or the pots broken or rinsed, much more were they to beware lest any of the ordinary people should meddle with it. For how shall a mortal man dare to lay a hand upon that holy thing (sanctitati) which could not even cleave to the garment; of a priest without atonement? The sum is that a thing so holy should not be mixed with unhallowed things.
Numbers 5
Numbers 5:8
8. But if the man have no kinsman to recompense the trespass unto, let the trespass be recompensed unto the Lord, even to the priest, beside the ram of the atonement, whereby an atonement shall be made for him. 8. Si non fuerit viro redhibitor cui restituat delictum, delictum restituetur Jehovae, sacerdotis erit, procter arietem expiationum quo expiebit eum.

8. But if the man have no kinsman. This passage, which I have inserted from chapter 5 is connected f213 indeed with another subject, and yet, because it directly refers to the right of the priests, it was necessary to remove it to this place, especially since it expresses that kind of sacrifice which Moses has lately adverted to, i.e., when they expiated the crime of theft. God did not indeed desire that the priests should be enriched by others' losses, nor that thieves should go free, if they offered what they had stolen to the priests; but, if there were no one to whom they could restore it, He would have their houses delivered from (the proceeds of) their sin; and with very good reason, since otherwise the very gross offender would have never hesitated to plunder the goods of a dead man, if he were without heirs. First, therefore, He commanded their property to be restored to the lawful owners; and, if they were dead, He substituted their kinsmen, who are called µylag, goelim, on account of the right of redemption, which God granted in the Law to relatives, as we shall see elsewhere; and because he who was next of kin was commanded to marry the widow of one who had left no seed. It was therefore a very uncommon thing that a person who had defrauded another had to recompense the loss to the priest; for in most cases some successor to the dead man would be found.
Leviticus 7
Leviticus 7:6-10, 14, 31-36
6. Every male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in the holy place: it is most holy. 6. Omnis masculus in sacerdotibus comedet cam, in loco sancto comedetur, sanctificatio sanctifica tionum est.
7. As the sin-offering is, so is the trespass-offering: there is one law for them: the priest that maketh atonement therewith shall have it. 7. Sicut hostia pro peccato, sic hostia pro delicto, lex eadem illis: sacerdotis erit qui expiabit eum.
8. And the priest that offereth any man's burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered. 8. At sacerdos offerens hostiam holocausti alicujus, pellis holocausti quod obtulerit, sacerdotis ipsius erit.
9. And all the meat-offering that is baken in the oven, and all that is dressed in the frying-pan, and in the pan, shall be the priest's that offereth it. 9. Omnis praeterea minha quae coquebatur in clibano, et omne praeparatum in sartagine et in craticula, erit sacerdotis offerentis illud.
10. And every meat-offering mingled with oil, and dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as much as another. 10. Omnis item minha mista oleo et arida, omnibus filiis Aharon erit erit unicuique sicut fratri suo.
14. It shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace-offerings. 14. Panis sacerdotis spargentis sanguinem prosperitatum erit.
31. And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar; but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons. 31. Et erit pectusculum illud Aharoni et filiis ejus.
32. And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave-offering of the sacrifices of your peace-offerings. 32. Armum autem dextrum dabitis ad elevationem sacerdoti de sacrificiis prosperitatum vestrarum.
33. He among the sons of Aaron that offereth the blood of the peace-offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part. 33. Qui offeret sanguinem prosperitatum, et adipem e filiis Aharonis, ipsius erit armus dexter in portionem.
34. For the wave-breast and the heave-shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace-offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest, and unto his sons, by a statute for ever, from among the children of Israel. 34. Quia pectusculum agitationis, et armum elevationis tull a filiis Israel de sacrificiis prosperitatum suarum, et dedi illa Aharoni sacerdoti, et filiis ejus in statutum perpetuum a filiis Israel.
35. This is the portion of the anointing of Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, out of the offerings of the Lord made by fire, in the day when he presented them to minister unto the Lord in the priest's office; 35. Haec est unctio Aharon, et unctio filiorum ejus ex oblationibus ignitis Jehovae, a die qua accedere fecit cos ut sacerdotio fungerentur Jehovae:
36. Which the Lord commanded to be given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he anointed them, by a statute for ever throughout their generations. 36. Quas praecepit Jehova ut darent eis a die qua unxit cos a filiis Israel statuto perpetuo in generationibus suis.

In these passages Moses confirms what we have seen before as to the rights of the priests, and also adds an exception to which he had not yet referred. In general, therefore, he claims for the priests whatever remained of the holier victims; and distinguishes them by this prerogative from the other Levites; from whence we gather how free from all self-seeking Moses was, when by God's command he deprives his own sons not only of the dignity which was conferred on his nephews, but also of their pecuniary advantages. Let none, he says, but the sons of Aaron enjoy the sacred oblations, because they are divinely anointed that they may approach the altar. But, since some rivalry might have arisen among themselves, he adds a special law, that certain kinds of offerings should only be taken by the priest who had offered them. For although they ought all to have disinterestedly discharged their duties, and not to have been attracted by lucre, yet, that all might perform their parts more cheerfully, he appoints a reward for their labor and diligence. On this account he prescribes that the residue of the minha in the peace-offerings, and also the right shoulder of the victim, and the flesh that remained of the trespass-offerings, should be the recompense of the priest who had performed the office of atonement and sprinkling the blood. It is unquestionable that many were attracted by the desire of gain, who would otherwise have neglected their duties; but this was a proof of God's fatherly indulgence, that He consulted their infirmity so that their hire might be a spur to their diligence. Meanwhile He did not desire to hire their services like those of slaves, so that they should be mercenaries in heart; but rather, when He reproves them by His Prophet because there were none of them who would "kindle fire on His altar for nought." (<390110>Malachi 1:10.) He aggravates their ingratitude, not only because they would not give their services gratuitously, but because, when they received their hire, they defrauded Him who had appointed them to be His ministers.
Right to Tithes
Numbers 18
Numbers 18:20, 21, 23, 24
20. And the Lord spake unto Aaron, Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any part among them: I am thy part and thine inheritance among the children of Israel. 20. Dixit autem Jehova ad Aharon, De terra eorum haereditatem non habebis, nec portio erit tibi in medio eorum: ego portio tua, et haereditas tua in medio filiorum Israel.
21. And, behold, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve, even the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. 21. Filiis autem Levi ecce dedi omnes decimas in Israele in haereditatem pro ministerio eorum quia ipsi exequuntur ministerium tabernaculi conventionis.
23. That among the children of Israel they have no inheritance. 23. Et in medio filiorum Israel non possidebunt haereditatem.
24. But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave-offering unto the Lord, I have given to the Levites to inherit: therefore I have said unto them, Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance. 24. Decimas enim filiorum Israel quas offerent jehovae in elevationem, dedi Levitis in haereditatem: idcirco dixi de illis, In medio filiorum Israel non possidebunt haereditatem.

Deuteronomy 12
Deuteronomy 12:19
19. Take heed to thyself that thou forsake not the Levite as long as thou livest upon the earth. 19. Cave autem tibi ne derelinquas Levitam omnibus diebus tuis super terrain tuam.

20. And the Lord spake unto Aaron. This passage only refers in general to the payment of those tithes which were common to all the Levites. We shall soon afterwards see that the Levites, by God's command, paid other tithes to the priest; and a third sort will be added, which were only offered every third year. As to the present passage, God requires tithes of the people for the maintenance of the tribe of Levi. It is indeed certain that the custom had existed of old among the ancient patriarchs before the Law, that they should vow or offer tithes to God, as appears from the example of Abraham and Jacob. Moreover, the Apostle infers that the priesthood of Melchisedec was superior to that of the Law, because, when Abraham paid him tithes, he also received tithes of Levi himself. (<011420>Genesis 14:20; <012822>Genesis 28:22; <580711>Hebrews 7:11.) But there were two different and special reasons for this payment of tithes, which God ordained by Moses. First, because the land had been promised to the seed of Abraham, the Levites were the legitimate inheritors of a twelfth part of it; but they were passed over, and the posterity of Joseph divided into two tribes: unless, therefore, they had been provided for in some other way, the distribution would have been unequal. Again, forasmuch as they were employed in the sanctuary, their labor was worthy of some remuneration, nor was it reasonable that they should be defrauded of their subsistence, when they were set apart for the performance of the sacred offices, and for the instruction of the people. Two reasons are consequently laid down why God would have them receive tithes from the rest of the people, viz., because they had no part in Israel, and because they were engaged in the service of the tabernacle. Besides, God, who as their King laid claim to the tithes as His own right, resigns them to the Levites, and appoints them to be as it were His representatives. To this the words, "I am thine inheritance," refer.
The manner in which the tithes were employed will be seen afterwards in its proper place: it will be sufficient now to remember that the part which God had taken away from them and transferred to the sons of Joseph was thus compensated for; and since they were withdrawn from domestic cares, that in the name of all the people they might be more at liberty for, and more intent upon, sacred things, an income for their maintenance was thus given them. Wherefore the Papal priests draw a silly inference, when they claim the tithes for themselves, as if due to them in right of the priesthood; else must they needs prove that those, whom they call the laity, are their tenants, as if they were themselves the lords of the twelfth part of all landed property; and again, it would be sacrilege to appropriate the tithes to their own use, and to possess other lands of which they receive the rent. Nor does that expression of the Apostle, which they no less dishonestly than ignorantly allege, help them at all,
"The priesthood being changed, the right also is at the same time transferred." (<580712>Hebrews 7:12.)
The Apostle there contends, that whatever the Law had conferred on the Levitical priests now belongs to Christ alone, since their dignity and office received its end in Him. These blockheads, just as if they had robbed Christ, appropriate to themselves the honor peculiar to Him. If they duly performed their duties, and, giving up all earthly business, devoted themselves altogether to the instruction of the people, and to the execution of all the other offices of good and faithful pastors, unquestionably they ought to be maintained by the public; as Paul correctly infers that a subsistence is now no less due to the ministers of the Gospel than of old to the priests who waited at the altar, (<460914>1 Corinthians 9:14;) but under this pretext they unjustly lay hands on the tithes, as if they were their owners, and with still greater impudence accumulate landed properties and other revenues.
It is probable that when the Roman Emperors f214 first professed themselves Christians, either induced by just and proper feelings, or out of superstition, or impressed with a pious solicitude that the Church should not be without ministers, they gave the tithes for the maintenance of the clergy; for whilst the Roman State was kee, the people used to exact tithes from their tributary nations. And this was the case, too, where there were kings; for the Sicilians f215 paid tithes before the Romans obtained dominion over them. Moreover, if there was a scarcity of corn in the city, the senate demanded a second tithe of the provinces. Nay, we gather from <090815>1 Samuel 8:15, that it was a most ancient custom for kings to receive tithes; so that we need not be surprised that the Romans should have imitated this example. Whence we may infer that, when the Emperors wished to bestow a maintenance on pastors out of the public stock, they rather chose a tenth than any other proportion, that they might imitate God. And in fact some traces of this still remain; for the tithes do not everywhere belong to the priests; and it is well known that a good part of them are swallowed up by monks and abbots, who were not formerly reckoned among the clergy. I need not say that some lands are tithe free. But how would the Pope have allowed them to be held by laymen, if, by divine right, (as they stupidly prate,) they had been the sacred inheritance of the clergy? In conclusion, inasmuch as titlies are to be counted amongst public imposts and tributes, let not private individuals refuse to pay them, unless they wish to destroy the political state and government of kingdoms; but let pious princes take care to correct abuses, so that idle bellies may not devour public revenues which are devoted to the Church.
I am thy part. I have just before explained the meaning of this clause, viz., that, because the Levites were excluded from the common inheritance, God compensates this loss out of what is His, as if they received it from His hand; as much as to say, that He in Himself afforded a supply abundantly sufficient for their remuneration. Meanwhile, they are commanded to be contented in Him alone. Nor can we doubt but that David alludes to this passage when he exclaims,
"The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance; the lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places," (<191605>Psalm 16:5;)
for he intimates not only that God is more to him than all earthly wealth, but that in comparison with Him all that others accounted to be most excellent and delectable was worthless. Since now we are all made priests in Christ, this condition is imposed upon us, that we should seek no other portion. Not that we are actually to renounce all earthly goods, but because our felicity is so securely based on Him, that, contented with Him, we should patiently endure the want of all things, whilst those who possess anything should be no less free and unentangled than as if they possessed nothing.
Leviticus 27
Leviticus 27:30-33
30. And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord. 30. Onmes autem decimae terrae sive de semine terrae, sive de fructu arborum, Jehovae sunt, sanctitas Jehovae.
31. And if a man will at all redeem ought of his tithes, he shall add thereto the fifth part thereof. 31. Si vero redimendo redemerit vir allquid de decimis suis, quintam ejus partem addet ultra eam.
32. And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord. 32. Et onmis decima boum et ovium, omnium nempe quae transeunt sub virga, decima inquam pars erit sanctitas Jehovae.
33. He shall not search whether it be good or bad, neither shall he change it: and if he change it at all, then both it and the change thereof shall be holy; it shall not be redeemed. 33. Non disquiret utrum bonum an malum, neque permutabit illud: quod si commutando commutaverit ipsum, erit tam hoc quam illud quod commutatum est, erit inquam sanctificatio, non redimetur.

30. And all the tithe of the land. In these words God shews that in assigning the tithes to the Levites, He ceded His own rights, inasmuch as they were a kind of royal revenue; and thus He bars all complaint, since otherwise the other tribes might have murmured on being unduly burdened. He therefore appoints the priests as His receivers, to collect in His name what could not be refused without impious and sacrilegious fraudulency. In the provision that, where the tithes are redeemed by a money payment, a fifth part should be added to their value, the object is not that the Levites should make a gain of the loss of others; but, because the owners of property craftily aimed at some advantage in this commutation of corn for money, frauds are thus prevented whereby something would be lost to the Levites by this deceptive exchange. On the same grounds He commands that the animals, whatever they might be, should be given as tithe, and does not permit them to be redeemed by money, since, if the choice had been free, no fat or healthy animal would have ever come to the Levites. Therefore, in this law a remedy was applied to avarice and meanness, and not without good cause; for if the proverb be true, that "good laws spring from evil habits," f216 it was necessary that so covetous and ill-disposed a people should be restrained in the path of duty by the utmost severity. And although such careful provision was made for the Levites, yet there was scarcely any period in which they did not suffer from want, and sometimes they wandered about half-starved; nay, after the return from the Babylonish captivity, the memory of so great a blessing did not prevent a part of the tithes from being surreptitiously withheld from them; as God complains in <390308>Malachi 3:8. Whence it appears that it was not without purpose that the people were so imperiously enjoined to pay them.
Deuteronomy 14
Deuteronomy 14:22, 27-29
22. Thou shalt truly tithe all the increase of thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year by year. 22. Decimando decimabis omnem proventum seminis tui, quod egressum fuerit ex agro annuatim.
27. And the Levite that is within thy gates; thou shalt not forsake him: for he hath no part nor inheritance with thee. 27. Levitam autem qui intra portas tuas habitaverit non derelinques: quia non est ei pars et haereditas tecum.
28. At the end of three years thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase the same year, and shalt lay it up within thy gates: 28. Tertio autem anno proferes omnes decimas proventus tui anno ipso, et repones intra portas tuas.
29. And the Levite, (because he hath no part nor inheritance with thee,) and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine hand which thou doest. 29. Venietque Levita (quia non est ei portio et haereditas tecum,) et peregrinus, et pupillus, atque vidua, qui sunt intra portas: et comedent, et saturabuntur, ut benedicat tibi Jehova Deus tuus in omni opere manus tuae quod feceris.

22. Thou shalt truly tithe. He repeats in general terms the law before enacted, whereby he claims for God the tithe of all the fruit. He does not, however, immediately declare to whom they are to be paid, but inserts some provisions respecting other offerings, which I have elsewhere explained. But when, soon afterwards, in verse 27, he recommends the Levites to them, he shews what is the proper use to which they are to be applied. He signifies that it would be cruel to defraud the Levites of them, f217 and that they would be wicked and unjust if they were grudgingly to pay them the tithes, which were theirs by hereditary right, since their tribe possessed no inheritance in land.
28. At the end of three years. Those are mistaken, in my opinion, who think that another kind of tithe is here referred to. It is rather a correction or interpretation of the Law, lest the priests and Levites alone should consume all the tithes, without applying a part to the relief of the poor, of strangers, and widows. In order to make this clearer, we must first observe, that not every third year is here prescribed, f218 but that the years are counted from the Sabbatical year; for we shall elsewhere see that on every seventh year the land was to rest, so that there was no sowing nor reaping. After two harvests, therefore, the tithes of the third year were not the entire property of the Levites, but were shared also by the poor, the orphans, and widows, and strangers. This may easily be seen by calculating the years; for otherwise the third year would have often fallen on the Sabbatical one, in which all agriculture was at a stand-still. Now, this was a most equitable arrangement, that the priests and Levites having been well provided for during two years, should admit their poor brethren and strangers to a share. Some part was thus withdrawn from their abundance, lest they should give themselves up to luxurious habits; and thus it was brought about that not more than a twelfth portion every year should remain to them. In sum, there was one peculiar year in every seven in which the Levites did not alone receive the tithes for their own proper use, but shared them with the orphans, and widows, and strangers, and the rest of the poor. "They shall eat (He says) and be satisfied," who would otherwise have to suffer hunger, "that the Lord may bless thee," (verse 29;) by which promise He encourages them to be liberal.
Deuteronomy 26
Deuteronomy 26:12-15
12. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled; 12. Postquam compleveris decimare omnes decimas fructuum tuorum anno tertio, anno decimae, et dederis Levitae, peregrino, pupillo, et viduae, et comederint intra portas tuas, et saturati fuerint:
13. Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy God, I have brought away the hallowed things out of mine house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all thy commandments which thou hast commanded me: I have not transgressed thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them. 13. Tunc dices coram Jehova Deo tuo, Subduxi sanctificatum e domo, et etiam dedi illud Levitae, et peregrino, pupillo, et viduae, secundum omne prtaeceptum tuum quod praecepisti mihi: non transgressus sum a praeceptis tuis, neque oblitus sum.
14. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken away ought thereof for any unclean use, nor given ought thereof for the dead: but I have hearkened to the voice of the Lord my God, and have done according to all that thou hast commanded me. 14. Non comedi in tristitia mea ex eo, neque subduxi ex eo in pollutione, neque dedi quicquam ex eo in funere: obedivi voci Jehovae Dei mei: feci secundum omnia qum praecepisti mihi.
15. Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land whieh thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto our fathers, a land that floweth with milk and honey. 15. Respice de habitaculo sanctitatis tuae, e coelo, et benedic populo tuo Israeli, et terrae quam dedisti nobis, quemadmodum juravisti patribus nostris, terrae fluenti lacte et melle.

12. When thou hast made an end of tithing. In this passage Moses urgently stimulates them to offer the tithes willingly and abundantly, by placing God, as it were, before their eyes, as if they paid them into his hand: for a solemn protestation is enjoined, in which they condemn themselves as guilty before God, if they have not faithfully paid the tax imposed upon them; but they pray for grace and peace if they have honestly discharged their duty. For nothing can be more awakening to men, than when f219 God is introduced as the judge of any particular matter. This is the reason why he commands them to protest in God's sight that they have obeyed His ordinance in the payment of their tithes. To separate, or "bring away out of the house," is equivalent to their being conscious of no fraud in withholding from God what was His; and thus that they were guiltless of sacrilege, since they had not diverted anything holy to their private use. What follows, "I have not transgressed thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them," must only be referred to the matter in hand; for it would have been too great an act of temerity and arrogance in them, to have boasted that they had kept and fulfilled the Law in every part and parcel. Still this manner of speaking signifies desire rather than perfection; as if they had said, that it was the full purpose of their minds to obey God's precepts. We must remember, however, what I have said, that this properly refers to the legal ceremonies. With the same meaning it is soon after said, "I have done according to all that thou hast commanded me:" for if they had gloried in their perfection, they had no need of sacrifices, or other means of purification. But as I have just said, God only invites them to examine themselves, f220 so that they may in sincerity of heart call upon Him as the witness of their piety.
14. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning (tristitia). It is clear that the sacred offerings are here spoken of; but the question is, what is meant by eating in mourning? This is the exposition received by almost universal consent; that although want may have tempted them to theft and fraud, yet the people assert that, even in their poverty and straits, they have abstained from the hallowed things; and to this I willingly assent; although this word "mourning" may be taken for the anxiety of a mind conscious of its iniquity in this sense, "I have not knowingly and willingly eaten anything consecrated to God, so that the hot iron (cauterium) of an evil conscience should burn me, in the way in which man's guilt ever torments and troubles him." As to the second clause, interpreters differ. Some translate the word 'r[b bagnar, f221 "to destroy:" as if it were said, that they had suffered nothing to perish through uncleanness; but others explain it, I have taken away nothing for a profane purpose. My own opinion is, however, that the word 'amf, tama, is used adverbially for "impurely," so that the people testify that they are not polluted, or contaminated by withholding anything. f222 Thus, in my idea, some do not badly translate it "by uncleanness:" for it was not possible for the Israelites to apply the tithes to other uses, without contracting pollution by their wicked abuse of them. The ambiguity in the third clause is still greater; literally it is, "I have not given thereof to the dead." In my version I have followed those who refer it to funeral rites; but some suppose that the word "dead" is used metaphorically for an unclean thing; others, in a less natural sense, for expenses, which do not contribute to support man's life. But it does not yet appear wherefore it should he said that nothing had been spent on funeral rites. It is true that whatever had touched a dead body was unclean; and therefore some expound it, that the victims had not been polluted by any connection with funeral preparations. But if this sense is preferred, the expression must be taken by synecdoche for anything unclean. My own opinion however, is, that under this particular head all things are included which have a shew of piety. The burial of the dead was a praiseworthy office and a religious exercise; f223 so that it might afford a colorable pretext for peculiar laxity; in this word, therefore, God would have the Israelites declare, that they offered no excuse if they had misemployed any of the consecrated things.
15. Look down from thy holy habitation. Whilst they are commanded to offer their prayers and supplications, that God would bless the land, on this condition, that they had not defiled themselves by any sacrilege, at the same time they are reminded, on the other hand, that God's blessing was not else to be hoped for. Meanwhile the expression is remarkable, "Bless the land which thou hast given us, a land that floweth with milk and honey:" for we infer from hence that the land was not so much fertile by nature, as because God daily watered it by His secret blessing to make it so.
Numbers 18
Numbers 18:25-32
25. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 25. Loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
26. Thus speak unto the Levites, and say unto them, When ye take of the children of Israel the tithes, which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall offer up an heave-offering of it for the Lord, even a tenth part of the tithe. 26. Praeterea ad Levitas loqueris: et dices eis, Quum acceperitis a filiis Israel decimas quas vobis ab illis dedi in haereditatem vestram, tunc offeretis ex illis oblationem Jehovae decimas ex decimis.
27. And this your heave-offering be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the thrashing-floor, and as the fullness of the winepress. 27. Et reputabitur vobis oblatio vestra, ut frumentum ex area, et ut plenitudo e torculari.
28. Thus ye also shall offer an heave-offering unto the Lord, of all your tithes which ye receive of the children of Israel; and ye shall give thereof the Lord's heave-offering to Aaron the priest. 28. Sic offeretis vos quoque oblationem Jehovae ex onmibus decimis vestris quas acceperitis a filiis Israel, et dabitis ex illis oblationem Jehovae Aharon sacerdoti.
29. Out of all your gifts ye shall offer every heave- offering of the Lord, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof, out of it. 29. Ex omnibus oblationibus vestris offeretis omnem oblationem Jehovae, ex omni pinguedine ejus, sanctificationem ipsius ex eo.
30. Therefore thou shalt say unto them, When ye have heaved the best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the Levites as the increase of the thrashing-floor, and as the increase of the wine-press. 30. Ac dices illis, Quum attuleritis pinguedinem eius ex co, reputabitur Levitis ut fructus arere, et ut fructus torcularis.
31. And ye shall eat it in every place, ye and your households: for it is your reward for your service in the tabernacle of the congregation. 31. Comedetis autem illud ill omni loco vos et domus vestra: quia merces est vobis pro ministerio vestro in tabernaculo conventionis.
32. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, when ye have heaved from it the best of it: neither shall ye pollute the holy things of the children of Israel, lest ye die. 32. Et non portabitis super eo peccatum, quum vos obtuleritis pinguedinem ejus ex eo: et sanctiticationes filiorum Israel non polluetis, ne moriamini.

25. And the Lord spake unto Moses. This is another kind of tithe, i.e., a hundredth part of the whole produce, which the Levites paid to the priests. Some reckon a third kind; but I have given my reasons why I do not agree with this opinion. Assuredly it is not probable that in the same year double tithes were exacted and paid. Let this twofold division, therefore, be enough for us. A larger portion was given to the priests, not only as an honorable distinction, but. because greater holiness and integrity in expending them was expected from them; and also that they might meet many peculiar burdens. Lest then the Levites should be too sordid and niggardly, God declares that their theft would be no less wicked if they dealt dishonestly towards the priests, than as if the people should withhold any part of their own just share; for this is the object of the words, that the tithe of the tithes, which they are commanded to pay, should be as if they paid it from the threshing-floor and the wine-press, (ver. 27;) as though it were said that they were no more exempted from the second tithes, than the people from the first. The precept is then still further extended, viz., that they should offer a part of all the offerings. Thirdly, sincere liberality is inculcated upon them, that they should not lay aside as the priests' portion anything that was lean or out of condition, or in any respect of inferior quality, but that they should rather offer whatever was most choice; for this is what is meant by the word blj, cheleb, f224 which some translate adeps; the word pinguedo seemed more suitable, in which, however, there is a metaphor contained.
31. And ye shall eat it. Because the tithes were reckoned to be amongst the sacred oblations, a question might arise, whether it was lawful to eat them anywhere except in the sanctuary. God therefore declares, that when the Levites had separated the deuuterodeka>tav (the second tithes,) the residue passed into the nature and condition of ordinary meats; inasmuch as they might then eat in any place of the bread made of tithe-corn, like the produce of their own fields. The reason, which is subjoined, seems to be by no means appropriate; via, that it was the reward for the labor which they bestowed on the service of the tabernacle; for hence it was rather to be inferred, that this food was peculiarly destined for the ministers, whilst they were discharging their official duties, and keeping watch in the tabernacle, or killing the victims at the altar. But since by God's command they were scattered over the whole land, and did not cease to be ministers of the tabernacle on account of the distance of their residence, it was justly permitted that, wherever they might be, they should eat of the meat appointed them by God. If it were allowable to take the particle yk, ki, f225 adversatively, the sense would be clearer. In the next verse he confirms the same declaration, i.e., that they should be free from all guilt when they had honestly paid the priests. Yet at the same time they are strictly admonished that they should not commit themselves by any fraud; for God declares that it would amount to sacrilege, if they should have thievishly embezzled any of it, and threatens them with capital punishment; for "to pollute the holy things" of the people, is equivalent to profaning whatever was consecrated in the name of the whole people.
Deuteronomy 18
Deuteronomy 18:1-8
1. The priests the Levites, and all the tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and his inheritance. 1. Non erit sacerdotibus Levitis: et toti tribui Levi portio et haereditas cum reliquo Israele, oblationes ignitas Jehovah, et haereditatem ejus comedent.
2. Therefore shall they have no inheritance among their brethren: the Lord is their inheritance, as he hath said unto them. 2. Et haereditas non erit illi in medio fratrum suorum, Jehova est haereditas ejus, quemadmodum dixit illi.
3. And this shall be the priest's due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep; and they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. 3. Istud autem erit jus sacerdotum a populo, quoad sacrificantes sacrificium, sive bovem, sive agnum, dabunt sacerdoti armum, et maxillas, et ventriculum.
4. The first-fruit also of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him. 4. Primitias frumenti tui, vini tui, et olei tui, et primitias velleris ovium tuarum dabis illi.
5. For the Lord thy God hath chosen him out of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons for ever. 5. Ipsum enim elegit Jehova Deus tuus e cunctis tribubus ruts, ut stet administrandum nomini Jehovae, ipse et filii ejus omnibus diebus.
6. And if a Levite come from any of thy gates out of all Israel, where he sojourned, and come with all the desire of his mind unto the place which the Lord shall choose; 6. Quum autem venerit Levita ex allqua portarum tuarum, ex omni Israele, ubi ipse peregrinabitur, et venerit toto desiderio animae suae ad locum quem elegerit Jehova:
7. Then he shall minister in the name of the Lord his God, as all his brethren the Levites do, which stand there before the Lord. 7. Ministrabit nomini Jehovae Dei sui, dent omnes fratres ejus Levitin qui stant illic coram Jehova.
8. They shall have like portions to eat, besides that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony. 8. Partera similem parti altorum comedent, praeter venditiones ejus ad partes.

1. The priests, the Levites, and all the tribe of Levi. This chapter contains three principal heads; for first, God shews that there was no reason why the Israelites should be aggrieved at paying tithes to the Levites, and at remitting the first-fruits and other oblations to the priests, since this tribe was deprived of their inheritance. Secondly, He obviates all quarrels, and prevents unlawful gains and pilferings, by assigning their just share to the priests and Levites. Thirdly, He defines how the oblations should be parted among them, and what part of the victims the priests were to take. As to the first clause, since God was as it were the lot of their inheritance, they justly claimed to themselves the right which he had transferred to them. If it were disagreeable to the people that their revenue should be tithed, God came as it were between, and declaring that it was His property in His right as King, appointed the Levites to be His stewards and collectors for receiving it. There was then no ground for any one to raise a dispute, unless he chose professedly to rob God. But this declaration often occurs; since it was of great importance that the people should be assured that God accounted as received by Himself what He had assigned to the Levites; not. only lest any portion should be withheld from them, but also that every one should willingly pay the lawful dues of God's ministers; and again, lest any should wickedly murmur because the first-fruits and some portion of the sacrifices were appropriated for the subsistence of the priests. Another reason is also expressed, why the honor assigned to the priests should be paid without grudging; viz., because God had appointed them to be the ministers of His service; but "the laborer is worthy of his hire."
3. And this shall be the priests' due. It is not only for the sake of the priests that God enumerates what He would have them receive, that they may obtain what is their own without murmuring or dispute; but He also has regard to the people, lest the priests should basely and greedily take more than their due; which sacred history relates to have been done by the sons of Eli, (<090223>1 Samuel 2:23,) for they had advanced to such a degree of licentiousness, that, like robbers, they seized violently on whatever their lust desired. Lest therefore they should give way to this gross covetousness, God prescribes to them certain limits, to which they were to confine themselves, so that if they transgressed them, it was easy for any of the people to convict them of avarice.
6. And if a Levite come. This third head more clearly explains what is elsewhere more obscurely declared; for God seemed to curtail from the Levites whatever He gave to the priests. But He now more distinctly places the priests in the first rank, yet so that they should admit the Levites on the score of their labor's to a share of the oblations. This is the sum of the law, that the Levites who remained at home, should be content with the tithes, and touch nothing of the other offerings; but that from whithersoever they should come to the sanctuary, they were to be accounted as ministers and take their proper place. By this law then, it was provided that none should be excluded on the ground of the intermission of their duties; and that the condition of those that dwelt elsewhere should not be worse than of those who lived at Jerusalem. For although they might reside in other cities, they did not altogether cease from their ministry, since they had other duties to perform besides that of sacrificing the victims. Yet those who entirely devoted themselves to the work of the sanctuary, were endowed by God with double honor; since it was by no means just that they should be defrauded of their maintenance, who bade adieu to domestic cares and labors, and occupied themselves totally in holy offices. That this distribution was not superfluous, will best appear from the narrative of Josephus, who relates that the f226 priests seized on the tithes by violence, and deprived the Levites of their subsistence by hostile measures.
The Sacred Oblations
Leviticus 24
Leviticus 24:5-9
5. And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth-deals shall be in one cake. 5. Accipies similam, et coques ex ea duodecim placentas: duarum decimarum sit unaquseque placenta.
6. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure table before the Lord. 6. Et pones eas in duobus ordinibus: seni ordines super mensam mundam coram Jehova.
7. And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 7. Pones quoque super ordinem utrunque thus purum, eritque pani in memoriale et incensum Jehovae.
8. Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the Lord continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant. 8. Per singula sabbatha ordinabit illos coram Jehova semper, a filiis Israel foedere sempiterno.
9. And it shall be Aaron's and his sons; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the Lord made by fire by a perpetual statute. 9. Et erit Aharonis et filiorum ejus, qui comedent eum in loco sancto: quia sanctitatis sanctitatum est ei ex oblationibus ignitis Jehovae statuto perpetuo.

We now come to the third part of the external service of God, which will bring us to the end of our exposition of the Second Commandment. We have, then, now to treat of the sacred oblations, the first place amongst which I have thought it best to give to the loaves, which had their peculiar table opposite the candlestick on the north side, as we saw in the construction of the Tabernacle; for although the mention of them will recur elsewhere, yet, since they were offered separately, and placed before the Ark of the Covenant, as it were in God's sight, they must not be treated of apart from the sacrifices. I have already explained that this was no ordinary symbol of God's favor, when He descended familiarly to them, as if He were their messmate. They were called "the bread of faces," f227 because they were placed before the eyes of God; and thus He made known His special favor, as if coming to banquet with them. Nor can it be doubted but that He commanded them to be twelve in number, with reference to the twelve tribes, as if He would admit to His table the food offered by each of them. The "two tenths" make the fifth part of the epah. And it is plaia indeed that this rite was thus accurately prescribed by God, lest diversity in so serious a matter might gradually give birth to many corruptions. In the word "tenths," He seems to allude to the tax which He had imposed on the people, that thus the holiness of the loaves might be enhanced. But why He required two "tenths" rather than one I know not, nor do I think it any use more curiously to inquire. I refer to the frankincense the words, "that it may be on the bread for a memorial:" as if it were said that the bread, seasoned by the smell of the incense, would renew the memory of the children of Israel, so that they should be of sweet savor before God. Others translate it "a monument" instead of "for a memorial," but with the same meaning. But although some think that the bread itself is called a memorial, it is more applicable to the frankincense; for it is afterwards added, that the incense should be at the same time a burnt sacrifice, viz., because in it the bread was, as it were, offered in burnt sacrifice.
Sacrifices
Exodus 29
Exodus 29:38-46
38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs of the first year, day by day continually. 38. Hoc est quod facies super altare, agnos anniculos jugiter in singulos dies.
39. The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning, and the other lamb thou shalt offer at even: 39. Agnum unum facies mane, et agnum unum inter duas vesperas.
40. And with the one lamb a tenth-deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink-offering. 40. Et decimam partem similae mistae oleo contuso, quartam partem hin et libamen, quartam partem hin vini in agnam unum.
41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at even, and shalt do thereto according to the meat-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savor, an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 41. Agnum alterum facies inter duas vesperas sicut minha matutino, et sicut libamini ejus facies ei in odorem quietis, oblationem ignitam Jehovae.
42. This shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord; where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee. 42. Holocaustum juge in generationes vestras, ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis coram Jehova, quo conveniam vobiscum nt tecum loquar.
43. And there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the tabernacle shall be sanctified by my glory. 43. Et conveniam illie cum filiis Israel, et locus sanctificabitur in gloria mea.
44. And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar: I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to me in the priest's office. 44. Sanctificabo tabernaculum conventionis et altare, Aharonem quoque et filios ejus, et sacrificia, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
45. And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God. 45. Habitaboqne in medio filiorum Israel, et ero ipsis in Deum.
46. And they shall know that I am the Lord their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them: I am the Lord their God. 46. Et scient quod sum Jehova Dens eorum, qui eduxi eos e terra AEgypti: ut habitarem in medio eorum. Ego Jehova Deus eorum

The custom of sacrificing has always been in use among all nations, and its origin is doubtless to be traced to the ancient Fathers; but after the whole world had fallen away into superstition, first of all, the rites themselves became degenerate, when every one invented something new for himself, and made an absurd mimicry of whatever remained having any similarity, since they no longer retained their proper end and use. All heathendom was ignorant of the reason why it was needful that God should be appeased by blood; and therefore they shed the blood of their victims unreasonably, inasmuch as they did not know themselves to be guilty before God, so as humbly to seek for pardon; and much less did they apply their minds to embrace the atonement, which was not only predestinated in God's secret counsels, but likewise promised to men. Hence we infer that all the religious services of the Gentiles were rejected of God, (reprobatos,) since they were not based upon His word. Only let this be deemed sure, that, by the very custom of sacrifice, adulterated as it was, they were convicted of their own unworthiness, so that they should have acknowledged that God can only be propitiated towards the human race through the medium of a reconciliation. Foolish, then, was the philosophy of Pythagoras, which held that God's name was contaminated by sacrifices; for thus does the Poet introduce him, inveighing against the eating of flesh, (eijv th<n sarkofagi>an)
"Nor will the sin itself their hearts content:
The very gods must share that guilty deed,
And He, they think, who reigns omnipotent,
Joys to behold the patient victim bleed.
Spotless it stands, of perfect form confess'd,
(Its beauty nerves the hand which else might spare,)
Before the shrine, with gold and fillets dress'd,
And all unconscious, hears its murderer's prayer.
It sees the fruits itself has toiled to rear
Placed on its horned brow; and as the blow
Descends, perchance the blood-stained knives appear,
Mirror'd before it in the streamlet's flow." f228
f229 He was pained that an innocent animal should be slain for man's sin; but he might have considered, what it was gross ignorance not to feel, that men are but too impudently audacious and foolhardy if they come into God's presence to ask His pardon, seeing that He is justly offended with them all. There is, therefore, nothing absurd in submitting to the eyes of sinners that judgment of death which they deserve, in order that, descending into themselves, they may begin seriously to abominate the sin in which they fondly indulged themselves. But this was the chief cause of the error of Pythagoras, that he knew not that God could not be reconciled without an expiation. Since, however, this is a thing which is beyond the reach of the human mind, let us, who have ever truly sought after God, learn, under the guidance and teaching of Scripture, that He has appointed the propitiation to be by blood; so that, before the delivery of the Law, religion was always sanctioned by sacrifices. Nor can it be doubted but that by the sacred inspiration of the Spirit, the holy fathers were directed to the Mediator, by whose death God was hereafter to be appeased; and surely if Christ be put out of sight, all the sacrifices that may be offered differ in no respect from mere profane butchery. But afterwards a clearer revelation was added in the Law; and since many modes of sacrificing were heaped together by the Gentiles, God left out no part of them at all which might afford a profitable exercise for believers, whether their piety was to be testified, or thanksgivings to be made, or zeal to be added to their prayers, or purification to be sought, or sins to be atoned for. Yet the twofold division of them is complete and clear when we say that some of them were expiatory, and others testimonies of gratitude. Thus, under the first head I include the rites of consecration, by which God would have the priests initiated, since purification was their main object. Moreover, since it is plain that God can listen to no prayers without the intercession of Christ, the constant morning and evening sacrifice was instituted to consecrate the prayers of the Church; and, even when they only celebrated the bounties of God, blood was shed, that they might know that not even their gratitude was acceptable to Him, except through the sacrifice of the Mediator; in a word, that nothing pure can proceed from men unless purged by blood.
38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer. I have thought it well to give the first place among the sacrifices to that daily one which is called the continual sacrifice; for God would have two lambs offered to Him every morning and evening, that the people might perpetually exercise themselves in the recollection of the future reconciliation. But, although the sacrifices were constantly repeated under the Law, inasmuch as their offering had no efficacy in expiating sin, yet it must be observed that, as the priest entered once every year into the holy of holies with blood, so it was profitable that another kind of victim should be daily set before the people's eyes, in order that they might reflect that they had constant need of being reconciled to God. Propitiation was, therefore, daily made with two lambs, that the Israelites, being reminded of their guilt and condemnation, from the beginning to the end of the day, might learn to fly to God's mercy. The lamb chosen for this sacrifice was spotless and entire, for the mention of its age (one year) implies its perfection or entireness. It was offered with a cake made with oil, and a libation of wine; and doubtless the ancients were reminded by these symbols that it is not lawful to offer anything tasteless to God. True that God was not gratified by their sweet savor, neither did He desire to accustom the priests to delicacies that they might be epicures under color of religion; for the scent of wine cannot in itself be pleasing to God; but the object of these seasonings was that the people should not rest in the bare and empty figures, but should acknowledge that something better and more excellent underlay them. The savor of the wine and oil, then, was nothing else than the spiritual truth; that the people, for their part., might bring to the sacrifices faith and repentance. And assuredly the external ceremony without the reality would have been mere folly. Even heathen nations partially imitated this rite; whence those words of Horace, —
"Utque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuso: " f230
"And like a runaway from priests, cakes I refuse: "
whereby he implies that cakes were universally offered to idols. But this was a mere blind mimicry, for they looked no higher, but thought that their gods took delight, like, human beings, in sweet and delicate foods; whilst, as I have above hinted, God's intention was very different; for, by the, external savor, He desired to arouse His people, so that, being affected by a serious feeling of repentance, and by pure faith, they should seek for the remission of their sins, not in these lambs which they saw slain, but in the victim promised to them. They called it the "continual" sacrifice, because God commanded it to be offered continually through all generations; but it appears from Daniel that it was temporary, for it ceased at the coming of Christ; for so speaks the angel: Christ
"shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the continual sacrifice, and the oblation (minha) to cease." f231 (<270927>Daniel 9:27.)
It is clear that he speaks of this kind of sacrifice. Hence we assuredly gather that by this sacrifice the minds of the people were directed to Christ. But if this was its use and object with the ancients, the profit of it now returns upon us, that we may know that whatever was then shewn under the figure was fulfilled in Christ. God promises that this sacrifice would be to Him "a savor of rest." f232 We may not, therefore, doubt but that He has been altogether propitiated to us by the sacrifices of His only-begotten Son, and has remitted our sins. But although Christ was once offered, that by that one offering He might consecrate us for ever to God, yet by this daily sacrifice under the Law, we learn that by the benefit of His death pardon is always ready for us, as Paul says f233 that God continually reconciles Himself to the Church when He sets before it the sacrifice of Christ in the Gospel As to the word minha, f234 although it is derived from, hjn nachah, which means to offer, still we must consider it to be peculiarly applied to this oblation, which was a kind of appendix to the daily sacrifice. There are some, too, who restrict it to the evening sacrifice alone, but, when it is used in connection with victims, it is also extended generally to other offerings.
42. At the door of the tabernacle f235 of the congregation. This passage shews us in what sense the word d[wm mogned, is used, when it is employed in connection with the tabernacle. Some translate it "testimony:" others, "church:" others, "assembly," (conventum;) others, "appointment," (constitutum;) but its etymology is sufficiently shewn in this passage; for, when Moses gives the reason of its appellation, he uses the word dgy yagnad, from whence it is derived. What, then, is the tabernacle of the convention? God Himself answers, that it is the place which He has chosen and appointed unto His people, that they may there mutually come to agreement with each other. Some conceive its root to be, hd[ gnadah, which is to make protestation as by a solemn rite; but since this is opposed to grammar, I will take what is certain. The word d[y yagnad, in this construction, means to contract or agree with another, or at least to meet for the transaction of mutual business; no word, therefore, has appeared to me more nearly equivalent to it than convention; for the fact that God invited them to familiar colloquy, was of the greatest weight in preserving the modest reverence of the faithful towards the priests. In the next verse He repeats to them, addressing them in the third person, that whosoever shall desire to be reckoned among the Israelites, should not turn away or wander elsewhere; for a law is laid down for all the children of Israel, that they should seek God there. Another confirmation is subjoined, i.e., that this place ought to be sanctified, because God will there magnificently display His glory. In fine, from the whole passage, it appears that God's design was to keep the people bound to Him by the tie of the Levitical priesthood; yet we must observe that it is God alone who sanctifies both the place and the offerings, as well as the men themselves. Wherefore frivolous is the boast of those who arrogate more than God has conferred upon them. If we believe the Pope, in him is the holiness of holiness; yet, since he does not produce God's authority for this, but vaunts himself of titles invented without foundation, we may safely laugh at his stupid impudence. But from this and similar passages, our doctrine is taken that Christ ought not to be estimated humanly, but according to His heavenly and divine power. Hence, too, is refuted the boast of the Popish priests that they offer Christ; for we must always ask them, By what authority? since God claims for Himself alone this right of sanctifying those who exercise the lawful priesthood.
46. And they shall know that I am the Lord. In these words God signifies that He has not only been the deliverer of His people on one occasion, but with the object of presiding over their welfare, and of demonstrating practically that He dwells among them. He, moreover, appointed the sanctuary to be the symbol of His presence, and, as it were, its pledge; from whence He would have the rule of piety proceed, and be sought for by His worshippers.
Numbers 28
Numbers 28:1-15
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Et loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, and my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for a sweet savor unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in their due season. 2. Praecipe filiis Israel, et dic eis, Oblationem meam, panem meum in oblationibus meis ignitis in odorem quietis meae custodietis, ut offeraris mihi tempore suo.
3. And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the Lord; two lambs of the first year without spot, day by day, for a continual burnt-offering. 3. Dices praeterea illis, Haec est oblatio ignita quam i Jehovah, agnos anniculos immaculatos duos quotidie holocaustum juge.
4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even; 4. Agnum unum facies mane, et agnum alterum inter duas vesperas.
5. And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meat-offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil. 5. Et offeres decimam partem epha similac et in minham permistae oleo contuso, cum quarta parte hin.
6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was ordained in mount Sinai for a sweet savor, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 6. Istud est holocaustum juge quod factum est in monte Sinai, in odorem quietis, oblationem ignitam Jehovae.
7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the Lord. for a drink-offering. 7. Porro libamen ejus quartam partem hin per singulos agnos in sanctuario liba libamen sechar Jehovae.
8. And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt offer it, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 8. Agnum autem alterum facies inter duas vesperas, secundum oblationem matutinam, et secundum libamen ejus facies oblationem ignitam, in odorem quietis Jehovae.
9. And on the sabbath-day two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenth-deals of flour for a meat-offering, mingled with oil, and the drink-offering thereof. 9. Die vero Sabbathi facies duos agnos anniculos immaculatos, et duas decimas ephi similae in minham permistae oleo, et libamen ejus.
10. This is the burnt-offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt-offering, and his drink-offering. 10. Istud est holocaustum Sabbathi, in Sabbatho suo ultra holocaustum juge in libamen ejus.
11. And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt-offering unto the Lord; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot: 11. Similiter in capitibus mensium vestrorum offeretis holocaustum Jehovae: juvencos filios bovis duos, et arietem unum, agnos anniculos immaculatos septem.
12. And three tenth-deals of flour for a meat-offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth-deals of flour for a meat-offering, mingled with oil, for one ram; 12. Et tres declinus epbi similae in minham permixtae oleo in juvencos singulos, et duas declinus ephi similae in minham permixtae oleo in singulos arietes.
13. And a several tenth-deal of flour mingled with oil. for a meat-offering unto one lamb, for a burnt-offering of a sweet savor, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 13. Et singulas decimas oblationem similae in minham permixtsa oleo, in singulos agnos, holocaustum odoris quietis, oblatio ignita Jehovae.
14. And their drink-offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt-offering of every month throughout the months of the year. 14. Haec autem libamina eorum e vino: dimidium hin etiam in singulos juvencos, et tertia pars hin in arietem, et quarta pars hin in singulos agnos. Hoc est holocaustum singulorum mensium per singulos menses anni.
15. And one kid of the goats for a sin-offering unto the Lord shall be offered, beside the continual burnt-offering, and his drink-offering. 15. Et hircus caprarum unus in sacrificium pro peccato fiet Jehovae, procter holocaustum juge, et libamen ejus.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. Moses, being about to speak again of the "continual" sacrifice, premises in general that the people should diligently follow in their offerings whatever God has enjoined; for by the word "observe," (custodiendi,) not only diligence, but obedience is also expressed. But, in order that they should more earnestly beware of every transgression, God calls either that which was wont daily to be placed on the table, or that which was annexed to the burnt-offerings, His bread, as if He ate of it after the manner of men. It is indeed a hard expression, but the rudeness of His ancient people obliged Him to speak thus grossly, that, on the one hand, they might learn this rite to be acceptable to God, just as food is acceptable to man; and, on the other, that they might study to offer their sacrifices more purely and chastely.
3. And thou shalt say unto them. He repeats what we have seen in Exodus, that they should kill two lambs daily, one in the morning, and the other in the evening; but he speaks more fully of the concomitants of flour and wine, and also refers to the antiquity of this kind of sacrifice as its recommendation, because it began to be offered to God on Mount Sinai, and was a "savor of rest." f236 The libation of wine, of which mention is made, was also in use among heathen nations; but, inasmuch as it was without the command and promise of God, it could not but be unmeaning (insipidum.) f237 And it is probable (as we have seen elsewhere) that many of the heathen rites descended from the ancient fathers but as a false and empty imitation; for when they had forgotten the reason of them, all they did could only be a mere theatrical pageantry. But we have said that thus men were reminded always to have God before their eyes in their daily food; and therefore in every way to accustom themselves to cultivate holiness.
9. And on the Sabbath-day. What was omitted in the former passage is here supplied, i.e., that on the Sabbath the continual sacrifice was to be doubled, and two lambs offered instead of one; for it was reasonable that, as the seventh day was peculiarly dedicated to God, it should be exalted above other days by some extraordinary and distinctive mark. He also commands greater sacrifices to be offered at the beginning of the month or new moon, viz., two bullocks and one ram, and a goat for a sin-offering; for we know that the first day of every month was consecrated to God, that the people might more frequently have the remembrance of their religious duties renewed; and the goat for an atonement for sin was added, in order that every month they should present themselves as guilty before God to deprecate His wrath.
Numbers 28
Numbers 28:16-31
16. And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of the Lord. 16. Mense autem primo decima quarta die mensis, Pesah est Jehovae.
17. And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten. 17. Et in decimo quinto die mensis hujus solennitas: septem diebus panis infermentatorum comedetur.
18. In the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work therein. 18. Die primo convocatio sancta erit: omne servile non facietis.
19. But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire, for a burnt-offering unto the Lord; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish. 19. Offeretis autem oblationem ignitam, et holocaustum Jehovae juvencos fihos bovis duos, et arietem unum, et septem agnos anniculos: immaculati erunt vobis.
20. And their meat-offering shall be of flour mingled with oil: three tenth-deals shall ye offer for a bullock, and two tenth-deals for a ram; 20. Et minha eorum erit simila permixta oleo, tres decimae in singulos juvencos, et duas decimas in singulos arietes facietis.
21. A several tenth-deal shalt thou offer for every lamb, throughout the seven lambs: 21. Singulas decimas facies in agnos singulos in septem agnis.
22. And one goat for a sin-offering, to make an atonement for you. 22. Et hircum in sacrificium pro peccato unum, ad expiandum vos.
23. Ye shall offer these beside the burnt-offering in the morning, which is for a continual burnt-offering. 23. Praeter holocaustum matutinum: quod est holocaustum juge, facietis ista.
24. After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt-offering, and his drink-offering. 24. Secundum haec facietis singulis diebus septem dierum, panem oblationis ignitae odoris quietis Jehovae: ultra holocaustum juge fiet, et libamen ejus.
25. And on the seventh day ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work. 25. Septimo autem die convocatio sancta erit vobis: omne opus servile non facietis.
26. Also in the day of the first-fruits, when ye bring a new meat-offering unto the Lord, after your weeks be out, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: 26. Porro die primitiarum quando offeretis minham novato Jehovae in hebdomadibus vestris, convocatio sancta erit vobis: omne opus servile non facietis.
27. But ye shall offer the burnt-offering for a sweet savor unto the Lord; two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year; 27. Et offeretis holocaustum in odorem quietis Jehovah: juvencos filios bovis duos, arietem unum, et septem agnos anniculos.
28. And their meat-offering of flour mingled with oil, three tenth-deals unto one bullock, two tenth-deals unto one ram, 28. Et oblationem eorum similam permixtam oleo, tres decimas in singulos juvencos, duas decimas per arietes singulos.
29. A several tenth-deal unto one lamb, throughout the seven lambs; 29. Singulas decimas per agnos singulos, septem agnis.
30. And one kid of the goats, to make an atonement for you. 30. Hircum caprarum unum ad expiandum vos.
31. Ye shall offer them beside the burnt-offering, and his meat-offering, (they shall be unto you without blemish,) and their drink-offerings. 31. Praeter holocaustum juge et minham ejus facietis: immaculati erunt vobis et libamina eorum.

16. And in the fourteenth day. It is true that the instruction here given has some connection with the feast of the passover, but since the sacrifices are avowedly treated of, and no mention is made of its other observances, except in this place, I have connected it with the continual sacrifice, as its concomitant or part. Moses cursorily refers, indeed, to what we have already seen, i.e., that the people should abstain from leaven for seven days, and eat unleavened bread; but he afterwards descends to the main point of which he here proposed to treat, viz., that the people should slay two bullocks as a burnt-offering, a ram, and seven lambs, together with a goat for a sin-offering; and that this sacrifice should be repeated through the whole week. In order, then, that the reverence paid to the passover should be increased, this extraordinary sacrifice was added to the continual one, partly that they might thus be more and more stimulated to devote themselves to God; partly that they might acknowledge how familiarly He had embraced them with His favor, inasmuch as He took these offerings from their flocks and herds, and required the sacred feast to be prepared for Him out of their cellars and granaries also; partly, too, that professing themselves to be worthy of eternal death, they should fly to Him to ask for pardon, and at the same time should understand that there was but one way of reconciliation, i.e., when God should be propitiated by sacrifice.
26. Also in the day of thefirst-fruits. Moses delivers the same commandment as to another festival, viz., that on which they offered their first-fruits. Then, also, he instructs them, the continual sacrifice was to be increased by the addition of two bullocks, one ram, seven lambs, a goat for a sin-offering, together with the minha and a libation, with the object, of which I have already spoken. A perplexing difficulty here arises, because in Leviticus 23, one bullock is mentioned instead of two, and, on the contrary, two rams instead of one. f238 Some think that an option was left to the priests in this matter; but when I consider how precisely God's commands were given in everything, I question whether such an alternative was left to their discretion. The notion that God had once been content with a single bullock, as some think, because they were not abundant in the desert, appears to me a subterfuge. I confess I do not know how to get out of this difficulty, unless perhaps we say, that inasmuch as sufficiently exact provision had been made, in all other particulars, that nothing should be done without reason, in this respect only they were reminded that God in Himself cares not for greater or less victims. Nor does any reverence prevent us from saying that, as it sometimes happens in minor matters, a wrong number may have crept in from the carelessness of scribes; f239 and this is probably the most natural solution. The more correct reading, in my opinion, is, that they should offer two bullocks and one ram; but since it is elsewhere explained why God appointed this day, he only briefly recites here: "When they bring the fainha with the first-fruits."
Numbers 29
Numbers 29:1-39
1. And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you. 1. Mense autem septimo, primo die ejusdem, convocatio sancta erit vobis: nullum opus servile facietis, dies clangoris erit vobis.
2. And ye shall offer a burnt-offering for a sweet savor unto the Lord; one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year, without blemish: 2. Et faeietis holocaustum in odorem quietis Jehovae, juvencum filium bovis unum, arietem unum, agnos anniculos septem immaculatos:
3. And their meat-offering shall be of flour mingled with oil, three tenth-deals for a bullock, and two tenth-deals for a ram, 3. Et minham eorum ex simila permixta oleo, tres decimas per singulos juvencos, duas decimas per singulos arietes:
4. And one tenth-deal for one lamb, throughout the seven lambs; 4. Et decimam unam per singulos agnos, per septem agnos.
5. And one kid of the goats for a sin-offering, to make an atonement for you: 5. Et hircum caprarum unum in sacrificium pro peccato, ad expiandum vos.
6. Beside the burnt-offering of the month, and his meat-offering, and the daily burnt-offering, and his meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savor, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 6. Praeter holocaustum calendarum, et minham ejus, et holocaustum juge, minham que ejus, et libamina eorum, secundum titus sues, in odorem quietis, oblatio ignita Jehovae.
7. And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein: 7. Decimo autem die mensis septimi hujus, convocatio sancta erit vobis, affligetisque animus vestras: nullum opus facietis.
8. But ye shall offer a burnt-offering unto the Lord. for a sweet savor; one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year; they shall he unto you without blemish. 8. Et offeritis holocaustum Jehovae in odorem quietis, juvencum filium bovis unum, arietem unum, agnos anniculos septem: immaculati erunt vobis.
9. And their meat-offering shall be of flour mingled with oil, three tenth-deals to a bullock, and two tenth-deals to one ram, 9. Et minham eorum ex simila conspersa oleo, tres decimas in singulos juvencos, duas decimas in singulos arietes:
10. A several tenth-deal for one lamb, throughout the seven lambs; 10. Singulas decimas per agnos singulos, per septem agnos.
11. One kid of the goats.for a sin-offering, beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meat-offering of it, and their drink-offerings. 11. Hircum caprarum unum in sacrificium pro peccato: praeter oblationem pro peccato expiationum: et holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, libaminaque eorum.
12. And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days. 12. Porre decimaquinta die mensis septimi, convocatio sancta erit vobis: nullum opus servile facietis, et celebrabitis solennitatem Jehovae septem diebus.
13. And ye shall offer a burnt-offering, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord; thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish: 13. Et holocaustum, et oblationem ignitam in odorem quietis Jehovae, juvencos filios bovis tredecim, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim: immaculati erunt.
14. And their meat-offering shall be of flour mingled with oil, three tenth-deals unto every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth-deals to each ram of the two rams, 14. Minham quoque eorum ex simila conspersa oleo, tres decimas in juvencos singulos tredecim juvencis: duas decimas in arietes singulos duobus arietibus.
15. And a several tenth-deal to each lamb of the fourteen lambs; 15. Et singulas declinus per agnos singulos, quatuordecim agnos.
16. And one kid of the goats for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 16. Et hircum caprarum unum in sacrificium pro peccato: prater holocaustum juge, minham ejus et libamen ejus.
17. And on the second day ye shall offer twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs of the first year, without spot: 17. Die autem secundo juvencos filios bovis duodecim, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim immaculatos.
18. And their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 18. Et minham eorum, et libamina eorum in juvencos, in arietes, in agnos secundum numerum eorum, juxta morem.
19. And one kid of the goats for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meat-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings. 19. Et hircum caprarum unum in sacrificium pro peccato: praeter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamina eorum.
20. And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs of the first year, without blemish: 20. Die vero tertio juveneos undecim, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim immaculatos.
21. And their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 21. Et minham eorum, et libamina eorum in juvencos, in arietes, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum, juxta morere.
22. And one goat for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, and his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 22. Et hircum in sacrificium pro petcato unum, praeter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamen ejus.
23. And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year, without blelnish: 23. Die autem quarto juvencos decem, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim immaculatos.
24. Their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 24. Minham eorum et libamina eorum in juvencos, in arietes, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum, juxta morere.
25. And one kid of the goatsfor a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 25. Et hircum caprarum unum in sacrificium pro peccato, praeter holocaustum juge, minham ejus et libamen ejus.
26. And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year without spot: 26. Et die quinto juvencos novem, arietes duos, agnos annietrios quatuordecim immaculatos.
27. And their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 27. Et minham eorum, et libamina eorum, in juvencos, in arietes, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum, juxta morere.
28. And one goat. for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, and his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 28. Et hircum in sacrificium pro peccato unum, procter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamen ejus.
29. And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year, without blemish: 29. Die praterea sexto jurenons otto, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim immaculatos.
30. And their meat-offering, and their drink- offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner: 30. Et minham eormn, et libamina eorum in juvencos, in arietes, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum juxta morere.
31. And one goat for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 31. Et hircum in sacrificium pro peccato unum: procter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamina ejus.
32. And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year, without blemish: 32. Et die septimo juvencos septem, arietes duos, agnos anniculos quatuordecim immaculatos.
33. And their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 33. Et minham eorum, et libamina eorum, in juvencos, in arietes, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum juxta morere.
34. And one goat for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 34. Et hircum in sacrificium pro peccato unum, prfeter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamen ejus.
35. On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly; ye shall do no servile work therein: 35. Die octavo solennitas erit vobis: nullum opus servile facietis.
36. But ye shall offer a burnt-offering, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: one bullock, one ram, seven lambs of the first year, without blemish: 36. Et offeretis holocaustum, et oblationem ignitam odoris quietis jehovae, juvencum unum, arietem unum, agnos anniculos septem immaculatos:
37. Their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner; 37. Et minham eorum, et libamina eorum, in juvencum, in arietem, et in agnos, secundum numerum eorum juxta morere.
38. And one goat for a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, and his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 38. Et hircum in sacrificium pro peccato unum: procter holocaustum juge, et minham ejus, et libamen ejus.
39. These things ye shall do unto the Lord in your set feasts, beside your vows, and your free-will offerings, for your burnt-offerings, and for your meat-offerings, and for your drink-offerings, and for your peace-offerings. 39. Ista facietis Jehovae in solemnitatibus vestris: prater vota vestra, et spontanea vestra in holocaustis vestris, et minhis vestris, et libaminibus vestris, et sacrificiis prosperitatum.

1. And in the seventh month. I have already observed that the festivals are not here (generally) treated of, but only the sacrifices, by which their solemnization was to be graced. In the beginning of the seventh month was the memorial, as it was called, of the blowing of trumpets. Because it was a minor festival, Moses only commands one bullock to be killed; but the number was increased on other grounds, for we have already seen that on the first of every month two bullocks were sacrificed. This day, therefore, had three larger victims, whilst the number of the others was doubled, so that there were two rams and fourteen lambs. Thus, then, God consecrated this day doubly to Himself, so that one celebration diminished nothing of the other; else He might have seemed to have abrogated what He had once commanded. The memorial of trumpets was not, then, an abolition of the new-moon, but they kept both ordinances at the same time.
7. And ye shall have on the tenth day. This was the day of Atonement. For although they never came into God's presence without supplication for pardon, they then in a special manner confessed their sins, because a fast was appointed in token of their guilt. For thus it is written in <032329>Leviticus 23:29,
"Whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people."
As to the sacrifices, one bullock only is required; the rest is as before, except that an exception is added, which was omitted in the former cases. For another propitiation is appointed besides the goat, to accord with the fact of their affliction. For the acknowledgment of guilt would have been a dreadful torment to their consciences without the hope of reconciliation. The reason of this sacrifice will be soon explained.
12. And on the fifteenth, day. Amongst their festivals this last was the chief f240 in which they dwelt in tabernacles for seven days; for whereas in the Passover they commemorated the night in which they came forth free from the plagues of Egypt, by dwelling in tabernacles they embraced the whole forty years in which their fathers in the desert experienced the constant and consummate bounty of God. That solemn convention, too, availed for another present purpose, i.e., of thanksgiving to God for the ingathering of the harvest. Hence it was that they offered sacrifices every day and in greater number: on the first day, thirteen bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs; on the second, twelve bullocks; on the third, eleven; on the fourth, ten; on the fifth, nine; on the sixth, eight; finally, on the seventh, seven; and on the eighth, one. Nor is it carelessly that Moses expends so many words on the recital; first, that nothing might be done except at God's command; secondly, lest it should be disagreeable or onerous to be at such great expense, which they would have gladly avoided. Wherefore, that they might cheerfully obey God's command, he diligently inculcates what victims God would have daily offered to Him. But why the distribution was so unequal, I confess, is not clear to me, and it is better to confess my ignorance than by too subtle speculations to vanish into mere smoke. f241 This notion, indeed, is neither curious nor to be rejected, i.e., that, by daily diminishing the number, they came at last on the seventh day to the number seven, which is the symbol of perfection; for the eighth was superadded, merely as a conclusion. Finally, Moses subjoins that in the continual sacrifice, as well as these extraordinary ones, they should hold fast to what God prescribes, so that nothing should be altered according to man's fancy. The sacrifices which depend on the Commandments of the Second Table, I have designedly postponed to their proper place.
The GREAT yearly Atonement
Leviticus 16
Leviticus 16:1-34
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before the Lord, and died; 1. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen postquam mortui sunt duo ex filiis Aharon: qui dum accederent coram Jehova mortui sunt.
2. And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before the mercy-seat, which is upon the ark, that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy-seat. 2. Dixitque Jellova ad Mosen, Loquere ad Aharon fratrem tuum, ut ne ingrediatnr omni tempore sanctuarium intra velum coram propitiatorio quod est supra arcata, ne moriatur: in nube enim apparebo supra propitiatorium.
3. Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place; with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering. 3. Cum hoc ingredietur Aharon sanctuarium, eum juvenco filio bovis in hostiam pro peccato, et ariete in holocaustum.
4. He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on. 4. Tunica linca saneta induet se, et femoralia linea erunt super carnem ejus, balteoque lineo accinget se, et mitra linea velabit sese: vestes sanctitatis sunt: lavabitque aqua carnem suam, et induct se illis.
5. And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering. 5. A coetu autem filiorum Israel accipiet duos hircos caprarum in hostiam pro peccato, et arietem unum in holocaustum.
6. And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin-offering which is for hhnself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house. 6. Offeretque Aharon juvencum sacrificii pro peccato suum, et expiationem faciet pro se et pro domo sua.
7. And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 7. Postea caplet duos hircum, quos statuet coram Jehova ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scape-goat. 8. Mittetque Aharon super duos illos hircum sortes, sortem unam Jehovae, et sortem alteram pro azazel.
9. And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, and offer him for a sin-offering: 9. Offeret autem Aharon hircum super quem ceciderit sots pro Jehovae, et faciet eum pro peccato.
10. But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scape-goat, shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scape-goat into the wilderness. 10. Hircum vero super quem ceciderit sors pro azazel, statuet vivum coram Jehova ad emundandum per illum, ad emittendum illum in azazel in desertum.
11. And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself. 11. Offeret autem Aharon juvencum pro hostia peccati suum, et expiationem faciet pro se et pro domo sua, mactabitque juvencum pro hostia peccati suum.
12. And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the Lord, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail. 12. Assumet quoque plenum thuribulum prunis ignitis de altari a conspectu Jehovae, et plenas volas suas de incenso aromatico comminuto, et inferet intra velum.
13. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the Lord, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy-seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not. 13. Ponetque incensum super ignero coram Jehova: operietque nubes incensi propitiatorium quod est super testimonium, et non morietur.
14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy-seat eastward: and before the mercy-seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times. 14. Deinde accipiet de sanguine juvenei, et asperget digito suo contra faciem propitiatorii ad orientem: coram propitiatorio inquam asperget septem vicibus de sanguine illo, digito suo.
15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy-seat, and before the mercy-seat. 15. Mactabit praeterea hircum hostiam pro petcato, qui fuerit populi, et inferet sanguinem ejus intra velum: facietque de sanguine ejus quemadmodum fecit de sanguine juvenci, aspergens scilicet illum supra propitiatorium, et coram propitiatorio.
16. And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation that remaineth among them in the midst of their unclean-ness. 16. Et emundabit sanctuarium ab immunditiis filiorum Israel, eta praevaricationibus eorum, cunctisque pectaris eorum: sic quoque faciet tabernaculo conventionis quod moratur cum eis in medio immunditiarum corum.
17. And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel 17. Nullus autem homo erit in tabernaculo conventionis dum egredietur ipse ad emundandum in sanctuario, donec egrediatur ipse: et expiationem fecerit pro se et pro domo sua, et pro universo coetu Israel.
18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. 18. Exibit autem ad altare quod est coram Jehova: et expiabit illud: tolletque de sanguine juvenci, ac de sanguine hirci, et ponet super cornua altaris per circuitum.
19. And he shall sprinkle of the upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel. 19. Aspergetque super illud de sanguine illo, digito suo, septem vicibus, ac mundabit illud, sanctificabitque ab immunditiis filiorum Israel.
20. And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat: 20. Qunm autem finierit expiare sanctuarium tabernaculumque conventionis et altare, tune offeret hircum vivum.
21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness. 21. Imponetque Aharon ambas manus suas super caput hirei vivi, et confitebitur super illud onmes iniquitates filiorum Israel, et omnes praevaricationes eorum cum omnibus peccatis eorum: et ponet illa super caput hirci, ac emitter ilium per manum viri praeparati in desertum.
22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness. 22. Et portabit hircus ille super se omnes iniquitates eorum in terram inhabitabilem: et abire sinet hircum ilium in deserto.
23. And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments which he put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there: 23. Veniet post haec Aharon in tabernaculmunconventionis, et exuet se vestibus lineis, quibus induerat se dum ingrederetur sanctuarium, et ponet eas ibi.
24. And he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt-offering, and the burnt-offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people. 24. Lavabitque carnem suam aqua in loco sancto: et induct se vestibus suis: egredietur autem et faciet holocaustum populi, et expiationem faciet pro se et pro populo.
25. And the fat of the sin-offering shall he burn upon the altar. 25. Adipem vero hostira pro peccato adolebit super altare.
26. And he that let go the goat for the scape-goat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp. 26. Qui veto deduxerit hircum in azazel, lavabit vestimenta sua, postea quam laverit carnem suam aqua, et postea ingredietur castra ipsa.
27. And the bullock for the sin-offering, and the goat for the sin-offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung. 27. Juvencum autem pro peccato, et hircum pro delicto quorum illatus fuerit sanguis ad emundandum in sanctuario, educet extra castra, et comburent igni pellem eorum, et carnes eorum, et fimum eorum.
28. And he that burneth them shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp. 28. Et qui combusserit ea, lavabit, vestimenta sua, postquam laverit carnem suam aqua, et postea ingredietur castra.
29. And this shall be a statute for ever unto you, that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you: 29. Eritque vobis in statutum perpetuum: mense septimo decima die mensis affligetis animas vestras: neque opus ullum facietis, indigena et peregrinus qui peregrinatur in medio vestri.
30. For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the Lord. 30. In hac enim die expiabit vos ut emundet vos ab omnibus peccatis vestris, coram Jehova mundabimini.
31. It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever. 31. Sabbathum quietis est vobis, et affligetis animas vestras statuto perpetuo.
32. And the priest whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments. 32. Expiabit enim sacerdos quem unxerit ungens, et cujus consecraverit manum ad fungendum sacrificio pro patre suo, inductque se vestibus lineis, vestibus sanctis.
33. And he shall make an atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar; and he shall make an atonement for the priests, and for all the people of the congregation. 33. Et expiabit sanctuarium sanctitatis et tabernaculum conventionis, altare quoqne expiabit et sacerdotes, et cunctum populum congregationis expiabit.
34. And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel, for all their sins, once a year. And he did as the Lord commanded Moses. 34. Eritque hoe vobis in statutum perpetuum, ad emundandum filios Israel ab omnibus peccatis suis, semel quotannis. Et fecit Moses secundum quod praeceperat ei Jehova.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. A copious description is here given of what we have recently adverted to cursorily, as it were, i.e., the solemn atonement which was yearly made in the seventh month; for when Moses was instructing them as to what sacrifices were to be offered on each of the festivals, he expressly excepted, though only in a single word, this sacrifice, where he spoke of the day of atonement itself, on which they afflicted their souls. Now, therefore, a clear and distinct exposition of it is separately given. For although at other seasons of the year also both their public and private sins were expiated, and for this purpose availed the daily sacrifices, still this more solemn rite was meant to arouse the people's minds, that they might more earnestly apply themselves all the year through to the diligent seeking for pardon and remission. In order, then, that they might be more anxious to propitiate God, one atonement was performed at the end of the year which might ratify all the others. But, that they might more diligently observe what is commanded, Moses makes mention of the time in which the Law was given, viz., when Nadab and Abihu were put to death by God, after they had rashly defiled the altar by their negligence.
2. Speak unto Aaron. The sum of the law is, that the priest should not frequently enter the inner sanctuary, but only once a year, i.e., on the feast of the atonement, in the month of September. The cause of this was, lest a more frequent entrance of it should produce indifference; for if he had entered it promiscuously at every sacrifice, no small part of the reverence due to it would have been lost. The ordinary sprinkling of the altar was sufficient to testify the reconciliation; but this annual ceremony more greatly influenced the people's minds. Again, by this sacrifice, which they saw only once at the end of the year, the one and perpetual sacrifice offered by God's Son was more clearly represented. Therefore the Apostle elegantly alludes to this ceremony in the Epistle to the Hebrews, where it is said that by the annual entrance of the high priest the Holy Ghost signified,
"that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing,"
(<580908>Hebrews 9:8;)
and a little further on he adds, that after Christ the true Priest had come,
"he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us." (<580911>Hebrews 9:11, 12.)
Thus the year, in the ancient type, was a symbol of the one offering, so that believers might understand that the sacrifice, whereby God was to be propitiated, was not to be often repeated. That God may inspire greater fear, and preserve the priests from carelessness, He proclaims that His glory should appear in the cloud in that part of the sanctuary where was the mercy seat; for we know that the sign was given from hence to the Israelites, when the camp was to be moved, or when they were to remain stationary. But this testimony of God's presence should have justly moved the priests to greater care and attention; and hence we may now learn, that the closer God's majesty manifests itself, the more anxiously should we beware, lest through our thoughtlessness we should give any mark of contempt, but that we should testify our submission with becoming humility and modesty.
3. Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place. The rites and formality are now described; first, that Aaron should put on the holy garments, and wash his person; secondly, that he should offer a bullock and ram for a burnt-offering; thirdly, that he should take two goats from the people, one of which should be sent away alive, and the other slain in sacrifice. We have stated elsewhere why the priests were to be dressed in garments different from others, since he who is the mediator between God and men should be free from all impurity and stain; and since no mortal could truly supply this, a type was substituted in place of the reality, from whence believers might learn that another Mediator was to be expected; because the dignity of the sons of Aaron was only typical, and not true and substantial. For whenever the priest stripped himself of his own garments, and assumed those which were holy and separated from common use, it was equivalent to declaring openly that he represented another person. But if this symbol were not sufficient, the ablution again taught that none of the sons of Aaron was the genuine propitiator; for how could he purify others, who himself required purification, and made open confession of his uncleanness? A third symbol also was added; for he who by a sacrifice of his own atoned for himself and his house, how was he capable of meriting God's favor for others? Thus then the holy fathers were reminded, that under the image of a mortal man, another Mediator was promised, who, for the reconciliation of the human race, should present Himself before God with perfect and more than angelical purity. Besides, in the person of the priest there was exhibited to the people a spectacle of the corruption whereby the whole human race is defiled, so as to be abominable to God; for if the priest, both chosen by God, and graced with the sacred unction, was still unworthy on the score of his uncleanness to come near the altar, what dignity could be discoverable in the people? And hence to us now-a-days also very useful instruction is derived; viz., that when the question arises how God is to be propitiated, we are not to look this way and that way; since out of Christ there is no purity and innocence which can satisfy the justice of God.
7. And he shall take the two goats. A twofold mode of expiation is here presented to us; for one of the two goats was offered in sacrifice according to the provisions of the Law, the other was sent away to be an outcast, or offscouring (ka>qarma vel peri>yhma. f242) The fulfillment of both figures, however, was manifested in Christ, since He was both the Lamb of God, whose offering blotted out the sins of the world, and, that He might be as an offscouring, (ka>qarma,) His comeliness was destroyed, and He was rejected of men. A more subtle speculation might indeed be advanced, viz., that after the goat was presented, its sending away was a type of the resurrection of Christ; as if the slaying of the one goat testified that the satisfaction for sins was to be sought in the death of Christ; whilst the preservation and dismissal of the other shewed, that after Christ had been offered for sin, and had borne the curse of men, He still remained alive. I embrace, however, what is more simple and certain, and am satisfied with that; i.e., that the goat which departed alive and free, was an atonement, f243 that by its departure and flight the people might be assured that their sins were put away and vanished. This was the only expiatory sacrifice in the Law without blood; nor does this contradict the statement of the Apostle, for since two goats were offered together, it was enough that the death of one should take place, and that its blood should be shed for expiation; for the lot was not cast until both goats had been brought to the door of the tabernacle; and thus although the priest presented one of them alive "to make an atonement with him," as Moses expressly says, yet God was not propitiated without blood, since the efficacy of the expiation depended on the sacrifice of the other goat. As to the word Azazel, f244 although commentators differ, I doubt not but that it designates the place to which the scape-goat was driven. It is certainly a compound word, equivalent to "the departure of the goat," which the Greeks have translated, whether properly or not I cannot say, ajpopompai~on. I am afraid that the expiation is decidedly too subtle which some interpreters give, that the goat was so called as "the repeller of evils," just as the Gentiles f245 invented certain gods, called ajlexika>kouv. What I have said agrees best with the departure of the goat; although I differ from the Jews, who conceive that this place was contiguous to Mount Sinai; as if the lot for Azazel were not cast every year, when the people were very far away from Mount Sinai. Let it suffice, then, that some solitary and most uninhabitable spot was chosen whither the goat should be driven, lest the curse of God should rest upon the people.
12. And he shall take a censer full. Before he takes the blood into the sanctuary, (the priest) is commanded to offer incense. There was, as we have seen, an altar of incense, on which the priest burnt it, but without the veil; but now he is ordered to go within the veil, to make f246 an incense-offering in the very holy of holies. But it is worth noticing, that is said that the cloud of the incense should cover the mercy-seat — that the priest die not; for by this sign it was shewn how formidable is God's majesty, the sight of which is fatal even to the priest; that all might learn to tremble at it, and to prostrate themselves as suppliants before Him; and again, that all audacity and temerity might be repressed. But it is uncertain whether he killed together the bullock for himself and the goat for the people, or whether, after he had sprinkled the sanctuary with his own offering, he killed the goat separately. Moses indeed seems to mark this distinct order in the words he uses; for after having spoken of the first sprinkling, he immediately adds, "Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering:" but since the narrative of Moses is not always consecutive, and it is a matter of little importance, let the reader choose which he pleases.
16. And he shall make an atonement for the holy place. The cleansing of the sanctuary might seem absurd, as if it were in man's power to pollute what God Himself had consecrated; for we know that God remains true, although all' the world be unholy, and consequently that whatever God has appointed changes not its nature through the sins of men. Yet, if no contagion from men's sins had infected the tabernacle, this cleansing would have been superfluous. But although the sanctuary in itself may have contracted no defilement from the guilt of the people, still, in regard to the sin and guilt of the people themselves, it is justly accounted unclean. And thus sin is made more exceeding sinful, inasmuch as men, even though their intention be to serve God, profane His sacred name, if they do so carelessly or irreverently. It was at that time a detestable sacrilege in all to defile the altar and sanctuary of God; and Moses convicts the Israelites of this sacrilege when He commands the sanctuary to be cleansed. Moreover, let us learn that men may so contaminate the sacred things of God as that their nature should still remain unaltered and their dignity inviolate. Wherefore Moses expressly states that the sanctuary is cleansed not from its own uncleanness, but from that of the children of Israel. We must now apply the substance of this type to our own use. By Baptism and the Lord's Supper, God appears to us in his only-begotten Son: these are the pledges of our holiness; yet such is our corruption that we never cease from profaning, as far as in us lies, these instruments of the Spirit whereby God sanctifies us. Since, however, we have now no victims to kill, we must mourn and humbly pray that Christ, by the sprinkling of His blood, may blot out and cleanse these defilements of ours, by which Baptism and the Lord's Supper are polluted. The reason of the purification is also to be observed, viz., because the tabernacle "dwelleth among them in the midst of their uncleanness;" f247 by which words Moses signifies that men are so polluted and full of corruptions that they contaminate all that is holy without the intervention of a means of purification; for he takes it for granted that men cannot but bring some impurity with them. What he had said of the inner sanctuary he extends to the altar and the whole of the tabernacle.
17. And there shall be no man. The driving away of all men from approaching the tabernacle during the act of atonement is a sort of punishment by temporary banishment, that they may perceive themselves to be driven from God's face, whilst the place is purified which had been defiled by their sins. This was a melancholy sight, when all these for whose sake it was erected were obliged to desert it; but in this way they were reminded that every part and particle of our salvation depends on God's mercy only, when they saw themselves excluded from the remedy designed for obtaining pardon, unless a new pardon should come to their aid, since they had fallen away from the hope of reconciliation.
20. And when he hath made an end of reconciling. The mode of expiation with the other goat is now more clearly explained, viz., that it should be placed before God, and that the priest should lay his hands on its head, and confess the sins of the people, so that he may throw the curse on the goat itself. This, as I have said, was the only bloodless (ajnai>maton) sacrifice; yet it is expressly called an "offering," f248 with reference, however, to the slaying of the former goat, and was, therefore, as to its efficacy for propitiation, by no means to be separated from it. It was by no means reasonable that an innocent animal should be substituted in the place of men, to be exposed to the curse of God, except that believers might learn that they were in no wise competent to bear His judgment, nor could be delivered from it otherwise than by the transfer of their guilt and crime. For, since men feel that they are altogether overwhelmed by the wrath of God, which impends over them all, they vainly endeavor to lighten or shake off in various ways this intolerable burden; for no absolution is to be hoped for save by the interposition of a satisfaction; and it is not lawful to obtrude this according to man's fancy, or, in their foolish arrogance, to seek in themselves for the price whereby their sins may be compensated for. Another means, therefore, of making atonement to God was revealed when Christ, "being made a curse for us," transferred to Himself the sins which alienated men from God. (<470519>2 Corinthians 5:19; <480313>Galatians 3:13.) The confession tended to humiliate the people, and thus acted as a stimulus to sincere repentance; since "the sacrifices of God are a broken spirit," (<195117>Psalm 51:17;) nor is it fit that any but the prostrate should be lifted up by God's mercy, nor that any but those who voluntarily condemn themselves should be absolved. The accumulation of words tends to this, "all the iniquities, all their transgressions, all their sins," that believers may not lightly only and as, a mere act of duty acknowledge themselves guilty before God, but rather that they should groan under the weight, of their guilt. Since now in Christ no special day in the year is prescribed in which the Church should confess its sins in a solemn ceremony, let believers learn, whenever they meet together in God's name, humbly to submit themselves to voluntary self-condemnation, and to pray for pardon, as if the Spirit of God dictated a formulary for them; and so let each in private: conform himself to this rule.
26. And he that let the goat go. Since this goat was the outcast (ka>qapma) of God's wrath, and devoted to His curse, he who led it away is commanded to wash his person and his clothes, as if he were a partaker in its defilement. By this symbol the faithful were reminded how very detestable is their iniquity, so that they might, be affected with increasing dread, whenever they considered what they deserved. For when they saw a man forbidden to enter the camp because he was polluted by simply touching the goat, they must needs reflect how much wider was the alienation between God and themselves, when they bore upon them an uncleanness not contracted elsewhere, but procured by their own sin. The same may be said of him who burned the skin, the flesh, and the dung of the bullock and the goat. We have elsewhere seen that these remnants were carried out of the camp in token of abomination. And on this head Christ's inestimable love towards us shines more brightly, who did not disdain to go out of the city that He might be made an outcast (rejectamentum) for us, and might undergo the curse due to us.
29. And this shall be a statute for ever. This day of public atonement is now finally mentioned in express terms, and the affliction of souls, of which fuller notice is taken in chap. 23, is touched upon, that they may more diligently exercise themselves in more serious penitential meditations, nor doubt that they are truly purged before God; and yet in a sacramental manner, viz., that the external ceremony might be a most unmistakable sign of that atonement, whereby, in the fullness of time, they were to be reconciled to God. Wherefore Moses states at some length that this was to be the peculiar office of the priest; and by this eulogy exalts the grace of the coming Mediator, so that He may direct the minds of believers to Him alone.
Leviticus 1
Leviticus 1:1-17
1. And the Lord called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying, 1. Vocavit autem Mosen, et loquutus est Jehova cum eo e tabernaculo conventionis, dicendo:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock. 2. Loquere ad filios Israel, et dic illis, Homo quum offeret ex vobis oblationem Jehovae: ex animalibus, ex bobus, et ex pecudibus offeretis oblationem.
3. If his offering be a burnt-sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord. 3. Si holocaustum oblatio ejus fuerit ex bobus, masculum immaculatum offeret: ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis offeret eum pro animi proposito in conspectu Jehovae.
4. And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him, to make atonement for him. 4. Et admovebit manum suam super caput holocausti: et accepturm erit pro ipso ad eum expiandum.
5. And he shall kill the bullock before the Lord; and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 5. Mactabit autem juveneum in conspectu Jehovae, et offerent filii Aharon sacerdotes sanguinem, ae spargent illum in circiutu super altare quod erit ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
6. And be shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into his pieces. 6. Et excoriabit holocaustum, concidetque in frusta sua.
7. And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire. 7. Ponentque filii Aharon sacerdotis ignem super altare, et disponent ligna super ignem.
8. And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar. 8. Posthaec disponent filii Aharon sacerdotes frusta, caput, et adipem, super ligna superimposita igni qui est super altare.
9. But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water: and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt-sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 9. Intestina autem ejus et crura lavabit aqua, et adolebit sacerdos omnia super altare: holocaustum est oblatio ignita odoris quietis Jehovae.
10. And if his offering be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-sacrifice; he shall bring it a male without blemish. 10. Quod si de pecudibus fuerit oblatio ejus, de ovibus, vel de capris in holocaustum, masculum immaculatum offeret eum:
11. And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the Lord: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar. 11. Mactabitque illud ad latus altaris ad aquilonem in conspectu Jehovae: spargentque filii Aharon sacerdotes sanguinem ejus super altare in circiutu.
12. And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat; and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar. 12. Et concidet eum in frusta sun, et caput ejus, et adipem ejus: ordinabitque ea sacerdos super ligna superposita igni qui est super altare.
13. But he shall wash the inwards and the legs with water; and the priests shall bring it all, and burn it upon the altar: it is a burnt-sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 13. Et intestina et crura lavabit aqua, efferetque sacerdos onmia, adolebitque super altare: holocaustum est, oblatio ignita odoris quietis Jehovae.
14. And if the burnt-sacrifice for his offering to the Lord be of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons. 14. Si autem de avibus fuerit holocaustum, oblatio ipsius Jehovae, tum offeret de turturibus aut de columbis oblationem suam.
15. And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar. 15. Et offeret illam sacerdos super altare, et ungue secabit caput ipsius: et adolebit super altare, exprimeturque sanguis ejus super parietem altaris.
16. And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar, on the east part, by the place of the ashes. 16. Et removebit vesiculam ejus cum pluma ipsius: projicietque illam prope altare ad orientem ad locum cineris.
17. And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire: it is a burnt-sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 17. Et findet illam cum alis suis, neque dividet, adolebitque eam sacerdos super altare, super ligna qum fuerint super igne: holocaustum est oblatio ignita odoris quietis Jehovae.

1. And the Lord called unto Moses. In these seven chapters Moses will treat generally of the sacrifices. But since we read of many things here, the use of which has passed away, and others, the grounds of which I do not understand, I intend to content myself with a brief summary, from whence, however, the reader may fully perceive that whatever has been left to us relative to the legal sacrifices is even now profitable, provided we are not too curious. Let those who choose to hunt for allegories receive the praise they covet; my object is only to profit my readers, and it will suffice briefly to sum up what I think useful to be known. Although in this chapter burnt-offerings only are treated of, yet the rule which is laid down respecting them has a more extensive application, since Moses teaches what animals God would have offered to Him, so as that they may be acceptable, and also by whom and with what ceremonies they are to be offered. He enumerates three kinds, of the herd, of the flocks, and of fowls; for the case of the red heifer, from which the ashes of atonement were made, was different and peculiar; and here the question is as to the ordinary sacrifices, by which private individuals used either to atone for their sins or to testify their piety. He commands, therefore, that the cattle as well as the lambs and kids should be males, and also perfect and free from all blemish. We see, then, that only clean animals were chosen for the sacrifices, and again that all clean animals did not please God, but only domestic ones, such as allow themselves to be directed by the hand and will of men. For, though deer and roes are sometimes tamed, yet God did not admit them to His altar. This, then, was the first rule of obedience, that men should not offer promiscuously this or that victim, but bulls or bull-calves of their herds, and male lambs or kids of their flocks. Freedom from blemish is required for two reasons; for, since the sacrifices were types of Christ, it behooved that in all of them should be represented that complete perfection of His whereby His heavenly Father was to be propitiated; and, secondly, the Israelites were reminded that all uncleanness was repudiated by God lest his service should be polluted by their impurity. But whilst God exhorted them to study true sincerity, so he abundantly taught them that unless they directed their faith to Christ, whatsoever came from them would be rejected; for neither would the purity of a brute animal have satisfied Him if it had not represented something better. In the second place, it is prescribed that whosoever presented a burnt-offering should lay his hand on its head, after he had come near the door of the tabernacle. This ceremony was not only a sign of consecration, but also of its being an atonement, f249 since it was substituted for the man, as is expressed in the words of Moses, "And it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." (Ver. 4.) There is not, then, the least doubt but that they transferred their guilt and whatever penalties they had deserved to the victims, in order that they might be reconciled to God. Now, since this promise could not have been at all delusive, it must be concluded that in the ancient sacrifices there was a price of satisfaction which should release them from guilt and blame in the judgment of God; yet still not as though these brute animals availed in themselves unto expiation, except in so far as they were testimonies of the grace to be manifested by Christ. Thus the ancients were reconciled to God in a sacramental manner by the victims, just as we are now cleansed through baptism. Hence it follows that these symbols were useful only as they were exercises unto faith and repentance, so that the sinner might learn to fear God's wrath, and to seek pardon in Christ.
5. And he shall kill the bullock. The ceremony of killing is subjoined, viz., that the priest should prepare the victim itself, and pour its blood upon the altar, for it was not allowable for a private person to kill the victim with his own hands, but what the priest did in their name was transferred to them. f250 But this is worth remarking, that although they brought the pledge of reconciliation from their home, yet that the ministers of expiation were to be sought elsewhere, since no one was competent for so illustrious an office, save he who was graced by the holy unction of God. It was, therefore, plainly manifested that all mortals are unworthy of coming near God to propitiate Him, and that the hands of all are in a manner polluted or profane except those which God himself has purged. For the honor of sacrificing came from nowhere else but from the grace of the Spirit, of which the external anointing was a pledge. We now understand how it was that individuals offered sacrifices to God, and yet that the priest alone performed this office. The altar was sprinkled with the blood, that the people might know that the blood poured from the victim did not fall on the ground, but was consecrated to God, and breathed, as it were, a sweet savor; just as now the blood of Christ appears before His face. I pass by the rest, since it does not seem worth while to enlarge on the third kind of offering, i.e., of the birds. Yet we must recollect that thus far Moses only speaks of the burnt-offerings, whose flesh was burned; for this was not the case with all, as we shall see hereafter. Although, then, it is twice said that "the priests shall lay the parts, the head and the fat," etc., we must not understand it as if he only commanded the fat and the head to be burned, but that nothing was to be left the skin. Some think that rdp pheder, f251 is a dissevered head, nor do I reject their opinion, provided we do not exclude the fat. Whatever was filthy in the victim, God would have to be washed, that it might not contaminate it. The question now arises why it was burned either wholly or partially. My own opinion is, that by the fire the efficacy of the Spirit is represented, on which all the profit of the sacrifices depends; for unless Christ had suffered in the Spirit, He would not have been a propitiatory sacrifice. Fire, then, was as the condiment which gave their true savor to the sacrifices, because the blood of Christ was to be consecrated by the Spirit, that it might cleanse us from all the stains of our sins. This God would have more fully represented in the burnt-offerings, yet no victim was offered of which some part was not consumed by fire.
Leviticus 2
Leviticus 2:1-16
1. And when any will offer a meat-offering unto the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon. 1. Anima quum offeret oblationem minha Jehovae, simila erit oblatio ejus: fundetque super eam oleum, ac thus superimponet.
2. And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests: and he shall take thereout his handful of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 2. Afferet autem eam ad filios Aharon sacerdotes, et accipiet inde plenum pugillum de simila ejus, et de oleo ipsius supra totum thus ipsius, adolebitque sacerdos odorem ejus super altare: oblatio ignita est odoris quietis Jehovae.
3. And the remnant of the meat-offering shall be Aaron's and his sons: it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire. 3. Et residuum e minha, ipsius Aharon erit et filiorum ejus, sanctum sanctorum est ex oblationibus ignitis Jehovae.
4. And if thou bring an oblation of a meat-offering baken in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. 4. Quinn vero obtuleris oblationem minha, coctionem clibani, sit e simila placentae infermentatae mixtae oleo, et lagana ex infermentatis mixta oleo.
5. And if thy oblation be a meat-offering baken in a pan, it shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil. 5. Si minha sartaginis erit oblatio tua, sit simila conspersa oleo infermentata.
6. Thou shalt part it in pieces, and pour oil thereon: it is a meat-offering. 6. Concides eam in frusta, et fundes super cam oleum: minha est.
7. And if thy oblation be a meat-offering baken in the frying-pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil. 7. Quod si minha craticulm erit oblatio tua, simila sit oleo conspersa.
8. And thou shalt bring the meat-offering that is made of these things unto the Lord: and when it is presented unto the priest, he shall bring it unto the altar. 8. Afferesque minham ex illis factam Jehovae: et offeres illam sacerdoti qui admovebit eam altari.
9. And the priest shall take from the meat-offering amemorial thereof, and shall burn it upon the altar: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 9. Tolletque sacerdos de minha odorem ejus, et adolebit super altare: oblatio est ignita odoris quietis Jehovae.
10. And that which is left of the meat-offering shall be Aaron's and his sons: it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire. 10. Et quod superfuerit e minha erit Aharon et filiorum ejus, sanctum sanctorum est ex oblationibus ignitis Jehovae.
11.: No meat-offering, which ye shall bring unto the Lord, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the Lord made by fire. 11. Omnis minha quam offeretis Jehovae non fiet fermentata: quia de nullo fermento, et de nullo melle adolebis oblationem ignitam Jehovae.
12. As for the oblation of the first-fruits, ye shall offer them unto the Lord; but they shall not be burnt on the altar for a sweet savor. 12. In oblatione primitiarum offeretis ea Jehovae: et super altare non ascendent in odorem quietis.
13. And everv oblation of thy meat-offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat-offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt. 13. Et omnem oblationem minhae tuae sale salies, neque cessare facies sal foederis Dei tui a minha tua: in omni oblatione tua offeres sal.
14. And if thou offer a meat-offering of thy first-fruits unto the Lord, thou shalt offer, for the meat-offering of thy first-fruits, green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears. 14. Si vero obtuleris minham primitiarum Jehovae, spicam tostam igni, triticum contusum spicae plenae offeres minham primitiarum tuarum.
15. And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it is a meat-offering. 15. Et pones super eam oleum, pones item thus super eam: minha est.
16. And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the beaten corn thereof, and part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: it is an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 16. Et adolebit sacerdos odorem ejus, de frumento ejus contuso et de oleo ejus ultra totum thus ipsius: oblatio est ignita Jehovah.

1. And when any will offer. In this chapter Moses prescribes the rules for those offerings to which the name of minha is peculiarly given. They were not bloody sacrifices, nor offerings of animals, but only of cakes and oil. If any one would offer plain flour, he is commanded to season it with frankincense and oil, and also to choose fine flour, that the oblation may not be defiled by the bran. Thus here, as in all the service of God, the rule is laid down that nothing but what is pure should be offered; besides, by the oil its savor is improved, and by the frankincense a fragrant odor is imparted to it. We know that God is not attracted either by sweetness of taste nor by pleasant scents; but it was useful to teach a rude people by these symbols, lest they should corrupt God's service by their own foolish inventions. Moses afterwards commands, that whatever is consecrated to God should be delivered into the hand of the priest, as we have before seen that private persons were excluded from this honor so that Christ's peculiar dignity should remain to Him, i.e., that by Him alone access should be sought to God, and that all men might know that no worship pleases God except what He sanctifies. The substance of this type is shewn by the words of the Apostle, when he says that "by him" we now "offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to His name." (<581315>Hebrews 13:15.) But when the priest had burnt a handful of the flour with the oil and frankincense, what remained was left for his own use; for, as we have elsewhere seen, the holy of holies of the burnt-offerings were given to the priests. Other kinds are then spoken of, viz., cakes, baken in the oven; then such as were fried in a pan; and thirdly, on a gridiron: for God would have the minha offered Him of every kind of cake, so that the Israelites might learn to look to Him in all their food, since nothing is clean to us except what He consecrates by His blessing. This is the reason why Moses accurately distinguishes between the cakes which were cooked either in the oven, or the frying-pan, or on the gridiron.
11. No meat-offering, which ye shall bring. God here forbids leavened cakes to be offered to Him, by which rite the ancients were taught that God's service is corrupted if any strange invention be mingled with it. Nor can it be doubted but that. Christ alluded to this when He warned His disciples to "beware of the leaven of the Pharisees," (<401611>Matthew 16:11;) understanding by that word the fictions whereby they had corrupted religion. The eating of leaven was forbidden in the Passover for another reason, viz., that they might remember their sudden departure, or rather flight, in which there had been no time to prepare provisions for their journey. Although Paul extends it even further, viz., that believers should abstain from all "leaven of malice and wickedness." (<460508>1 Corinthians 5:8.) It is clear, however, that in this general rule all adventitious corruptions are condemned, whereby pure religion is polluted, as if it were said that no offerings would be approved by God except such as were genuine and free from all strange savor. With reference to the honey, the ground of its use is more obscure, for I know not whether there is much dependence to be placed on the subtle disquisitions of some respecting its nature. f252 But although I scarcely dare to make any assertion as to this, still I pass by conceits, and advance what seems to me more probable. Cooked honey immediately becomes sour, and causes the bread with which it is mixed to ferment; these two things, therefore, seem to be combined, that neither honey nor leaven should be offered in the fire. As to what Moses adds just afterwards, "Ye shall offer them among the first-fruits," I know not whether it applies to the leaven, as some think; assuredly the exception seems to be more simple, that the first-fruits of honey would indeed be acceptable to God, provided it did not corrupt the offerings of the altar. But no doubt the ancients understood the meaning of this precept, else it would have been useless, and thus knew that nothing was legitimate in the sacrifices except what God appointed. But let us, since the use of the ceremony is abolished, learn not to intrude our own imaginations or inventions in God's service, but to follow obediently the rule which he prescribes.
13. And every oblation of thy meat-offering. The reason for salting the victims was very similar, viz., that God's service might not be without savor; but the true seasoning which gives grace to sacrifices is found nowhere except in God's word. Hence it follows that all modes of worship fabricated by men are rejected as unsavory. For although they who profane God's worship by superstitions think themselves very acute, yet all that most approves itself to them under the cloak of wisdom is mere fatuity. Nevertheless, Christ deduces an exhortation from this ceremony, viz., that believers, if they desire to please God, should patiently endure to be refined and purified. "Every one," He says,
"shall be salted with fire,
and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt." (<410949>Mark 9:49.)
In which words He signifies that, when we are searched and tried by fire, we shall be acceptable sacrifices to God, and that this is the seasoning of salt when our flesh with its affections shall have been well macerated. Meanwhile, let us firmly hold to this, that our service of God is not what it should be without, the savor which is to be sought in the word; since in all the brains of men not one particle of salt is to be found. I pass by other more subtle allegories, in which I see no other use than to gratify curious ears. "The salt of the covenant" is used in a different sense from "the covenant of salt," viz., as the salt which is employed in the sacrifice according to the inviolable compact of God. Hence, too, is confirmed what I have said before, that the keeping of God's covenant always occupies the first place in this service.
14. And if thou offer a meat-offering. This offering is different from that of the first-fruits, since it was voluntary, whereas the first-fruits were paid in obedience to the enactment of the Law. But if any one chose to add anything to the first-fruits of his new corn, Moses lays down the rule, that the ears should be dried in the fire, so that they might be more easily pounded, and so might be burnt mixed with oil and frankincense; for so I interpret his words, that he means the same thing by "ears of corn dried by the fire," and "corn beaten out of full ears." He requires full ears, that the people may select them, and not offer anything poor or stunted.
Leviticus 3
Leviticus 3:1-17
1. And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace-offering, if he offer it of the herd; whether it be a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the Lord. 1. Quod si sacrificium prosperitatum fuerit oblatio ejus, si de bobus ipse offeret, sire masculum, sive foeminam offerat, immaculatum offeret eum in conspectu Jehovae.
2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. 2. Et imponet manum suam super caput oblationis suae, et immolabit eum ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis: fundentque filii Aharon sacerdotes sanguinem super altare per circuitum.
3. And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace-offering an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 3. Postea offeret de sacrificio prosperitatum oblationem ignitam Jehovae, adipem operientem intestina, et omnem adipem qui est super ilia.
4. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. 4. Et duos renes, adipemque qui est super ipsos, qui est super ilia, et fibram cum jecore, cum renibus removebit.
5. And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the burnt-sacrifice, which is upon the wood that is on the fire: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lbrd. 5. Adolebunt autem omne illud filii Aharon super altare, una cum holocausto quod erit super ligna superposita igni: oblatio ignita est odoris quietis Jehovae.
6. And if his offering, for a sacrifice of peace-offering unto the Lord, be of the flock, male or female; he shall offer it without blemish. 6. Quod si de pecudibus fuerit oblatio ejus, in sacrificium prosperitatum Jehovae, masculum aut foeminam immaculatum offeret eum:
7. If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer it before the Lord. 7. Si vero agnum offerat oblationem suam, tum offeret illum in conspectu Jehovae:
8. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon the altar. 8. Imponentque manum suam super caput oblationis sum, postea mactabit eum in conspectu tabernaculi conventionis: spargent filii Aharon sanguinem ejus, super altare per circuitum.
9. And he shall offer, of the sacrifice of the peace-offering, an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take offhardby the back bone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 9. Et offeret de sacrificio prosperitatum oblationem ignitam Jehovae, adipem ejus, caudam integrare, e regione spinae dorsi removebit eam, adipem quoque operientem intestina, atque omnem adipem qui est super ilia.
10. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it. shall he take away. 10. Et duos renes: et adipem qui est super illos, et qui est super ilia, et fibram qum est super jecur, cum renibus removebit.
11. And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the Lord. 11. Adolebitque illud sacerdos super altare, cibus oblationis ignitm est jehovae.
12. Si vero capra fuerit oblatio ejus, tum offeret eam in conspectu Jehovae. 12. And if his offering be a goat, then he shall offer it before the Lord.
13. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle the blood thereof upon the altar round about. 13. Ponetque manum snare super caput ejus, et maetabit eam coram tabernaculo conventionis, et spargent filii Aharon sanguinem ejus super altare per circuitum.
14. And he shall offer thereof his offering, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 14. Postea offeret ex ea oblationem suam, oblationem ignitam Jehovae, adipem operientem intestina: et omnem adipem qui est super ilia.
15. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. 15. Et duos renes, et adipem qui est super illos: et qui est super ilia, et fibram qum est super jecur: eum renibus removebit.
16. And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savor. All the fat is the Lord's. 16. Adolebitque eam sacerdos super altare, eibus oblationis ignitm est odoris quietis: et omnis adeps Jehovae est.
17. It shall be aperpetual statute for your generations, throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood. 17. Statutum perpetuum in generationibus vestris, in cunetis habitaculis vestris: omnem adipem et omnem sanguinem non comedetis.

1. And if his oblation be a sacrifice. He now proceeds to a different class, viz., to the sacrifices, which were testimonies of gratitude in celebration of God's blessings; part of which was burnt with fire, part was claimed by the priests, and the rest remained to the offerers themselves. As to the word µymlç, shelomim, I have briefly given my opinion elsewhere; f253 the common translation of it is certainly unsuitable, "the sacrifices of peace-offerings:" and the statement of others is far-fetched, that they are called "sacrifices of perfections," because it was unlawful for the unclean to touch them. Since, however, the Hebrews include in the word "peace," safety, and all good success, I have thought that its plural number might aptly be translated "prosperities:" on which account, David calls the libation which used to be made in this sacrifice, "the cup of salvations:" (<19B613>Psalm 116:13,) nor do I doubt but that by this outward sign he designates thanksgiving. I admit indeed that this sacrifice was not only offered in acknowledgment of gratitude, but also when they sought of God peace and good success; yet still the epithet will always admirably suit it, because they confessed by it that God was the author of all good things, so as to attribute all their prosperity to Him. First, however, he commands all the sacrifices to be brought to the tabernacle, which is what he means by "the face of God;" f254 else would altars have been everywhere erected in their cities and villages, and by this license God's service would have been mangled, and religion undermined. Wherefore, in order to keep the people in the unity of the faith, he bids them all be content with a single altar. But He would be worshipped and honored in that place, which He had dedicated to Himself, lest they should be scattered abroad after strange gods; and then He prescribes the mode of offering, whether the victim were of the herd or the flock. That such exact injunctions should be given as to trifles, might seem to be an unnecessary particularity, and even a superfluous repetition, inasmuch as the same thing is often inculcated, in precisely similar words: if it were not that this earnestness reminded the people that something higher was enwrapped in the ceremonies, whilst it restrained them from allowing themselves wantonly to add or change the smallest point. This very scrupulous observance, then, ought to have led them by the hand, as it were, to the things signified; so that under the external image the spiritual truth might meet their eyes; secondly, it ought to have held them bound, as it were, to the word of God, lest they should do anything in sacred matters from the dictates of their own reason. But now, since the use of sacrifices has ceased, we are first taught that God's blessings are profaned, unless we diligently exercise ourselves in manifesting our religion, as His infinite and constant liberality towards us deserves; secondly, that unless our devotion is unmixed and paid to Him alone, we impiously defraud Him of His right; thirdly, that as we pray in Christ's name, so our vows are to be paid, and our thanksgivings to be rendered, through His hand; and fourthly, that God's loving-kindness is not to be celebrated in a negligent or perfunctory manner, but that we must labor to do so, as in a matter of the utmost importance, with no common zeal and attention.
16. And the priest shall burn them. He justly assigns to the priest the main duties of sacrificing, i.e., to sprinkle the blood, and to cast the fat into the fire, since he alone was competent to make atonement. Moreover, although there is a harsh metaphor contained in the word "food," yet it admirably expresses what the Holy Spirit would teach, that the legal service pleased God, just as the food which we eat is pleasing to us; whilst it at the same time marks God's familiar communion with His people, as if He sat at the same table with them. It is indeed sure that God, who breathes life into all, and borrows nothing from any, does not want food; but His incomparable kindness could not be better shewn forth, than by deigning to make Himself, as it were, the messmate of His worshippers. In the same figure of speech the ingratitude of the people is reproved by Malachi, when he says,
"The table of the Lord is polluted, and the fruit thereof, even his meat, is contemptible," (<390112>Malachi 1:12;)
not because God delighted in the fat of fed beasts, or in bread; but because it was a gross and intolerable act of impiety to neglect this extraordinary pledge of His grace. This similitude, however, ought to be referred to the truth it represents, viz., that the exercise of faith, and the proofs of our piety, are no less pleasing to God than as if He should be feasted delicately and sumptuously; wherefore we ought to take the greater care not to defraud Him of the things He takes delight in. It is not very clear to me why God claims for Himself the fat in all the sacrifices, and commands it to be burnt, unless that in this way He might accustom His servants to temperance. We have already seen that the fat is certainly accounted the most delicate part, where Moses applies this word to corn and wine; and this also is plain from <196305>Psalm 63:5, "My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness." And when God declares (<230111>Isaiah 1:11,) that He does not desire "the fat," He signifies that He does not require for His own sake the choicest part of animals, but that the Israelites might remember that they should partake soberly of all their food, as if they had consecrated the best and first-fruits of it. If any one desire a more distinct exposition of this, the offering of the fat taught them to pay more honor to the service of God; and secondly, it instructed them in abstinence. The allegories, suited only to tickle men's ears, must be sought from others. f255 Isychius, after having pretended that the fat represented spiritual affections, soon afterwards metamorphoses it into gross appetites. Others suppose that Christ was designed by it. Others understand by it that the grossness or fatness of our flesh must be refined by the fire of the Spirit, that it may be mortified unto God. This simple meaning satisfies me, that, when the Law permitted them to eat the sacred meats, an exception was added, which left the best portion in God's hands; secondly, that the part which might have been most attractive to the greedy, was consumed in the fire as a restraint upon their gluttony. The eating of blood is here prohibited, as also elsewhere, because it was consecrated to God in order to make expiation; but there was another and higher reason why it was forbidden, of which mention was made in Genesis 9, and which must be again handled in our exposition of the Sixth Commandment.
Leviticus 4
leviticus 4:1-35
1. And the Lord spakeunto Moses, saying, 1. Alloquutus est praeterea Jehova Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the Lord, concerning things which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them: 2. Loquere ad filius Israel, dicendo, Anima quum peccaverit per errorem ab omnibus praeceptis Jehovae qusa non sunt facienda, feceritque quidpiam de uno ex illis:
3. If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people; then let him bring, for his sin which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the Lord for a sin-offering. 3. Si sacerdos unctus peccaverit secundum delictum populi, offeret sacrificium pro peccato suo quod peccavit, juvencum vitulum immaculatum Jehovae pro peccato.
4. And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord; and shall lay his hand upon the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before the Lord. 4. Adducetque juvencum ilum ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis in conspectu Jehovae, et admovebit manum suare super caput juvenci, mactabitque juvencum in conspectu Jehovah.
5. And the priest that is anointed shall take of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation. 5. Accipietque sacerdos unctus de sanguine juvenci, et inferet eum in tabernaculum conventionis.
6. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the vail of the sanctuary. 6. Dein sacerdos tinget digitum suum in sanguine, aspergetque de sanguine illo septem vicibus coram Jehova:
7. And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the Lord, which is in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 7. Ponetque sacerdos de sanguine isto super cornua altaris suffimenti aromataci coram Jehova, quod est in tabernaculo conventionis: totum autem sanguinem reliquum juvenci effundet ad basin altaris holocausti quod est ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
8. And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin-offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 8. Totum praeterea adipem juvenci oblati pro peccato tollet ab eo: nempe adipem operientem intestina, et totum adipem qui est super ca.
9. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away, 9. Duos quoque renes, et adipem qui est super eos, et qui est super ilia, et fibram quae est super jecur, cum renibus auferet:
10. As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt-offering. 10. Quemadmodum tollitur a bove sacrificii prosperitatum: adolebitque ea sacerdos super altare holocausti.
11. And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung, 11. Pellem praeterea juvenci, et omnem carnem ejus, cum capite ejus, et cruribus, et intestina ejus, et timum ejus.
12. Even the whole bullock shall carry forth without the camp unto clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt. 12. Educetque totum juveneum extra castra ad locum mundum, ad locum ubi effundetur cinis: et comburet eum super ligna igni: in loco inquam ubi effunditur cinis, comburetur.
13. And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done somewhat against any of the commandments of the Lord, concerning things which should not be done, and are guilty; 13. Quod si tota synagoga Israel erraverit, et latuerit res in oculis congregationis, et fecerit unum ab omnibus praeceptis Jehovae qum non sunt facienda, et deliquerit:
14. When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernale of the congregation. 14. Notum autem fuerit peccatum quod peceaverunt: tune offeret congregatio juvencum filium bovis in sacrificium pro peccato, adducetque ilium ante tabernaculum conventionis,
15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the Lord; and the bullock shall be killed before lhe Lord. 15. Ponentque seniores synagogae marius suas super caput juvenci coram Jehova: tune mactabit juvencum coram Jehova.
16. And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation. 16. Inferetque sacerdos unctus de sanguine juvenci in tabernaculum conventionis.
17. And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, even before the vail. 17. Et intinget sacerdos digitum suum in ipso sanguine, aspergetque septem vicibus coram Jehova ante velum.
18. And he shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the Lord, that is in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 18. De sanguine quoque illo ponet super cornua altaris, quod est coram Jehova, quod est inquam in tabernaculo conventionis, posthaec totum sanguinem reliquum effundet ad basin altaris holocausti quod est ad ostium tabernaculi conventionis.
19. And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn it upon the altar. 19. Totum autem adipem ejus tollet ab eo, et adolebit super altare.
20. And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin-offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them. 20. Juvenco vero faciet quemadmodum fecit juvenco oblato pro peccato, sic faciet ei: atque expiabit eos sacerdos, et remittetur eis.
21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it is a sin-offering for the congregation. 21. Deinde juvencum educet extra castra, et comburet eum quemadmodum combussit juvencum priorem: oblatio pro peccato congregationis est.
22. When a ruler hath sinned, and done somewhat through ignorance against any of the commandments of the Lord his God, concerning things which should not be done, and is guilty; 22. Si princeps peccaverit, feceritque unum ab omnibus praeceptis Jehovae Dei sui quae non sunt facienda, et id fecerit per errorem, et deliquerit:
23. Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish. 23. Si innotuerit ei peccatum suum quod peccavit: tunc offeret oblationem suam hircum caprarum masculum immaculatum.
24. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the Lord: it is a sin-offering. 24. Ponetque manum suam super caput hirci, et mactabit eum in loco in quo mactari solet holocaustum coram Jehova: oblatio pro peccato est.
25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt-offering. 25. Tolletque sacerdos de sanguine oblationis pro peccato digito suo, et ponet super corrina altaris holocausti: reliquum autem sanguinem ejus effundet ad basin altaris holocausti.
26. And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him. 26. Totum vero adipem ejus adolebit super altare, sicut adipem sacrificii prosperitatum: et ita expiabit ilium sacerdos a peccato ejus, et remittetur ei.
27. And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the commandments of the Lord, concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty; 27. Quod si anima aliqua peccaverit per errorem de populo terrae, faciendo unum a praeceptis Jehova quae non sunt facienda, et deliquerit:
28. Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned. 28. Si innotuerit ei peccatum suum quod peccavit: afferet oblationem suam capellam caprarum immaculatam foeminam pro peccato suo quod peccavit.
29. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and slay the sin-offering in the place of the burnt-offering. 29. Admovebitque manum suam super caput oblationis pro peccato, et mactabit oblationem illam pro peccato in loco holocausti.
30. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar. 30. Dein tollet sacerdos de sanguine ejus digito suo, ponetque super cornua altaris holocausti: totum vero reliquum sanguinem ejus effundet ad basin altaris.
31. And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savor unto the Lord; and the priest shalt make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him. 31. Totum praeterea adipem ejus auferet, quemadmodum ablatus fuit adeps a sacrificio prosperitatum: adolebitque sacerdos super altare in odorem quietis Jehovae: atque ita expiabit eum sacerdos, et remittetur ei.
32. And if he bring a lamb for a sin-offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish. 32. Quod si pecudem obtulerit oblationem suam pro peccato, foeminam immaculatam afferet.
33. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and slay it for a sin-offering in the place where they kilt the burnt-offering. 33. Ponetque manum suam super caput illius oblationis pro peccato, et mactabit illam pro sacrificio peccati, in loco in quo mactare solet holocaustum.
34. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar. 34. Deinde accipiet sacerdos de sanguine oblationis pro peccato digito suo, ponetque super cornua altaris holocausti: totum vero reliquum sangninem ejus effundet ad basin altaris.
35. And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace-offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him. 35. Totum praeterea adipem qius auferet, quemadmodum auferri solet adeps agni a sacrificio prosperitatum: adolebitque illa sacerdos super altare in oblationem ignitam Jehovae: atque expiabit eum sacerdos a peccato suo quod peccavit, et remittetur el.

After Moses had treated of the offerings and other sacrifices, which were testimonies of gratitude and exercises of piety, he now descends to the sin-offering (expiationem) which held the chief place amongst the sacrifices, inasmuch as, without reconciliation, there could never be any intercourse between men and God; for since He deservedly abominates the whole human race on account of the corruption of our nature, and because we all continually provoke His wrath, the whole hope of salvation must needs be founded on the remedies provided for propitiating Him. This principle, being established, we must remember that Moses will henceforth speak of the expiatory sacrifices which propitiate God to men by the removal of their guilt. He here shews how God is to be appeased, where a man shall have sinned through ignorance or inconsiderateness; wherein too a distinction is laid down between different persons, since one kind of victim is required of a king, another of the priests, and another of ordinary persons; whilst regard is had to the poor, that they may not be burdened by so great an expense as the rich. But, since it will appear from the context that all kinds of ignorance are not here included, we must see what the word hggç, shegagah, f256 means, which I have preferred rendering error rather than ignorance; for Moses does not refer to those transgressions into which we are ensnared, when we are led astray by the appearance of rectitude, so as to think ourselves without blame; but to those of which we take no heed, and whereby our minds are not pricked; or to those sudden falls, wherein the infirmity of the flesh so stifles the reason and the judgment as to blind the sinner. It is of such that Paul speaks when he bids us
"restore in the spirit of meekness those who
are overtaken in a fault," (<480601>Galatians 6:1;)
for he does not mean those who are deceived by their good intentions (as they call it,) or rather by their foolish opinion, so as to be unconscious of their sin; but those who fall through the infirmity of their flesh, and whom Satan catches unawares in his snares; or who, at any rate, do not perceive the evil they have done, so as immediately to apply the remedy. This will be more clearly understood from <191912>Psalm 19:12, 13, where David, having asked pardon for his errors, seeks to be kept free from presumptuous sins. f257 The antithesis between twaygç, shegioth, f258 and µydz, zedim, shews that those transgressions are called errors, in which there is no criminal pride against God. "If a soul shall sin — from all the commandments," f259 is a harsh expression; and therefore some refer it to sins of omission, but I interpret it more simply, "If he sin by turning away from the commandments," or "if he commit any thing opposed (alienum)to the commandments."
3. If the priest that is anointed. He now distinguishes between different persons, and begins with the high priest, who alone bore the high distinction of the holy unction, unless it be thought better to apply it to the whole supreme class. f260 It is probable, however, that it only refers to one. The more illustrious was his dignity, the more diligently and zealously ought his life to be confirmed to the model of holiness; and therefore the infirmity which was more tolerable in others, was more exceedingly reprehensible in him. This is the reason why it was required that he should atone for himself with a greater victim. But this in some measure related to all the Levites, inasmuch as they were chosen to be of the sacred class; and it now extends to all the ministers and pastors of the Church, not that they should ransom themselves by the sacrifice of a calf, but that they should diligently beware of every sin, and be more intent in their endeavors after holiness. The clause "according to the sin of the people," might be also rendered "unto the sin," etc., as though Moses had said that the priest through sin corrupted the people by his bad example; for, since his life is the rule of holiness and righteousness, so his faults give occasion to the errors of others. The sense, however, that I have followed is simpler, i.e., that though the transgression of the priest may be an ordinary one, yet in consideration of his office it becomes more weighty, and deserving of greater punishment.
5. And the priest that is anointed shall take. It is well known that what is here prescribed as to the sprinkling of blood, and its pouring out, as well as to the burning of the fat and the kidneys, is the same as in the other sacrifices; and the comparison in the 10th verse sufficiently proves that, the ordinary forms were observed in other particulars. But inasmuch as it might seem absurd that the priest, who was himself guilty, should come before God to perform the office of reconciliation, it was necessary to prescribe the details more accurately, to obviate all doubt. Although, therefore, he was unworthy to approach God, yet, since the law of the priesthood was inviolable, he was admitted to the discharge of his duties; for it was not lawful that more mediators should be appointed. In order, then, that more reverence should be paid to the rites of the Law, and that men should seek after no other way of reconciliation, God extended His grace to the fault of the priest. The blood was sprinkled before the Lord, that the people might learn that through the sight of the sacrifice sins were hidden and buried, so as to come no more into remembrance before God; but the rest of the blood was poured before the altar, because it was holy, and therefore ought by no means to be cast elsewhere like anything profane.
13. And if the whole congregation. The very same sacrifice which was enjoined on the priest is required of the people; since he who went into the sanctuary in the name of all to present all the tribes before God, represented the whole body. It seems indeed that the kind of ignorance here spoken of is different from the former kind; since it was said "if the thing be hid;" yet I think that these infirmities are comprised, in which it often happens that men are blinded for a time. f261 For many do not search into themselves, and therefore slumber in their sins; whereas if they honestly examined their doings, their conscience would straightway smite them. It might, then, happen that the whole people should fail to be aware of their sin, whilst dealing with themselves too gently and indulgently. The meaning therefore is, that although no sense of sin should at first arouse them to repentance, yet, if afterwards they should be awakened so as to begin to acknowledge their crime, God must be propitiated by sacrifices; for otherwise the people might make a cloak for themselves of their error.
22. When a ruler hath sinned. A peculiar atonement is also appointed for the transgression of the rulers; and, although he speaks of the ruler in the singular number, yet inasmuch as the law was not yet enacted that one individual should bear rule, he undoubtedly designates the heads and governors generally, because they who bear rule do more injury by their bad example than private persons. If, then, any of the judges or governors had sinned through error, he might indeed be set free by a lesser victim than the priest or the whole people, yet there was individually this difference between them, that they were to offer she-goats or lambs, and the ruler a he-goat; and the object of this was that those in authority should more carefully keep themselves pure from every transgression, whereas otherwise they are wont to indulge themselves more freely, as if their rank and dignity allowed them greater license. Where we have given as our translation, "If (the sin) shall have become known," (si innotuerit,) translators are not agreed. f262 The word used is properly a disjunctive particle Or; f263 but it is sometimes used for the conditional particle, as we shall see in the next chapter. Those who retain the primary and genuine meaning of the word do violence to the signification of the last word of the foregoing verse, and translate it, "shall have offended" instead of "shall have felt that he has offended;" but since it appears from many passages that wa, o, is equivalent to µa, im, there is no need of wresting the words to an improper sense. The word [dwh, hodang, which they render transitively "to make known," may fitly bear my translation, unless this is preferred, "if he shall have known," (si cognoverit). The words which Moses continually repeats, "the priest shall make an atonement for him, and his; iniquity shall be forgiven him," some coldly restrict to external and civil cleansing, as if Moses only removed his condemnation before men; but God rather offers pardon to sinners, and assures them that He will be favorable to them, lest fear or doubt should prevent them from freely calling upon Him. And assuredly those who do not acknowledge that the legal rites were sacraments, are not acquainted with the very rudiments of the faith. Now to all sacraments, at any rate to the common sacraments of the Church, a spiritual promise is annexed: it follows, therefore, that pardon was truly promised to the fathers, who reconciled themselves to God by the offering of sacrifices, not because the slaying of beasts expiated sins, but because it was a certain and infallible symbol, in which pious minds might acquiesce, so as to dare to come before God with tranquil confidence. In sum, as now in baptism sins are sacramentally washed away, so under the Law also the sacrifices were means of expiation, though in a different way; since baptism sets Christ before us as if He were present, whilst under the Law He was only obscurely typified. Figuratively indeed what applies to Christ only is transferred to the signs, for in Him alone was manifested to us the fulfillment of all spiritual blessings, and He at length blotted out sins by His one and perpetual sacrifice; but since the question here is not as to the value of the legal ceremonies in themselves, let it suffice that they truly testified of the grace of God, of which they were the types; and so let not that profane imagination be listened to, that the sacrifices only politically and as far as regarded men absolved those by whom they were offered from guilt and condemnation.
Numbers 15
Numbers 15:22-29
22. And if ye have erred, and not observed all these commandments which the Lord hath spoken unto Moses, 22. Quum erraveritis, et non feceritis onmia praecepta haec quae protulit Jehova ad Mosen.
23.Even all that the Lord hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the Lord commanded Moses, and henceforward among your generations; 23. Omnia quae praecepit Jehova vobis per manum Mosis a die qua praecepit Jehova et postea per generationes vestras.
24. Then it shall be, if ought be committed by ignorance, without the knowledge of the congregation, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savor unto the Lord, with his meat-offering, and his drink-offering, according to the manner, and one kid of the goats for a sin-offering. 24. Si inquam a congregatione procter scientiam allquid factum fluerit per errorera, immolabit universa congregatio juvencum unum filium bovis, in holocaustum in odorera quietis Jehovae, minha quoque ejus, et libamen ejus, secundum regulam, et hircum caprarum unum, in sacrificium pro peccato.
25. And the priest shall maize an atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and it shall forgiven them; for it is ignorance: and they shall bring their offering, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord, and their sin-offering before the Lord, for their ignorance: 25. Expiabitque sacerdos universam congregationem filiorum Israel, et ignoscetur els, quia error est, et illic offerent oblationem suam, oblationem ignitam Jehovae, et oblationem pro peccato suo, coram Jehova, propter errorera ipsorum.
26. And it shall be forgiven all the congregation of the children of Israel, and the stranger that sojurneth among them; seeing all the people were in ignorance. 26. Et condonabitur universae congregationi filiorum Israel, et peregrino qui peregrinabitur in medio illorum: quia universi populi error est.
27. And if any soul sin through ignorance, then he shall bring a she-goat of the first year for a sin-offering. 27. Quod si anima una peccaverit per errorem, offeret capram anniculam sacrificium pro peccato.
28. And the priest shall make an atonement for the soul that sinneth ignorantly, when he sinneth by ignorance before the Lord, to make an atonement fbr him; and it shall be forgiven him. 28. Expiabitque sacerdos animam quae peccaverit per errorem, quum peccaverit per errorera coram Jehova: expiabit eam, et remittetur ei.
29. Ye shall have one law for him that sinneth through ignorance, both for him that is born among the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth among them. 29. Indigence inter filios Israel, et peregrino qui peregrinatur inter illos, lex una erit vobis quoad eum qui fecerit per errorem.

22. And if ye have erred. He teaches by what kind of sacrifice the sins of the whole people or of each individual are to be expiated, although he enumerates only two of the four classes which are mentioned in Leviticus; for a special atonement is there enjoined both on the priest and the ruler. But neither is the ceremony of sacrificing here described, since Moses only wished to refresh their memories by the way as to the manner in which, either publicly or privately, they were to be reconciled to God. This word "error," f264 as we have said, extends to incogitancy, which partakes of contempt of God, and arises from too great security, when men inconsiderately fall into the sins to which their lusts invite them; for deliberate impiety is afterwards brought into contrast with error, when men designedly rush into violations of the law. But since nothing is more easy than for men to err, this remedy was most necessary, lest they who had sinned should fall into despair. Lest, then, the people or private individuals, when they saw their guilt, should despair of pardon and throw away the pursuit of holiness, God anticipates them, and shews them by what means He is to be propitiated, so that the sins which had occurred should not interrupt His service. Since, however, Moses here only repeats what has already been explained, there is no need of dwelling largely upon it, except that in one point he seems to deliver a law different from the former one; for he there commands two bullocks to be slain for the reconciliation of the people, f265 the one as a burnt-offering, the other as a sin-offering; yet, if the second were not easily obtained, the permission was given to substitute a goat. In Leviticus, therefore, the regular and perfect rite was delivered; the permissive alteration is only added here; nor does Moses contradict himself, though, for the sake of brevity, he only refers to one of the two modes. At the end a clearer explanation is subjoined, viz., that the same law should be common to all, since it was by no means expedient to introduce any diversity.
Leviticus 5
Leviticus 5:1-13
1. And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity. 1. Quum autem anima peccaverit audiendo vocem juramenti, et ipsc sit testis, quod aut videtit, aut sciverit: nisi renuntitaverit, feret poenam iniquitatis suae.
2. Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty. 2. Aut si anima tetigerit aliquam remimmundam, sive cadaver ferae immundae, sive cadaver animalis immundi, sive cadaver reptilis immundi, idque latuerit eam, tum ipsc immundus erit, et deliquit.-
3. Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty. 3. Aut si tetigerit immunditiam hominis in omni immunditia ejus qua polluitur, et latuerit eum, et ipse cognoverit postea, deliquit.
4. Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these. 4. Aut anima si juraverit, proferendo labiis se malefacturam, aut benefacturam, et secundum omne quod profert homo juramento, et id latuerit eum, et ipse postea cognoverit: tunc delinquet in uno ex istis.
5. And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing. 5. Erit autem quum deliquerit in uno ex istis, et confessus fuerit id super quo peccavit.
6. And he shall bring his trespass-offering unto the Lord, for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb, or a kid of the goats, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin. 6. Adducet oblationem pro delicto suo Jehovae, pro peccato suo quod peccaverit, foeminam de grege, agnam, aut capellam caprarum pro peccato: et expiabit eum sacerdos a peccato suo.
7. And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring, for his trespass which he hath committed, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the Lord; one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering. 7. Quod si facultas afferendae peendis defuerit ei, tunc adducet oblationem pro delicto suo quod peccavit, duos turtures, aut duos pullos columbae Jehovae, unum in hostiam pro peccato, et alterum in hostism holocausti.
8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder. 8. Afferetque illos ad sacerdotem, et offeret eum qui est in hostism pro peccato, priorem: et ungue secabit caput ipsius e regione cervicis ejus, et non separabit.
9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it is a sin-offering. 9. Aspergetque de sanguine hostiae pro peccato super parietem altaris, et quod superest de sanguine exprimetur in basin ipsius altaris: oblatio pro peccato est.
10. And he shall offer the second for a burnt-offering, according to the manner; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him. 10. Alterum autem faciet holocaustum juxta morem: atque its expiabit eum sacerdos a peccato suo quod peccavit, et remittetur ei.
11. But if he be not able to bring two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons; then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering: he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering. 11. Si vero non fuerit ei facultas offerendi duos turtures, aut duos pullos columbae, tunc afferet oblationem suam qui peccaverit, decimam partem epha similae in oblationem pro peccato: non ponet super eam oleum, neque ponet super cam thus, quia oblatio pro peccato est.
12. Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord: it is a sin-offering. 12. Afferet illam inquam ad sacerdotem: tune sacerdos accipiet ex ea plenum pugilium suum odorem ejus, et adolebit super altare ultra oblationes ignitas Jehovae: oblatio pro peccato est.
13. And the priest shall make an atonement for him, as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a meat-offering. 13. Et expiabit eum sacerdos a peccato suo quod peccavit in uno de istis: et remittetur el, et erit sacerdoti sicut minha.

1. And if a soul sin. The three kinds of offense, to which Moses refers in the beginning of the chapter, seem to differ much from each other; for the first, when a person concealed a matter which he knew, could not arise from error, yet I include this concealment of which he treats under the head of error, by supposing it to have been when a person should be induced by shame or fear to connive at any crime or offense respecting which he might be interrogated, and so, without any design of perjuring himself, but by blinding himself, should withhold what he would have said, if he had duly examined the matter. Yet these words must be more narrowly discussed, respecting the meaning of which men are not well agreed. Some think that the word hla, f266 alah, is put for "execration," as though it were said, if any shall have heard a misdoing or detestable crime worthy of execration; yet their gloss is contradicted by what immediately follows, "Whether he hath seen or known it." Others indeed interpret it to mean an oath, yet improperly confine it to perjury, as if Moses stated that he was guilty who had heard a man perjuring himself, and had not opposed him, but had rather covered the perjury by his own connivance or silence. I rather subscribe, then, to their opinion who expound it as meaning "adjuration;" for the words will thus combine very well, "If any one, being summoned as a witness, shall have heard the voice of adjuration, whereby he shall be required in God's name to answer truly as to the matter proposed, and from favor, or good nature, or any other false pretext, as if he were enveloped in a cloud of error, shall conceal what, if he had paid diligent attention, he well knew, he shall be guilty." We must then here render the disjunctive particle as the conditional. Literally it is, "If any shall have heard the voice of adjuration, and (is) himself a witness." But wherefore should he say, "if he hath been a witness," and then add, "or have known it," as if he referred to different things? What I have said squares very well, that a person becomes himself guilty, who, when summoned as a witness, does not answer to a matter of which he is cognizant. Now, what does hearing the voice of adjuration mean, unless you understand that he is adjured by the mouth of a judge? We must observe, too, that the three kinds of sin which are first enumerated have a connection with each other, since they speak of sinners who are infected by the uncleanness of others; for, after Moses had commanded generally that offenses committed in error should be expiated, he now adds what had not been stated explicitly enough, that those also required atonement who had been polluted by the defilements of others. Thus this first will accord very well with the other two, i.e., that if any should make himself an accomplice in the offense of another, by indirect perjury, he should be unclean until he had offered a propitiation; for this is what the expression "bear his iniquity" conveys; as if Moses had said that he contracts guilt who shall have concealed a crime, respecting which he had been interrogated as a witness.
2. Or if a soul touch any unclean thing. This precept seems not only to be superfluous but also absurd; for Moses had already shewn sufficiently how uncleanness contracted by touching a dead body, or any other unclean thing, was to be purged, and had prescribed an easy and inexpensive mode of purification. This repetition appears, therefore, to be useless. But to impose a heavier punishment on an offense which is extenuated by the pretext of error, than where there is no allusion to error, is unjust. But we must remember that not only is the uncleanness itself here punished, but; the inadvertence, from whence it arose that he who was polluted omitted the purification. For it may be that those who thus lie torpid in their sins pollute for a season the service of God. No wonder, then, that a heavier punishment is inflicted, where error, springing from supine and gross security, begets still more sins, that thus believers may be aroused to greater vigilance. Let the reader, therefore, recollect that the offense which is now adverted to did not consist in the mere touching of a dead body, but in the thoughtlessness itself; for if all would diligently meditate on the Law of God, forgetfulness would not so easily steal over them, whereby the distinction between right and wrong is lost. The same is the reason for the following ordinance, where Moses subjects to the same punishment any one who shall have touched an unclean or defiled man: thus the very contact of a woman at a particular period produces pollution.
4. Or if a soul shall swear. The Gulf is also ascribed to error and ignorance, when a person does inconsiderately what he has promised not to do; for the oath is not in that case violated, which would be criminal; f267 but in this very carelessness there is enough of wrong, because sound religion would renew the recollection of the vow. Consequently, where no anxiety (to fulfill it) is shewn, there is no serious desire to do so. But this commandment was necessary, because it might often happen that men who had pledged their faith in a vow, and had broken it in thoughtlessness, would deem themselves released from every, and would in future give themselves up to indulgence, whereas they who arrive at such a pitch of licentiousness, harden themselves more and more, until at length they throw off all reverence for God. God would therefore have vows kept faithfully, lest those who despised them should thus rush into impiety. If then any one had thoughtlessly broken faith, he is commanded to make atonement to God; not on account of his levity, as some think, as if he had rashly promised what he might not, but on account of his neglect, because he had not given diligence to remember the vow at the proper time. Now if the Papists stupidly wrest this text after their custom, in order to establish the obligation of all kinds of vows, their confutation is easy; viz., that God requires this stedfastness only with respect to lawful vows duly made. We have already understood from the teaching of Moses, what is the rule of pious vow-making; whence we gather, that those which profane God's name are by no means to be kept; for if we set out with doing wrong, obstinacy in it is doubly wicked. In this passage, therefore, "to do evil" is not to perform any improper action, but to undertake something which would otherwise be disagreeable and burdensome to the flesh; such as to diminish domestic expenditure, or to deprive one's self of luxuries, or to determine upon abstinence from something which would gratify or profit us.
6. And he shall bring his trespass-offering. He proceeds with what we have already been considering, as to the removal of guilt by sacrifice; but he begins to make a distinction between the poor and the rich, which distinction applies also to what has gone before; hence it appears that the order is not exactly observed by Moses, since the cases which he inserts seem to interrupt the thread of his discourse; yet the fact remains clear, that whosoever have fallen through error are unclean until they have offered an atonement. But what had been before omitted is here inserted, that the poor and needy are not to be pressed beyond the extent of their means; nay, the different grades of offering are appointed, so that he to whom it was not convenient to offer two turtle-doves, or pigeons, might be quit for a small measure of flour. Hence we infer that God's only design was to shew the one true means of reconciliation to the people, that they might have recourse to the Mediator and His sacrifice; for the poor are here commanded to offer either two turtle-doves, or a small quantity of meal, which would propitiate God towards them, just as much as would the victim required of the rich. The citation, f268 however, which our interpreters make from the poet is a lame one; viz., "Whoever shall have brought integrity of mind into the temples, makes a sacrifice of corn;" since this blind man did not see what was the object of sacrifices, and thus despised all kinds of propitiations, as if purity and innocency alone recommended men to God. We must remember, then, that the victims of themselves were of no importance, and yet that the ancient people were exercised in these ceremonies, to teach them that God can only be appeased by the payment of a ransom.
Leviticus 5
Leviticus 5:14-19
14. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 14. Loquutus est insuper Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
15. If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the Lord; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the Lord a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass-offering. 15. Anima quum praevaricata fuerit praevaricationem, et peccaverit per errorem in una re ex sanctificationibus Jehovae, adducat oblationem pro delicto suo Jehovae, arietem perfectum de pecudibus, secundum aestimationem tuam argenti siculorum, secundum siculum sanctitatis pro delicto.
16. And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass-offering, and it shall be forgiven him. 16. Et quod peccaverit in sanctificatione reddet, et quintam partem ipsius addet ei, tradetque illud sacerdoti, sacerdos vero expiabit eum in ariete oblationis pro delicto: et remittetur ei.
17. And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the Lord; though he wist it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity. 17. Itaque si anima peccaverit, et fecerit unum ab omnibus praeceptis Jehovae, quae non sunt facienda, et non cognoverit, et deliquerit, et portaverit iniquitatem suam:
18. And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass-offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred; and wist it not; and it shall be forgiven him. 18. Tunc adducet arietem immaculatum de pecudibus, secundum aestimationem tuam in oblationem pro delicto ad sacerdotem, et expiabit eum sacerdos ab errore suo quem per errorem commisit, neque intellexit, et remittetur el.
19. It is a trespass-offering: he hath certainly trespassed against the Lord. 19. Delictum est, delinquendo deliquit Jehovae.

14. And the Lord spake unto Moses. The difference of the victim clearly shews, that another kind of offense is here referred to; for God now requires a male instead of a female. Before, He had been contented with an ewe lamb or a female kid; but inasmuch as a ram is more valuable, it follows that punishment is now awarded to a heavier offense. The heinousness of the fault depends upon the quality of the act; i.e., when a person shall have wronged not a mortal man merely, but God Himself, nor shall have transgressed only one of the Commandments of the first Table, but shall not have paid a vow, or shall have offered a defective victim, or shall have defrauded God of His right in any oblation; since this is what is meant by the clause "in the holy things of the Lord." In this expression Moses includes both vows voluntarily made, as well as the legitimate oblations, such as tithes, first-fruits, the offering of the first-born; since in all these things the Israelites were strictly charged to deal most faithfully with God. If by chance avarice had blinded any one, so that in pursuit of personal gain he paid God less than he ought, his recklessness justly received a heavier punishment. Yet it must be understood, that the offense here referred to is one in which no fraud or evil deceit had place; for if any one had designedly and craftily appropriated what was sacred, the impiety of this sacrilege was not so easily expiated. But inasmuch as it often happens that the covetous and grasping are too ready to spare themselves, God enjoins a sacrifice in such a case, where private advantage has through thoughtlessness prevailed over religious feeling. The words, "with thy estimation," some refer to Moses, others to the priest; but I prefer taking it passively for the estimation prescribed by God; which is called the estimation of the people, because they were bound to acquiesce in the Law appointed by Him, and not arbitrarily to alter the value. Moses estimates the ram at two shekels of the sanctuary, equivalent to four common shekels, f269 amounting in French money to about twenty-eight sols, (asses.)
16. And he shall make amends for the harm. Hence it more plainly appears, as I have recently stated, that they, who withheld anything of God's full right, are said to have sinned "in the holy thing;" since they are commanded to make restitution with the addition of a fifth part. Yet let my readers remember, that those who are compelled to make restitution, are not such as have fraudulently embezzled the sacred things, but those who under some vain pretext have flattered themselves for a time, so as to be unaffected by any conviction of their fault. The object therefore of this sacrifice, was to arouse the people to attention, so that postponing their private advantage, they should freely pay what was due to God. f270 Theirs is but foolish trifling who think that Moses, having before spoken of sins (peccata), now prescribes the mode of making expiation for delinquencies (delicta), since he uses the same words indifferently on all occasions, and also designates all the victims by the same name. But to make out a delinquency to be greater than a sin is a piece of gross ignorance; nor does it need a long refutation, since it manifestly appears that in this passage a special rule is delivered as to the means of obtaining pardon when a person through thoughtlessness has not reflected that he has omitted to discharge in full either his vows or oblations.
17. And if soul sin. Although the expressions seem to be general, as if he briefly confirmed what he had said before, yet it is necessary to connect them with the last sentence, or at least to restrict them to certain cases. The former exposition appears to me to be the right one; nor is there any absurdity in the repetition, to cut off all occasion for subterfuge from the disobedient. Still I do not deny that the reason which is added at the end, applies to all the modes of expiation of which he has been treating; viz., that although he may pretend ignorance who has fallen into sin inconsiderately, or who has not intentionally sinned, or who through forgetfulness has contracted any defilement, still he is guilty before God until he makes reconciliation. When therefore he again commands that a ram without blemish, and of full value should be offered, he once more shews how they must purge themselves who have been too stingy in their oblations. Immediately after he adds a reason common to all the other errors; as if he had said, that they are not absolved before God who offer the excuse of ignorance as a cover for their fault.
Leviticus 6
Leviticus 6:1-7
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est praterea Jehova ipsi Mosi, dicendo:
2. If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbor in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbor; 2. Anima quum peccaverit, et praevaricata fuerit praevaricationem contra Jehovam, mentiens nempe fuerit proximo suo in deposito, ant in depositione manus, aut raptum, ant vim fecerit proximo suo.
3. Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein: 3. Aut invenerit amissum, et negaverit illud, ac juraverit falso in uno ex omnibus quae facere solet homo peccando in ipsis.
4. Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, 4. Quum ergo peccaverit, et dell querit, tum reddet raptum quod rapuit, aut vi extortum quod vi extorsit, aut depositum quod depositum fuerit apud illum, vel amissum quod invenerit.
5. Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass-offering. 5. Aut quidpiam aliud ex omnibus de quibus juraverit falso, tune reddet illud in solidum, et quintum ipsius addet illi: eique cujus erat reddet illud die oblationis pro delicto suo.
6. And he shall bring his trespass-offering unto the Lord, a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass-offerring, unto the priest: 6. Oblationem vero pro delicto suo adducet Jehovae, arietem integrum e pecudibus, secundum estimationem suam ad faciendum sacrificium pro delicto ad sacerdotem.
7. And the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord; and it shall be forgiven him, for any thing of all that he hath done, in trespassing therein. 7. Expiabit eum sacerdos eoram Jehova, et remittetur el, expiabit inquam ab uno ex omnibus quae facere solet homo delinquendo in eo.

1. And the Lord spake unto Moses. Moses now no longer treats of the means of expiating errors when the sinner is guilty through thoughtlessness; but he prescribes the mode of reconciliation, when any one shall have wilfully and designedly offended God. And this is well worthy of notice, lest those who may have been guilty of voluntary sin should doubt whether God will be propitiated towards them, provided they make application to the one sacrifice of Christ, in which consists the entire substance of the shadows of the Law. We must indeed beware lest we indulge ourselves under the cover of God's clemency and readiness to pardon, — for the lust of the flesh provokes us to sin more than enough, without the addition of this snare, — nor is it less than a blasphemous insult to God to take occasion and license for sin, from the fact of His willingness to pardon. Let then the fear of God reign in us, which will repress our wicked desires like a rein, so that we should not wilfully fall into sin; and let His mercy rather engender the hatred and detestation of sin in our hearts, than incite us to audacity. Yet, at the same time, we must prudently take heed, lest if we imagine God to be inexorable to our voluntary sins, this excessive severity should overthrow the hope of salvation even in those who are the holiest. For even now-a-days there are some madmen who deny pardon to all who may have chanted to fall through the infirmity of the flesh, since to morose men this severity has its charms, and by this hallucination Novatus f271 greatly troubled the Church of old. But if we all honestly examine ourselves, it will plainly appear that those rigid censors, who affect the reputation of sanctity by immoderate asperity, are the grossest hypocrites. For if they would abandon their pride, and examine into their lives, which of them would find himself free from concupiscence? and whose conscience must not often smite him?
It is then monstrous blindness to exalt men, clothed in human flesh, to such a pitch of perfection, as that their conscience should not convict them of any fault or blame. And nothing is more pestilent than this imposture of the devil, excluding from the hope of pardon those who knowingly and willingly have sinned; since there is not one even of God's best servants, in whom the corrupt affections of the flesh do not sometimes prevail; for although they be neither adulterers, nor thieves, nor murderers, yet there is none whom the last Commandment of the Law — "Thou shalt not covet," — does not convict of sin. And assuredly the more advance one has made in endeavors after purity, the more he feels and acknowledges that he is still very far from reaching its goal. Therefore, unless we would purposely close the gate of salvation against us, we must hold that God is placable towards all, who trust that their sin is forgiven them by the sacrifice of Christ; for God is neither changed, nor is our condition worse than that of the fathers, whereas under the Law God appointed sacrifices for the expiation even of voluntary offenses. Hence it follows, that although we are convicted of voluntary sin, yet a remedy is set before us in the Gospel for procuring pardon: else would these ancient figures be more than delusive, which had no other object than to be testimonies and mirrors of the grace which was finally manifested to us in Christ. If there ought to be a mutual agreement between the external representation of grace under the Law, and the spiritual effect which Christ brought in, it plainly appears that sins are no less forgiven to us now, than to the ancient people; and thus that believers are reminded by this symbol, that they are not to despair of reconciliation, whilst they take no pleasure in their sins; but rather that they should boldly seek for pardon in the perpetual sacrifice which constantly renders God favorable to all the godly. And surely since repentance and faith are the sure pledges of God's favor, it cannot be but that they should be received into His grace who are endued with these two gifts. Besides, the remission of sins is an inestimable treasure, which God has deposited in His Church, to be the peculiar blessing of His children; as the Confession of Faith declares, "I believe in the Holy Catholic Church, the forgiveness of sins." Nor would what Paul proclaims concerning the embassy entrusted to him be consistent, unless Christ's satisfaction daily propitiated God towards believers. (<470520>2 Corinthians 5:20.)
The question here is not about some trifling offense, but about the crime of unfaithfulness, doubled by the addition of perjury. It is true that perfidy, or deceit, or violence, are first mentioned, to mark the grossness of the sin; but the guilt lies chiefly in the profanation of God's name when the injury done to man is sheltered under a false oath. At any rate, he is admitted to pardon who has both iniquitously deceived his brother and has impiously abused God's name. Hence it appears that God spares wretched sinners although they may have contaminated themselves by faithlessness, and have aggravated the crime committed against men by sacrilege, having insulted God through their perjury. But although Moses only enumerates transgressions of the Eighth Commandment, still he teaches, according to his usual manner, by synecdoche what must be done in the case of other offenses also. If, then, anything shall have been taken away by violence, or by fraud, and perjury has been superadded, he commands not only that satisfaction should be made to the neighbor who is defrauded, but that the price of atonement should also be offered to God. And the reason for this is expressly given, because not only has a mortal man been injured, but God has also been offended, who would have men conduct themselves justly and reverently towards each other; and then the crime is carried to extremity by the violation of God's sacred name. The sacrifice is not indeed required from a thief or robber, or from the denier of a deposit, or the appropriator of anything lost, unless they have also perjured themselves; yet the words of Moses are not without their weight: if any one, by the denial of a deposit, or by theft, or robbery, shall have "committed a trespass against the Lord;" whereby he signifies, that whenever an injury is inflicted on men, God in their person is offended, because every transgression of the Law violates and perverts His justice.
We shall elsewhere see more about the restitution to be made in case of theft or robbery, especially when a person has been found guilty. This point, however, is alone referred to directly in this passage, viz., that whoever injures or inflicts a loss upon his brother, incurs guilt and condemnation before God; but if he proceeds to such a pitch of obstinacy, as to cover his crime by falsely appealing to the sacred name of God, he is polluted by double iniquity, so that compensation of the damage is not sufficient, but he must also make atonement to God. But we must understand this of those who, having escaped from the fear of punishment, voluntarily repent. The notion of some commentators who alter the copula into the disjunctive particle, and consider perjury to be one of the various sins referred to, I reject as foreign to the meaning of Moses. Others explain it thus: "If any shall have committed robbery or theft, or shall have sworn falsely about a thing lawful in itself:" but I do not see why the words should be wrested thus; besides, their mistake is refitted by the context itself, in which restitution is coupled with the sacrifices, and this could not be applicable unless perjury were conjoined also with fraud or violence. Nor does the disjunctive particle which follows help them; for after he has commanded what was taken away by force or deceit to be restored, because all the various points could not be separately expressed, it is added, "Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely," not as if the guilt of perjury had been contracted in any other matters, but that he might cut away all means of subterfuge, which the repetition also confirms; for, after having introduced the crime of swearing falsely, he again, as if more clearly explaining what he had said, commands the restitution of the principal, together with the fifth part. But what is it that he commands to be restored except what the deceiver had kept back under cover of his oath? Of this a clearer exposition will be found under the Eighth Commandment.
A satisfaction is therefore enjoined to be made towards men together with the offering. Nor is it without reason that God commands them to make up the loss on the day when the offering is made, lest hypocrites should promise themselves impunity after having enriched themselves by the property of another. It was indeed permitted them to restore their property to others before they propitiated God by the sacrifice; but God will not have His altar defiled, which would be the case if thieves or robbers offered victims belonging to others. He would, therefore, have the hands of those who sacrifice cleansed from pollution. And surely those who offer a victim to God out of spoils unjustly obtained, in some measure implicate Him as a participator in their crime. Hence may profitable instruction be drawn, viz., that hypocrites busy themselves in vain in reconciling God to themselves, unless they honestly restore what they have unjustly taken. Meanwhile we must observe the distinction in the words of Moses between the satisfaction made to men and the sin-offering which propitiates God; for we gather from hence, as I have said, that they obtain not pardon from God who desire to remain enriched by their stolen property; and yet that God is not appeased by anything but sacrifice. Clear proof of this latter point may be gathered from the whole Law, which prescribes but one means of reconciling God, i.e., when the sinner makes atonement for himself by offering a victim. Hence the diabolical figment as to satisfactions is refuted f272 by which the Papists imagine that they are redeemed from God's judgment; for although God shall have remitted the guilt, they still think that the liability to punishment remains, until the sinner shall have delivered himself by his own works. To this end they have invented works of supererogation, to be meritorious in redeeming from punishment; hence, too, purgatory has come into existence. But when you have studied all the writings of Moses, and diligently weighed whatsoever is revealed in the Law as to the means of appeasing God, you will find that the Jews were everywhere brought back to sacrifices. Now, it is certain that whatever is attributed to sacrifices is so much taken away from men's own works. But if it were not God's intention to down His ancient people to outward ceremonies, it follows that it is only by the one Mediator, through the outpouring of His blood, that men are absolved from all liability either to guilt or punishment, so as to be restored to favor by God.
7. And the priest shall make an atonement. From this form of expression also, which frequently occurs, we must learn that the victim in itself was not the price of redemption, but that expiation was founded on the priesthood. For they have foolishly and falsely invented the notion that men work something themselves in the sacraments, f273 whereas their virtue and effect proceeds from quite another quarter. The offering, therefore, properly speaking, is passive rather than active as regards man. f274 The force of this will be more clearly understood from the delusion of the Papists. They are indeed compelled to acknowledge that in the sacraments men are passive, in so far as they receive the grace there offered to them; but they presently pervert this doctrine, by inventing their opus operatum, as they call it. But, lest the people should think that they bring from their own stores (domo) the price of their redemption, Moses constantly inculcates that it is the peculiar office of the priest, to appease God, and to blot out sin by expiation. It is also worthy of observation that he adds, "before the Lord," for by this clause the profane notion is refuted, that men are purged by the legal sacrifices only civilly, as they say, i.e., before men, as if there were no spiritual promise included in them. Now, if this were so, the fathers would have been confirmed in the confidence of pardon by no external symbols, than which nothing can be more absurd; but by this one clause all ambiguity is removed, when Moses declares that they were absolved "before the Lord."
Leviticus 6
Leviticus 6:8-15, 23-25, 30
8. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 8. Loquutus est etiam Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
9. Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt-offering: it is the burnt-offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall he burning in it. 9. Praecipe Aharon et filiis ejus, dicendo, Haec est lex holocausti, (holocaustum est, quod aduritur super altare tota nocte usque mane, ubi ignis altari accensus fuerit in eo.)
10. And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt-offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar. 10. Induet se sacerdos veste linen, femoralibus item lineis induct se super carnem suam, tolletque cinerem quum absumpserit ignis holocaustum ex altari, et ponet eum secus altare.
11. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place. 11. Postea exuet se vestibus suis, et induet se vestibus allis, efferetque cinerem extra castra ad locum mundam.
12. And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt-offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace-offerings. 12. Et ignis super altare ardebit in eo, non extinguetur, et accendet in eo sacerdos ligna quotidie mane, et disponet super illud victimam holocausti, adolebitque super illud adipes prosperitatum.
13. The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out. 13. Ignis perpetuo ardebit in altari, non extinguetur.
14. And this is the law of the meat-offering: The sons of Aaron shall offer it before the Lord, before the altar. 14. Ista est lex minha quam offerent filii Aharon coram Jehova ad altare.
15. And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat-offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat-offering, and shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savor, even the memorial of it, unto the Lord. 15. Tollet ex ea pugillo suo ex simila minha, et oleo ejus, et totum thus quod erit super minha: adolebitque super altare odorem quietis odorem ejus apud Jehovam.
23. For every meat-offering for the priest shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten. 23. Omnis minha sacerdotis tota eremabitur, non comedetur.
24. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 24. Loquutus est Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
25. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law of the sin-offering: In the place where the burnt-offering is killed shall the sin-offering be killed before the Lord: it is most holy. 25. Alloquere Aharon et filios ejus, dicendo, Ista eat lex hostile pro peccato, In loco in quo mactabitur hostia holocausti mactabitur hostia pro peccato coram Jehova, quia sanctificatio sanctificationum est.
30. And no sin-offering, whereof any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation, to reconcile withal in the holy place, shall be eaten; it shall be burnt in the fire. 30. Omnis autem hostia pro peccato, de cujus sanguine inferetur aliquid in tabernaculum conventionis, ad expiandum in sanctuario non comedetur, igni comburetur.

9. Command Aaron and his sons. He more distinctly explains what might have appeared to be omitted; nor is it without reason that he carefully enters into these full details, for since God prefers obedience to all sacrifices, he was unwilling that anything should remain doubtful as to the external rites, which were not otherwise of great importance; that they might learn to observe precisely, and with the most exact care, whatever the Law commanded, and that they should not obtrude anything of themselves, inasmuch as the purity of the holy things was corrupted by the very smallest invention. He would, therefore, leave nothing to the people's judgment, but directed them by a fixed rule even in the most trifling matters. As to the burnt-offerings, he commands that they should not be taken away from the altar till they were consumed by the fire; but after they were put on, he commands them to be burnt in a constant fire till the morrow. With this intent, he expressly says, that the fire should be kept alight on the altar all the night, since the sacrifices would not have been reduced to ashes without the application of fuel. Secondly, he commands the priest, clothed in the linen garment, and breeches, as he was wont to be in the performance of his sacred duties, to go to the altar, and to take away the ashes and put them by the side, or at some part of the altar; but when he shall have gone away from the altar, he bids him take off his holy garments, and carry the ashes out of the camp to a clean place. But what he had before briefly adverted to as to the supply of wood, he immediately declares more fully to be, lest the fire should go out. Again, he assigns to the priest the office of setting the wood in order every morning. But, because in the sacrifices f275 of prosperities the Law commanded the fat only to be burnt, Moses now adds, verse 12, that the fat was to be burnt on the same fire. It is worthy of particular observation, that he finally subjoins a precept as to so keeping up the fire that it may never go out.
The intent of this perpetuity was, that the offerings should be burnt with heavenly fire; for on the day that Aaron was consecrated, the sacrifice was reduced to ashes not by human means but miraculously, in token of approbation. True that God did not choose daily to exert this power; but He interposed the hand and labor of men in such a manner that the origin of the sacred fire should still be from heaven. The same thing afterwards happened at the dedication of Solomon's temple, because that alteration of the divine decree demanded a sign (tesseram,) lest any should think that it was at the will of man that the splendor of the temple should outvie the tabernacle. Finally, the sacrifice of Elijah was graced by the same privilege when he restored the abolished legal service; and then also God upheld what He had ordained in His Law, in opposition to all corrupt and degenerate rites. Meanwhile, in order to prevent any adulterations, He chose to have the fire continually burning on the altar day and night, nor was it allowable to take it from elsewhere. There was, indeed, amongst the Persians f276 a perpetual fire, and at Rome also under the guardianship of the Vestal virgins; f277 and it may be, that in foolish mimicry they transferred to themselves the custom which they had heard of being observed by the Jews; for thus it is that, for the purpose of deceiving unbelievers, the devil often falsely makes a pretense of something divine, and imitates God just as an ape imitates man: but the purpose of God in rejecting strange fire was to retain the people in His own genuine ordinance prescribed by the Law, lest any inventions of men should insinuate themselves; for the prohibition of strange fire was tantamount to forbidding men to introduce anything of their own, or to add to the pure doctrine of the Law, or to decline from its rule. Meanwhile, since God had once testified, as if by stretching forth His hand from heaven (to receive them, f278) that the sacrifices were acceptable to Him, believers were confirmed in their confidence of this by the pledge of the perpetual fire.
14. And this is the Law of the meat-offering. We have already seen that there were various kinds of this offering; now, the cakes or wafers are omitted, f279 and mention is only made of uncooked flour, whereof God commands that the priest should burn on the altar as much as his hand could hold. But this law was necessary in order that believers might be fully assured that God was propitiated by the due offering of this part, and that none might complain because the greater portion remained with the priests. Lest, however, the dignity of the sacrifice should be impaired, it was only permitted to the priests to make unleavened bread of it, which they were to eat in the sanctuary, as we have seen elsewhere. The meat-offering of the priests is excepted, which I conceive to be for two reasons, — first, that the excellency and dignity of their gift, honored as it was by special privilege, might stimulate the priests to greater efforts of piety, so as not to exercise themselves in God's service in a common and perfunctory manner; secondly, that they might be thus restrained from the affectation of offering it too frequently. For if it only cost them a little flour, a door was opened to vain ostentation; they would have never ceased offering their f280 minha, the profit of which returned to themselves; perhaps they might even have made a trade of it, as we see the Popish sacrificers entice the simple populace to profuse expenditure in offerings by the pomp of their fictitious devotion. Lest, therefore, they should cause their immoderate oblations to minister both to their vainglory and avarice, God willed that their meat-offering should be entirely consumed.
25. Speak unto Aaron. We everywhere see how carefully God provided that the people should have no doubts about anything. And assuredly true religion is distinguished from false imaginations by this peculiar mark, that God Himself prescribes what is to be done. Nor can certainty, though religion ought to be based upon it, be derived elsewhere than from His own mouth. Now, because there was a difference between burnt-offerings and sin-offerings, it would have been natural to kill them separately in different, places, unless the error had been anticipated; but all doubt, is removed when God assigns the same place to them both. Whence, too, we gather that one law suffices for the proper worship of God, if men are not wise in their own conceits, but depend on His mouth. For how came it to pass that, whilst these two kinds of oblations differed from each other, the rule respecting them was the same on this point, except because it so pleased God? This passage, therefore, sufficiently reminds us with how great sober-mindedness and modesty it becomes us to follow what is pointed out to us in God's word. A reason, however, is at the same time added, which may invite reverence to be paid to the sin-offerings, when especial sanctity is attributed to them, which, according to the idiom of the Hebrew language, is called "holiness of holinesses." Moreover, Moses begins to distinguish between hafj, chateah, f281 and µça, asham, which the Latins translate peccatum, and delictum, though he had before used them indifferently to express the same thing. What the difference was, I confess, I know not; I see the guesses of others, but nothing certain.
30. And no sin-offering. The exception is repeated both with reference to the sacrifices mentioned in the fourth chapter, and also to the solemn sacrifice, whereby the priest and the people were reconciled every year: for private persons individually atoned for their sins at less expense, and only the greater altar, which stood in the court, was sprinkled with blood; but if the priest reconciled God to the whole people, or to himself, in order that the intercession might be more efficacious, he entered the sanctuary to pour out blood on the opposite side of the veil. God now again commands that such victims should be entirely burnt. This passage, then, is nothing but a confirmation of the others in which a like command is given. Hence the Apostle, in an apt allusion, infers that the distinction of meats is abolished; for he says that the minor altar, which under the Law was hidden, is now laid open to us, (<581310>Hebrews 13:10,) and therefore we no longer eat of the legal sacrifices; yea, forasmuch as our One Priest has brought His blood into the sanctuary, it only remains for us to go forth with Him without the camp.
Leviticus 7
Leviticus 7:1-5
1. Likewise this is the law of the trespass-offering: it is most holy. 1. Ista autem est lex hostiae pro delicto: sanctificatio sanctificationum est.
2. In the place where they kill the burnt-offering shall they kill the trespass-offering: and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round about upon the altar. 2. Quo in loco mactabunt hostiam holocausti, mactabunt hostiam pro delicto, et sanguinem ejus sparget super altare per circuitum.
3. And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, 3. Totum vero adipem ejus offeret ex ea, caudam, et adipem operientem intestina.
4. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. 4. Duos quoque renes, et adipem qui est super illos qui est prope ilia, et fibram super jecur, cum renibus removebit.
5. And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a trespass offering. 5. Adolebitque illa sacerdos super altare oblationem ignitam Jehovae: oblatio pro delicto est.

1. Likewise this is the law. I have just confessed that I do not sufficiently understand how these two words, hafj, chateah, and µça, asham, differ from each other; and I have therefore followed the sense which is commonly received, and called them the sin and the trespass-offering, (hostiam pro peccato vel pro delicto.) Although in this second kind of offering he commands the same ceremony to be observed as in the former one, yet he mentions some things which he had before omitted, such as the sprinkling of blood around the altar, the offering of the fat, kidneys, etc., which had not been before expressed. The sum amounts to this, that they were to sacrifice in the same manner, and with the same rites for sin as for trespass, and make not the smallest alteration in the rule laid down for them.
Leviticus 7
Leviticus 7:11-18
11. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which he shall offer unto the Lord. 11. Haec autem est lex sacrificii prosperitatum, quod offerer Jehovae.
12. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried. 12. Si pro gratiarum actione obtulerit illud, tune offerer pro sacrificio gratiaram actionis, placentas infermentatas versatas in oleo, et lagana infermentata uncta oleo, et similam frictam una cum placentis illis versaris in oleo.
13. Besides the cakes, he shalt offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace-offerings. 13. Cron placentis panis fermentati offeret oblationem suam pro sacrificio gratiarum actionis prosperitatum suarum.
14. And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for an heave-offering unto the Lord. 14. Offeretque ex eo unum panem, ex omni oblatione oblationem Jehovae.
15. And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning. 15. Caro autem hostiae gratiarum actionis prosperitatum ejus, in die oblationis ejus comedetur: non relinquet ex eo usque mane.
16. But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice; and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten. 16. Quod si votum, vel spontaneum fuerit sacrificium oblationis ejus, die quo ille obtulerit sacrificium suum, comedetur, et sequenti die comedetur quod superfuerit ex co.
17. But the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire. 17. Quodvero superfuerit de carne sacrificii die tertia, igni comburetur.
18. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity. 18. Si autem comedendo comedatur aliqnid de carne sacrificii prosperitatum ejus die tertia, non placebit offerens illud, neque imputabitur illi, abominatio erit: et anima comedens ex eo iniquitatem suam portabit.

Leviticus 22
Leviticus 22:29, 30
29. And when ye will offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving unto the Lord, offer it at your own will. 29. Quum vero sacrificaveritis sacrificium gratiarum actionis Jehovae, in acceptationem vestri sacrificabitis.
30. On the same day it shall be eaten up; ye shall leave none of it until the morrow: I am the Lord. 30 Die ipsa comedetur: non relinquetus usque mane ex eo; ego Jehova,

Leviticus 19
Leviticus 19:5-8
5. And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the Lord, ye shall offer it at your own will. 5. Et quando sacrificaveritis sacrificium prosperitatum Jehovae, in acceptationem vestri sacrificabitis illud.
6. It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow: and if ought remain until the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire. 6. Die quo sacrificaveritis comedetur, et postridie: quod autem superfuerit usque ad diem tertium, igni comburetur.
7. And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted. 7. Quod si comedendo comedatur die tertio, profanum erit, neque placebit.
8. Therefore every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hallowed thing of the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 8. Et qui comederit illud, poenam iniquitatis suae portabit: quia sanctitatem Jehovae polluit: et excidetur anima ipsa e populis suis.

Leviticus 7:11. And this is the law of the sacrifice. I have elsewhere f282 stated my reasons for calling this kind of sacrifice "the sacrifice of prosperities." That they were offered not only in token of gratitude, but when God's aid was implored, is plain both from this and other passages; yet in all cases the Jews thus testified that they acknowledged God as the author of all good things, whether they returned thanks for some notable blessing, or sought by His aid to be delivered from dangers, or whether they professed in general their piety, or paid the vows which they had made simply and without condition; for the payment of a conditional vow was an act of thanksgiving. At any rate, since in all they honored God with His due service, they gave proof of their gratitude. Hence this name was justly given to these sacrifices, because in them they either besought good success of Him, or acknowledged that what they had already obtained was owing to His grace, or asked for relief in adversity, or congratulated themselves on their welfare and safety. Moses, however, distinguishes one kind, as it were, from the others:, i.e., the sacrifice of thanksgiving, whereby they professedly returned thanks for some notable deliverance, which was not; always offered. f283 In this case he commands unleavened cakes fried in oil, wafers seasoned with oil, and fine flour fried to be offered, together with leavened bread; and also commands that the flesh of the sacrifice should be eaten on the day of the oblation, so that none should be left. In vows and free-will-offerings greater liberty is conceded, viz., that they might eat the residue on the next day, provided they kept nothing till the third day. In the passage which I have inserted from chapter 22, the words I have translated "unto your acceptance," might also be rendered "unto His good-will," (in beneplacitum,) for the gratuitous favor of God is called ˆwxr, ratson. The meaning therefore is, if you would have your sacrifice accepted by God, take care that none of the flesh should remain to the following day. Others, however, understand it of man's good-will, as if it were said, "at your own will," or "as it shall please you." And I admit, indeed, that the word ˆwxr, ratson, is sometimes used in this sense; but since in the same chapter f284 it can only be taken for God's favor or acceptance, I have preferred avoiding a variation; yet I make no objection if any one likes the other reading better. But if my readers weigh well the antithesis, when it is presently added, that if the flesh should remain beyond the proper time f285 the sacrifice would not be pleasing to God, they will agree with me. There is, indeed, an apparent discrepancy here, since in this way Moses would command the voluntary sacrifice to be eaten on the same day, which, however, he does not do. If we prefer understanding it of the liberal feelings of men, he will exhort the people cheerfully to offer their victims in thanksgiving. I have, however, shewn the meaning which I approve of, and thus it will be easy to reconcile these things, for God's goodwill does not require this similarity, f286 nor is it necessary to observe the same mode of offering that they may be grateful; but they are said to offer "unto their acceptance," when they intermix no corruption, but offer purely and duly. If the cause of this distinction is asked, it is no clearer to me than is the variety between the bread and wafers or cakes. It is certain, indeed, that God had a reason for dealing more strictly or more indulgently; but to inquire now-a-days as to things unknown, and which conduce not at all to piety, is neither right nor expedient.
16. But if the sacrifice of his offering. I have observed a little above that it is not a conditional but a simple vow which is here meant; because, if a person were under the obligation of a vow, f287 his payment was an act of thanksgiving, and thus his sacrifice was comprised under the first head. But it would not be without absurdity that similar things should be distinguished as if they differed. But inasmuch as many made gratuitous vows, Moses combines this kind of sacrifice with the free-will-offering, as standing in the same rank. It has also been stated that the consecrated meats were not kept too long, lest they should become tainted or putrified, and thus religion should fall into contempt. Perhaps, too, vainglory was thus provided against; for if it had been allowable to eat the meats salted, many would have made ostentatious offerings without expense. God, therefore, imposed a restraint, that they might offer their sacrifices more sparingly and reverently. The penalty is added, that; the sacrifice would not be acceptable to God, but rather abominable; and hence all who ate of them would be guilty. Moreover, when Moses says that polluted sacrifices would not be "imputed," we may infer that those which are duly offered come into account before God, so that He reckons them as things expended for Himself. Still we must not, imagine them to be merits which lay Him under obligation; but because He deigns to deal so liberally with us, that no duty which we pay Him is useless.
Leviticus 7
Leviticus 7:19-25, 28-31, 37, 38
19. And the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire: and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat thereof. 19. Et caro quae contigerit ullum immundum, non comedetur, sed igni comburetur: at cames illas omnis mundus comedet.
20. But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings that pertain unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people. 20. Nam anima quae comederit carnes de sacrificio prosperitatum quod est Jehovae, et immunditia ejus fuerit super ipsum, tunc excidetur anima illa e populis suis.
21. Moreover, the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or any unclean beast, or any abominable unclean thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings which pertain unto the Lord, even that soul shall be cut off from his people. 21. Anima item quum tetigerit quicquam immundum, nempe de immunditia hominis, aut animal immundum, aut onme reptile immundum, comederitque de carnibus sacrificii prosperitatum, quod est Jehovae, tunc excidetur anima illa e populis suis.
22. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 22. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
23. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall eat no manner of fat, of ox, or of sheep, or of goat. 23. Alloquere fllios Israel dicendo: Omnem adipem boris, et agni, et caprae, non comedetis.
24. And the fat of the beast that dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn with beasts, may be used in any other use; but ye shall in no wise eat of it. 24. Adeps quidem cadaveris, et adeps rapti parabitur in omne opus, sed comedendo non comedetis illum.
25. For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, even the soul that eateth it shall be cut off from his people. 25. Nam quicunque comederit adipem animalis ex quo offeret oblationem ignitam Jehovae: tunc anima quae comederit excidetur e populis suis.
28. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 28. Loquutus est insuper Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
29. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of his peace-offerings unto the Lord, shall bring his oblation unto the Lord of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings. 29. Loquere ad rilles Israel, dicendo, Offerens sacrificium prosperitatum sunrum Jehovae, afferes oblationem suam Jehovae de hostia prosperitatum suarum.
30. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire; the fat, with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave-offering before the Lord. 30. Manus ejus afferent oblationes ignitas Jehovae, adipem cum pectusculo afferet, pectusculum quidem ad agitandum illud agitatione coram Jehova.
31. And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar. 31. Adolebit vero sacerdos adipem super altare.
37. This is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meat-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the trespass-offering, and of the consecrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offerings, 37. Haec est lex holocausti minhae, et sacrificii pro peccato, et sacrificii pro delicto, et consecrationum, et sacrificii prosperitatum:
38. Which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai. 38. Quam praecepit Jehova Mosi in monte Sinai, die quo praecepit filiis Israel ut offerrent oblationes suas Jehovae in deserto Sinai.

19. And the flesh that toucheth. It was not indeed lawful to eat of any polluted flesh, but in the sacrifices there was a special reason for this, i.e., because the uncleanness involved sacrilege. On this account he commands it to be burnt, just like that which had not been consumed within the legitimate time; and the punishment is, f288 that if any unclean person shall have touched the consecrated meat, he should be cut off from the people. The cruelty or immoderate severity of this has induced some to think that to be "cut off" is nothing more than to be cast out of the camp. But it is not wonderful that God should have thus severely dealt with those who knowingly and wilfully contaminated what was holy; for if any one had sinned in error, he was not to receive this sentence, but only he who had betrayed his open contempt of God by impious profanation of sacred things.
23. Speak unto the children of Israel. Since in all sacrifices the fat was consecrated to God, and was burnt on the altar, God forbade His people to eat fat even in their ordinary meals, in order that they might cultivate piety even in their homes. For unquestionably this was an exercise of piety, that they who were far away from the temple should still accustom themselves in their daily meals to the service of God. Nor am I ignorant of the allegories f289 in which some interpreters indulge, but I willingly acquiesce in the reason which God reveals, viz., that the people was prohibited from eating fat, because He had assigned it to Himself. Nevertheless, the Law permits the fat of a carcase, f290 or of an animal torn (by beasts) to be applied to any use, provided they abstain from the fat of those animals which might be legally offered.
37. This is the law of the burnt-offering. In this conclusion Moses indicates that full provision had been made lest any addition should insinuate itself from man's inventions to vitiate the sacrifices. In the day, he says, that God appointed the sacrifices to be offered to Him on Mount Sinai, He omitted nothing which was to be observed, lest men should dare to introduce anything except what He prescribed. And surely, when He had thus carefully embraced all the ceremonies, we may easily infer from hence how earnestly we should avoid all temerity and audacity in invention. The design, therefore, of Moses was in this brief admonition to exhort the people to soberness, lest they should transgress the limits placed by God.
Numbers 15
Numbers 15:1-16
1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 1. Loquutus est autem Jehova ad Mosen, dicendo:
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land of your habitations, which I give unto you, 2. Loquere ad filios Israel, et dicas els, Quum ingressi fueritis terraim habitationum vestrarum quas ego daturus sum vobis:
3. And will make an offering by fire unto the Lord, a burnt-offering, or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or in a free-will-offering, or in your solemn feasts, to make a sweet savor unto the Lord, of the herd, or of the flock; 3. Et facere voletis oblationem ignitam Jehovae holocaustum vel sacrificium, ut solvatis votum aut sponte vestra, ant in solennitatibus vestris, ut faciatis odorem quietis Jehovae de bobus aut ex pecudibus:
4. Then shall he that offereth his offering unto the Lord bring a meat-offering of a tenth-deal of flour, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of oil. 4. Tunc offeret offerens oblationem suam Jehove pro minha similae decimam partem mistam cum quarta parte olei.
5. And the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink-offering shalt thou prepare with the burnt-offering or sacrifice, for one lamb. 5. Et vini pro libamine quartam partem hin facies super holocaustum, aut ultra sacrificium pro agno uno.
6. Or for a ram, thou shalt prepare for a meat-offering two tenth-deals of flour, mingled with the third part of an hin of oil. 6. Aut pro ariete facies minham similae duas decimas permistae cum olci tertia parte hin.
7. And for a drink-offering thou shalt offer the third part of an hin of wine, for a sweet savor unto the Lord. 7. Et vini pro libamine tertiam partem hin offeretis in odorem quietis Jehovah.
8. And when thou preparest a bullock for a burnt-offering, or for a sacrifice in performing a vow, or peace-offerings unto the Lord; 8. Quod si facere voles juveneum in holocaustum, aut sacrificium ad solvendum votum, aut sacrificia prosperitatum Jehovae:
9. Then shall he bring with a bullock a meat-offering of three tenth-deals of flour, mingled with half an hin of oil. 9. Offeres una cum juvenco minham, similae tres decimas permistae cum olei dimidia parte hin.
10. And thou shalt bring for a drink-offering half an hin of wine, for an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 10. Et vinum offeres pro libamine dimidiam partem hin: oblationem ignitam odoris quietis Jehovae.
11. Thus shall it be done for one bullock, or for one ram, or for a lamb, or a kid. 11. Sic facies bovi uni, aut arieti uni, aut foetui tam de ovibus quam de capris.
12. According to the number that ye shall prepare, so shall ye do to every one, according to their number. 12. Juxta numerum quem facietis singulis juxta numerum illorum.
13. All that are born of the country shall do these things after this manner, in offering an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord. 13. Omnis civis lacier sic ista ut offerat oblationem odoris quietis Jehovah.
14. And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever be among you in your generations, and will offer an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord; as ye do, so he shall do. 14. Et quum peregrinatus fuerit apud vos peregrinus, aut quicunque est in medio vestri per generationes vestras, feceritque oblationem ignitam odoris quietis Jehovae, quemadmodum facietis sic faciet.
15. One ordinance shall be both for you of the congregation, and also for the stranger that sojourneth with you, an ordinance for ever in your generations: as ye are, so shall the stranger be before the Lord. 15. O congregatio, statutum unum erit vobis et peregrino qui peregrinatur apud vos: statutum inquam perpetuum per generationes vestras: sicut vos sic et peregrinus erit coram Jehova.
16. One law, and one manner, shall be for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you. 16. Lex una et norma una erit vobis et peregrino qui peregrinatur apud vos.

1. And the Lord spake. He partly here adverts to those precepts of which he had treated more distinctly and fully in Leviticus, and partly gathers into one place what he had before spoken of in various places and more obscurely. For as yet he had delivered no certain regulations as to the accessories to